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Pine Creek Mine (Black Monster Mine; Snow Queen Mine; Pine Creek Tungsten Mine & mill; Pine Creek apt plant; Pine Creek custom mill), Scheelite, Bishop Mining District (Tungsten Hills Mining District), Inyo Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Pine Creek Mine (Black Monster Mine; Snow Queen Mine; Pine Creek Tungsten Mine & mill; Pine Creek apt plant; Pine Creek custom mill)Mine
Scheelite- not defined -
Bishop Mining District (Tungsten Hills Mining District)Mining District
Inyo Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
37° 23' 34'' North , 118° 43' 8'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Round Valley435 (2011)12.0km
Swall Meadows220 (2017)14.3km
Mesa251 (2011)15.9km
Sunny Slopes182 (2017)20.0km
West Bishop2,607 (2011)23.6km


A former W-Mo-Cu-Au-Ag-Bi mine located in secs. 30 & 31, T6S, R30E, MDM, and in secs. 19 & 20, T6N, R31E, MDM, 4.1 km (2.5 miles) WNW of Scheelite, along the North Branch Morgan Creek, about 21 miles NW of Bishop, at 11,000 feet of altitude, in the Sierra Nevada, on private (patented) land (private lease), in a National Forest area. Discovered in 1916. First operated in 1918. Owned by Avocet Ventures Inc. (50%), Canada (1995), and by the U.S. Tungsten Corp. (50%), California (1995). Operated by the Pine Creek Tungsten Mining LLC (100%), Australia (1995). Owned & operated by Union Carbide Nuclear Corp. (1981-1995). MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 10 meters.

Located in sec. 8, T7S, R30E, MDM: Owned & operated by Avocet Tungsten Inc. (Subsidiary of Avocet Ventures Inc.) (100%), California (1995); owned & operated by U.S. Tungsten Corp. (Subsidiary of Strategic Minerals Corp.) (50%), California (1989 to 1995); Owned by Avocet Ventures Inc. (owner of Avocet Tungsten Inc.) (50%), Canada (1995); Owned & operated by Union Carbide Corp., Mining and Metals Division (100%), California (1981 to 1995).

Mineralization is a Late Cretaceous W ore body in marble with tactite (skarn), hosted in the Tungsten Hills Quartz Monzonite and associated rocks (marble/tactite) (Pine Creek Pendant). The North ore body is irregular, strikes N-S and dips steeply E, at a thickness of 30.48 meters, a width of 18.29 meters, ans a length of 762 meters. The South ore body is 400 feet long, 400 feet wide and 60 feet thick.

The multiple USGS MRDS files present data regarding the ore bodies in a disjointed and at times confusing format. The above data were presented for the North & South ore bodies. The following data were presented without specifying which ore body(ies) they apply to. The dimensions provided indicate that they may pertain to the both ore bodies taken together: thickness: 1,036 meters; width: 23 meters; length: 4,572 meters; area: 50 HA. Ore body No. 1 is disseminated & irregular. Ore body No. 2 is a replacement body. Ore body No. 3 is other (not specified). The primary mode of origin was contact metasomatism. The secondary mode of origin was metamorphism. Primary ore control was a contact zone and the secondary ore control was lithology. Wallrock alteration is slight (carbonitization; silicification). Controls for ore emplacement include the contact of marble beds in the Pine Creek Pendant with quartz monzonite. The scheelite ore body is in metamorphic rocks and is 7 miles long and 1 mile wide. The Pine Creek Pendant marble density in situ is 3.2, deformed in Jurassic (period ?). Skarn (tactite). Local alteration included metamorphism to skarn, ore in fractures, and some replacement by ore. Local rocks include Carboniferous marine rocks, unit 7 (Bishop).

Workings include underground openings with a length of 52,500 meters, developed from 8,000 to 11,500 feet of elevation. The mill is at 7,800 feet.
The overall depth is 300 meters. There are 4 adits at elevations of 10,750 feet, 11,052 feet, and 11,371 feet, plus a large open cut. The plant type is beneficiation (mill) - flotation method.

