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Billie Mine (Billie group; Ryan Mine; Billie I Mine; Billie II Mine), Ryan, Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area), Inyo Co., California, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 36° 20' 29'' North , 116° 41' 5'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 36.34139,-116.68472
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate

A former B-borate mine located in sec. 6, T25N, R3E & in sec. 31, T26N, R3E, SBM (the mine complex proper is in sec. 6 at the sec. 5 boundary. Based on the topo map, a minor portion of the property is probably in sec. 31, T26N, since the mine complex proper is also on the boundary line of that T&R sec.), 2.4 km (1.5 miles) NNW of Ryan (adjacent to Dantes View Road), on National Park Service land (Death Valley National Park). Property was private when the mine was operating, may now be public national park land. Owned & operated by the American Borate Co. (1991). Operated during the periods 1974-1978, 1980-1986, 1991 to present (1993). MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 500 meters. Inyo County conditional use permit 76-5 applied.

Mineralization is a lacustrine borate deposit (Mineral occurrence model information: Model code: 260; USGS model code 35b.3; Deposit model name: Lacustrine borates), hosted in rocks of the Laohuling Formation (shale, clay, mud, mudstone, siltstone and sandstone) and/or the Furnace Creek Formation. The ore body is 76.2 meters thick with a width of 274.32 meters and a length of 1,125 meters. The ore ranges from 200 to 1,350 feet deep. Associated rocks include Pliocene - Miocene basalt. Local rocks include Tertiary nonmarine rocks, undivided and/or Quaternary alluvium and marine deposits.

Local structures include a NNE-trending, steeply-dipping fault.

Related tectonic structures: Basin and range province.

Workings include underground openings. The ore body is in Death Valley National Park and the portal of the mine is 1,500 feet W on Bureau of Land Management land. The ore was mechanically enriched at the mine, calcined in Nevada, and ground at Dunn siding. No further dat on the workings in either USGS MRDS file.

Reserve-Resource data: Estimate by G. Orris from published data in 1990.
Also, Roskill (1993); Evans and others (1976).

Reserves and resources data: Type: in-situ; estimate year: 1976: total resources: 4,421,000 metric tons of ore. Estimate year: 1992: total resources: 11,800,000,000 metric tons of ore.

Assay data: Year: 1976: B-borates: 22 weight per cent; 1992: 21 weight per cent.

Mineral List

10 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Pliocene - Paleocene
2.588 - 66 Ma

ID: 2836110
Tertiary nonmarine rocks, undivided

Age: Cenozoic (2.588 - 66 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Avawatz Formation; Bealville Fanglomerate; Caliente Formation (part); Goler Formation; Old Woman Sandstone; Titus Canyon Formation; Violin Breccia; Walker Formation; Witnet Formation

Description: Undivided Tertiary sandstone, shale, conglomerate, breccia, and ancient lake deposits.

Lithology: Major:{sandstone,conglomerate}, Incidental:{sedimentary breccia, volcanic, mudstone, limestone, siltstone}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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McAllister, James Franklin (1970) Geology of the Furnace Creek borate area, Death Valley, Inyo County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 14, 9 pp.
Evans, J.R., Taylor, G.C., and Rapp, J.S. (1976), Mines and mineral deposits in Death Valley National Monument, California” California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 125, 61 p.: 28.
Guidebook: Las Vegas to Death Valley and Return (1976), Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Report 26, Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada - Reno: 22-32.
California Division of Mines and Geology (1981), Mines & Mineral Producers Active in California during 1980, Special Publication 58: 39.
Barker, C.E., and Barker, J.M. (1985), “A Re-evaluation of the origin and diagenesis of borate deposits, Death Valley, California” in Barker, J.M., and Lefond, S.J., eds., “Borates: Economic Geology and production” New York, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.: 101-136.
Smith, G.I. (1985), “borate deposits in the United States - dissimilar in form, similar in geologic setting” in Barker, J.M., and Lefond, S.J., eds., Borates: Economic geology and production: New York, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, Inc., p. 37-51.
Mineralogical Record (1989): 20(5): 387.
Harben, P.W., and Bates, R.L. (1990), “Industrial minerals geology and world deposits” London, metal bulletin plc.
O'Driscoll, Mike (1990), “Minerals in the US Southwest - breaking rocks in the hot sun” Industrial Minerals, no. 272, p.59.
Roskill Information Services Ltd. (1993), “The Economics of Boron 1993, 7th ed.” London, Roskill Information Services Ltd., 156 p.
Mineralogical Record (1996): 27: 35-40.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10023294 & 10260614.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060270782.

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