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Alma Mine (Alma Pyrite Mine), Leona Heights deposit, Leona Heights, Oakland, Oakland Hills (San Leandro Hills), Diablo Range, Alameda Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Alma Mine (Alma Pyrite Mine)Mine
Leona Heights depositDeposit
Leona Heights- not defined -
Oakland- not defined -
Oakland Hills (San Leandro Hills)Group of Hills
Diablo RangeMountain Range
Alameda Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 47' 29'' North , 122° 10' 27'' West (est.)
Margin of Error:~0km
USGS MRDS Record:10027996
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csb : Warm-summer Mediterranean climate


A S-pyrite-Cu-Ag occurrence/mine located in sec. 34, T1S, R3W, MDM, 0.5 km (0.3 mile) NE of Leona Heights proper and 8.5 km (5.3 miles) E of Oakland center, on private land. Discovered prior to 1892. Owned by Leota C. Reed (1950). MRDS database accuracy for this location is not stated. This mine was originally opened in 1892 and produced principally sulfuric acid until 1934. No pyrite was mined after 1934.

Mineralization is hosted in Pliocene rhyolite. The ore body is lenticular at a thickness of 5.49 meters. Controls for ore emplacement included fractures. The geology is similar to that of the Leona Heights Mine on the same ore zone. The pyrite contains some chalcopyrite and some secondary Cu minerals, boothite, chalcanthite and pisanite. Local rocks include Tertiary intrusive rocks (hypabyssal), unit 9 (Jurassic gabbros along Hayward Fault) and/or ultramafic rocks, chiefly Mesozoic, unit 3 (Coast Ranges and Western Klamath Mountains).

Local geologic structures include the Hayward Fault and 2 parallel, smaller faults with horizontal displacement.

Workings include underground openings with a length of 1,524 meters and was developed by 5,000 feet of tunnels and drifts. The old workings were burned and a new adit was driven at a lower level.

Copper was produced from the residue after the extraction of the acid and from leaching the dump, amounted to 375,000 pounds of Cu (1929-1935). Later, some small production was realized in 1942 & 1944. Some Ag and a little Au were also produced as by-products. The figure for Cu production includes that from the nearby Leona Mine.

Analytical data results: 1% Cu.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


15 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Colour: White
Description: Pulverulent material.
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 212; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 263.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
Boothite (TL)
Formula: CuSO4 · 7H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 505; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 207; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1905b), Mineralogical notes: USGS Bulletin 262: 123; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 296.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Description: Abundant as massive coatings and crystals.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 490; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 207, 212; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 296.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: Occurs in small amounts in massive pyrite.
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 194; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 87.
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Habit: Acicular
Colour: Yellow
Description: Needles.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 626; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 214; Larsen, Esper Signius (1921), The microscopic determination of nonopaque minerals: USGS Bulletin 679, 294 pp.: 61; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 274.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Description: Occurs as fine arborescent groups of crystals.
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 195; Davis, Fenelon Francis (1950), Mines and mineral resources of Alameda County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 46: 296; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 48.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Description: Occurs as efflorescences on walls.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 512; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 216; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 266.
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Univ. California, Dep. Geol. Bull. 3 (1903) 191-218
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
Kröhnkite
Formula: Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 207; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 298.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Univ. California, Dep. Geol. Bull. 3 (1903) 191-218
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Description: Occurs on mine walls (post-mining product).
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 502; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 195, 212; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 270.
Melanterite var: Cuprian Melanterite
Formula: (Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Description: A secondary mineral (post-mining) forming on mine walls.
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 195, 199; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 270.
Pentahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Jeffrey Weissman collection
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 191; Clark, Clifton W. (1917), The geology and ore deposits of the Leona rhyolite, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 10: 374; Davis, Fenelon Francis (1950), Mines and mineral resources of Alameda County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 46: 306; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 71.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
Römerite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Reference: Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Boothite (TL)7.CB.35CuSO4 · 7H2O
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hexahydrite7.CB.25MgSO4 · 6H2O
Kröhnkite7.CC.30Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
var: Cuprian Melanterite7.CB.35(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Pentahydrite7.CB.20MgSO4 · 5H2O
Römerite7.CB.75Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Kröhnkite29.3.2.1Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Boothite (TL)29.6.10.2CuSO4 · 7H2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Hexahydrite29.6.8.1MgSO4 · 6H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Pentahydrite29.6.7.3MgSO4 · 5H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Römerite29.7.2.1Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Melanterite
var: Cuprian Melanterite
-(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
H KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
H RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
H Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
OOxygen
O BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
O KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
O RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
O Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
NaSodium
Na KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
Mg PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
AlAluminium
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
SSulfur
S BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
S KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
S PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
FeIron
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
CuCopper
Cu BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 191-217.
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1905b), Mineralogical notes: USGS Bulletin 262: 121-144.
Lawson, Andrew Cowper (1914), Description of the San Francisco district: Tamalpais, San Francisco, Concord, San Mateo, and Hayward quadrangles: USGS Geol. Atlas, San Francisco folio (Folio No. 193), 24 pp.: 22.
Clark, Clifton W. (1917), The geology and ore deposits of the Leona rhyolite, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 10: 374.
Larsen, Esper Signius (1921), The microscopic determination of nonopaque minerals: USGS Bulletin 679, 294 pp.: 61.
Eric, J.C. (1948), Tabulation of Copper Deposits in California in: Copper in California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 144: 212.
Davis, Fenelon Francis (1950), Mines and mineral resources of Alameda County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 46: 296, 305-306, 340, Pl. 58.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 490, 502, 504, 626.
California Division of Mines & Geology (1957), Bulletin 176: 450,451, 619.
California Division of Mines (1958): Mineral Information Service: 11(5): 2.
Branner, G.C. (1959), Sulfur in California and Nevada: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 7898, 50 p.: 5.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 62, 108, 127, 131, 156, 157, 236, 257, 290, 301.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 48, 71, 87, 263, 266, 270, 274, 296, 298.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10027996 & 10036253.


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