Reserves and resources data: Type: in-situ; year: 1941; WO3: 0.5 weight percent; year: 1945: demonstrated: 774,748 metric tons ore, indicated 310,262 metric tons ore, measured 464,486 metric tons ore, total resources: 774,748 metric tons ore.

Year: 1945: Mo: 0.823 weight percent.

Estimate year: 1995: demonstrated: 1,360,777 metric tons of ore; total resources: 1,360,777 metric tons ore (WO3: 0.51 weight percent - 1995).

Production at the mine was expected to resume in 1996 according to then competent officials.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

23 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Andradite-Grossular Series'
Reference: Bateman, Paul C. (1965), Geology and tungsten mineralization of the Bishop district, California: USGS PP 470: 127-128; Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1531-1554; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 495.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1531-1554.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1553; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 126.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Description: Occurs in minor amounts.
Reference: Bateman, Paul C. (1945), Pine Creek and Adamson tungsten mines, Inyo County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 238; Bateman, Paul C. (1965), Geology and tungsten mineralization of the Bishop district, California: USGS PP 470: 130; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 89.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1531-1554.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: Occurs in rock shoots.
Reference: Bateman, Paul C. (1965), Geology and tungsten mineralization of the Bishop district, California: USGS PP 470: 130; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 89, 94.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Colour: Colourless
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1917a), Tungsten deposits of northwestern Inyo County California: USGS Bulletin 640: 229-249; Hess, Frank L. & Esper S. Larsen (1922), Contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits of the United States: USGS Bulletin 725: 276; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 89, 405, 501-502.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: Occurs in veinlets with prehnite.
Reference: Hess, Frank L. & Esper S. Larsen (1922), Contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits of the United States: USGS Bulletin 725: 276; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 294.
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Colour: Bright yellow
Description: Occurs replacing molybdenite in higher Mo-enriched areas.
Reference: Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1553; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 341.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1553; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 188.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1531-1554.
Hastingsite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Description: Occurs as a constituent of the amphibole tactite.
Reference: Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1550; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 401.
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Colour: Black to grayish green
Description: Occurs as 55% to 95% pure material in a tactite zone. Stubby to elongate prisms and anhedral grains.
Reference: Bateman, Paul C. (1965), Geology and tungsten mineralization of the Bishop district, California: USGS PP 470: 128; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 387.
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Description: Occurs as large masses.
Reference: Tucker, W. Burling (1921), Los Angeles field division: California Mining Bureau. Report 17: 296; Bateman, Paul C. (1965), Geology and tungsten mineralization of the Bishop district, California: USGS PP 470: 130; Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1552; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 79, 332.
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Description: Occurs as an alteration product of wollastonite.
Reference: Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1549; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 409.
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1917a), Tungsten deposits of northwestern Inyo County California: USGS Bulletin 640: 229-249; Young, George J. (1926), Mining tungsten at Pine Creek: Engineering & Mining Journal: 121: 605-606; Bateman, Paul C. (1945), Pine Creek and Adamson tungsten mines, Inyo County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 236; Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1552; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 332, 339; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1081.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Description: Occurs in veinlets with epidote.
Reference: Hess, Frank L. & Esper S. Larsen (1922), Contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits of the United States: USGS Bulletin 725: 276; Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1553; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 489. , 495, 501-502.
'Scapolite'
Reference: Hess, Frank L. & Esper S. Larsen (1922), Contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits of the United States: USGS Bulletin 725: 276; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 367, 387, 501-502.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Description: Occurs accompanied by considerable molybdenite at contact granite and metamorphic rocks; also with powellite.
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1917a), Tungsten deposits of northwestern Inyo County California: USGS Bulletin 640: 229-249; Tucker, W. Burling (1921), Los Angeles field division: California Mining Bureau. Report 17: 301; Hess, Frank L. & Esper S. Larsen (1922), Contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits of the United States: USGS Bulletin 725: 275; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 332.
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Dana 7:II:1081.
Stilbite-Ca
Formula: NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Reference: G.A. Novak and S.G. Oswald, (1971) Laumontite from the Pine Creek Mine, Bishop, California. The Mineralogical Record Vol. 2 p. 222. Rudy W. Tschernich, (1992) Zeolites of the World. (facing p. 52 on following non-numbered photo page). Geoscience Press, Inc.
Thaumasite
Formula: Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Description: Occurs as radiating clusters in the marble.
Reference: Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1553; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 478.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Colour: Yellowish
Description: Occurs in vein-like chains of crystals.
Reference: Bateman, Paul C. (1965), Geology and tungsten mineralization of the Bishop district, California: USGS PP 470: 129; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 474.
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Description: Occurs in the contact zone.
Reference: Hess, Frank L. & Esper S. Larsen (1922), Contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits of the United States: USGS Bulletin 725: 276; Bateman, Paul C. (1965), Geology and tungsten mineralization of the Bishop district, California: USGS PP 470: 128; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 367, 387, 405, 501-502.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Description: Occurs sometimes being partly replaced by pectolite.
Reference: Hess, Frank L. & Esper S. Larsen (1922), Contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits of the United States: USGS Bulletin 725: 276; Bateman, Paul C. (1965), Geology and tungsten mineralization of the Bishop district, California: USGS PP 470: 128; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 367, 405.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Ferrimolybdite7.GB.30Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Thaumasite7.DG.15Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Hastingsite9.DE.15{Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Hedenbergite9.DA.15CaFe2+Si2O6
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Stilbite-Ca9.GE.10NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Andradite-Grossular Series'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Scapolite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Thaumasite32.4.4.4Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 49 - HYDRATED MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
Hydrated Normal Molybdates and Tungstates
Ferrimolybdite49.2.1.1Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Hedenbergite65.1.3a.2CaFe2+Si2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Stilbite-Ca77.1.4.3NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Andradite-Grossular Series'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Hastingsite-{Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
'Scapolite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
H Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
BBoron
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
OOxygen
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O CalciteCaCO3
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
O HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
O Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
FFluorine
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
F FluoriteCaF2
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Na Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
AlAluminium
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Si Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
SSulfur
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
CaCalcium
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Ca Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Fe HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Fe Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Mo FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Knopf, Adolf (1917a), Tungsten deposits of northwestern Inyo County California: USGS Bulletin 640: 229-249; […(abstract): Washington Academy of Science Journal: 7: 357; …Geol. Zentralbl., Band 28: 165].
Tucker, W. Burling (1921), Los Angeles field division: California Mining Bureau. Report 17: 296, 301.
Hess, Frank L. & Esper S. Larsen (1922), Contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits of the United States: USGS Bulletin 725: 275, 276.
Young, George J. (1926), Mining tungsten at Pine Creek: Engineering & Mining Journal: 121: 605-606.
Vanderburg, W.O. (1935), Mining and Milling Tungsten Ores, U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 6852.
Chapman, R.W. (1937), The contact metamorphic deposit of Round Valley, California: Journal of Geology: 45: 859-871.
Burwell, Blair (1941), Milling Tungsten Ore at Pine Creek, ining Congress Journal: 27(10): 16-18.
Lemmon, Dwight Moulton (1941a), Tungsten deposits in the Tungsten Hills, Inyo County, California: USGS Bulletin 922-Q: 497-514.
Lemmon, Dwight Moulton (1941c), Tungsten deposits in the Sierra Nevada near Bishop California: USGS Bulletin 931-E: 79-104.
Lenhart, W.B. (1941), Milling Scheelite at Tungstar Mine, Mining Congress Journal: 27(4): 67-71.
Wharton, M. (1943), Tungsten from the High Sierras - United States Vanadium Corporation Works Lofty Mine for Critical War Metals, The Explosives Engineer: May-June 1943: 79-85, 100-102.
Bateman, Paul C. (1945), Pine Creek and Adamson tungsten mines, Inyo County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 231-250.
Kerr, Paul Francis (1946), Tungsten mineralization in the United States Geological Society of America Memorandum 15, 241 pp.
Butner, D.W. (1948), Blasthole Diamond Drilling in California Mines, U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 7451.
Bateman, Paul C., Max P. Erickson & Paul D. Proctor (1950), Geology and tungsten deposits of the Tungsten Hills, Inyo County, California: California Journal of Mines & Geology (Report 46): 46(1): 23-42.
McKinley, H.L., Holmes, T.W., and Sausa, L.E. (1951), Boosting Tungsten Output and U.S.V.'s Mountainj-Top Mine, No. 1 U.S. Producer, reprint from Engineering and Mining Journal: 152(5): 11 pp.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1081.
Bateman, Paul C. (1952), Geological Maps Report.
Behme, R.L. (1953), United States Vanadium's Tungsten Mine in California The Explosives Engineer: March-April 1953: 39-41.
Engel, A.L. and E.S. Shedd (1954) Treatment tests of scheelite ores from California, Nevada and Utah. US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 5087, 24 pp.
Bateman, Paul C. (1956), Economic geology of the Bishop Tungsten district, California: California Division Mines Special Report 47, 87 pp.
McKinley, H.L., and Wright, L.A. (1957), Mining Methods at the Pine Creek Mine, Mining Engineering: October 1957: 1099-1102.
Warner, Lawrence A., William T. Holser, Verl R. Wilmarth, and Eugene N. Cameron (1959), Occurrence of Nonpegmatitic Beryllium in the United States, USGS Professional Paper 318: 91-92.
Zabra, J.B. (1959), Milling and Processing of Tungsten, U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 7912.
Cooper, J.R. (1962), Bismuth in the U.S.: USGS Mineral Resources map MR-22.
Lemmon, Dwight Moulton and Tweto, O.L. (1962) Tungsten in the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. USGS Mineral Investigative Resources Map MR-25.
Wright, L.A. (1964), Pillar Blasting at the Pine Creek Mine, Mining Engineering: May 1964: 79-83.
Bateman, Paul C. (1965), Geology and tungsten mineralization of the Bishop district, California: USGS PP 470: 127-128, 129, 130, 134.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 111, 225, 268, 294, 308, 328, 329.
Gray, R.F., Hoffman, V.F., Bagan, R.J., and McKinley, H.L. (1968) Bishop tungsten district. In Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967. The Graton-Sales volume, New York. A.I.M.E.: 1549, 1550, 1552, 1553.
Griffith, R.E. (1970), "Tungsten," U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 650, Mineral Facts and Problems: 399-415.
Novak, G.A. and Oswald, S.G. (1971) Laumontite from the Pine Creek mine, Bishop, California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 222.
Hobbs, W.S., and Elliott (1973), "Tungsten," USGS Professional Paper 820, United States Mineral Resources: 667-678.
Pazour, D.A. (1978), Union Carbide Increases Tungsten Production with New Nevada Mine, Mining World: March 1978: 58-59.
Wright, W. A. (1978), Mineralogical and Compositional Zonation in the North Ore Body, Pine Creek Mine, Bishop District, California, Geological Society of America abstract with Programs: 10(3): 155.
Posner, R.H. (1980), Senior Mine Geologist, Pine Creek Mine, Union Carbide Corporation, oral communicatrion to USGS staff, October, 1980.
Voelker, D.E. (1980), Departmental Metallurgist, Pine Creek Custom Mill, Union Carbide Corporation, oral communication to USGS staff, October.
Stafford, P. (1981), U.S. Bureau of Mines, Tungsten Commodity Specialist, oral and written communication to the USGS staff, January-February 1981.
Newberry, R. J. (1982): Economic Geology: 77: 823-844.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 79, 89, 94, 126, 188, 332, 339, 341, 367, 387, 401, 405, 409, 474, 478, 489, 495, 501-502.
Tschernich, Rudy W. (1992) Zeolites of the World. (facing p. 52 on following non-numbered photo page). Geoscience Press, Inc.
The Mining Record (1995): 106(35): (August): p.3.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10008713, 10188014 & 10236233.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060270008 & 0060279002 (mill).
Lemmon, D.M., Tungsten deposits in the US; Vol. I, unpublished data.

USGS MRDS Record:10008713

Localities in this Region

  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Bishop Mining District (Tungsten Hills Mining District)
        • Scheelite
          • Pine Creek Mine (Black Monster Mine; Snow Queen Mine; Pine Creek Tungsten Mine & mill; Pine Creek apt plant; Pine Creek custom mill)

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