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Zinc Hill Mine (Utacaia group; Colorado group; Darwin Zinc prospect), Zinc Hill, Zinc Hill District, Argus Mts (Argus Range), Inyo Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Zinc Hill Mine (Utacaia group; Colorado group; Darwin Zinc prospect)Mine
Zinc HillHill
Zinc Hill DistrictMining District
Argus Mts (Argus Range)Mountain Range
Inyo Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
36° 18' 26'' North , 117° 30' 27'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:


A former Zn-Pb-Ag-U-Cu-Mo mine located in sec. 2, T19S, R41E, MDM, 1.7 km (1.1 miles) NW of Zinc Hill (coordinates of record), and 8.7 km (5.4 miles) ENE of Darwin, on National Park Service wilderness land (Death Valley National Park/Death Valley Wilderness). Operated during the periods 1917-1942 and 1941-1947. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 10 meters.

Corrected coordinates : N36.30722 W117.50759 ; taken at remains of mining structures by Richard Muster in the year 2009 using an Ashtech MM6 device.

Mineralization is a replacement deposit of skarn replacements in limestone (marblized). Galena is locally abundant, pyrite and chalacopyrite are present in minor quantities. Diorite is an associated rock. Local rocks include Permian marine sedimentary rocks, unit 1 (Death Valley and Mojave Desert).

Rocks in the area are marble and limestone of Mississippian age, faulted against silty limestone of Permian age. The Mississippian limestone is faulted on both E and W sides of the mine area, against the silty, bluish-gray limestone of the Owens Valley Formation of Permian age. A diorite dike 1 to 2 feet thick, cuts Mississippian rocks in the southern end of the mine, strikes N65W, and dips vertically.

Local structures include the Zinc Hill Fault, which bounds the horst of Mississippian limestone on the west and has a stratigraphic throw of 27,000 feet.

Workings include surface and underground openings comprised of numerous open cuts, near-surface stopes and short adits.

Production data are found in: Hall and Mackevett (1958): 45.

Production history details: Ag: 40 grams/metric ton; Pb: 1 weight percent; Zn: 22 weight percent.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


25 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Colour: Pale to dark green
Description: Rounded aggregates of crystals; individual groups seldomly greater than 2 mm.
Reference: Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 111; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 321.
Adamite var: Cuprian Adamite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Colour: Pale to dark green
Description: Rounded aggregates of crystals; individual groups seldomly greater than 2 mm.
Reference: Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 111; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 321.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, 77 pp.: 49; Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 110-113; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 300; www.mineralsocal.org.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 111; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 228; www.mineralsocal.org.
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: Mineralogical Record (1984): 15: 13.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Colour: Blue
Description: Occurs as drusy crystals.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 225; Mineralogical Record (1975) 6: 110-113; www.mineralsocal.org
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: Prismatic; acicular radial groups
Colour: Emerald-green
Reference: Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 112; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 297; www.mineralsocal.org.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: www.mineralsocal.org; Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: Common in the upper workings.
Reference: Norman, L.A. & Richard M. Stewart (1951), Mines and mineral resources of Inyo County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 47(1): 64; Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 59; Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 110-113; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 89.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Description: Bead-like balls forming aggregates to several mm's diameter.
Reference: Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 112; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 323.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; USGS PP 368 p.74; Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, 77 pp.: 44, 49; Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 64; Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 110-113; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 513.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, 77 pp.: 49; Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 111; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 229; www.mineralsocal.org.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Colour: Green
Description: Pseudomorphs after azurite. Coatings of bundles of crystals and paler green velvety surfaces.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 225; Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113; www.mineralsocal.org
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: USGS PP 368 p.59
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; USGS PP 368 p.74; Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113
Quartz var: Jasper
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 111; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 228; www.mineralsocal.org.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, 77 pp.: 49; Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 111; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 229; www.mineralsocal.org.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, 77 pp.: 16; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 84; www.mineralsocal.org.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Mineralogical Record (1975) 6:110-113
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: www.mineralsocal.org

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Jasper4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Adamite8.BB.30Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
var: Cuprian Adamite8.BB.30(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Autunite8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Conichalcite8.BH.35CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Olivenite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Conichalcite41.5.1.2CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Adamite41.6.6.3Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Olivenite41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Adamite
var: Cuprian Adamite
-(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Quartz
var: Jasper
-SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CerussitePbCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
ZnZinc
Zn Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
AsArsenic
As Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
As ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
UUranium
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Triassic - Pennsylvanian
201.3 - 323.2 Ma



ID: 2943532
Permian marine sedimentary rocks, unit 1 (Death Valley and Mojave Desert)

Age: Phanerozoic (201.3 - 323.2 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Anvil Spring Formation; Bird Spring Formation; Bloody Mountain Formation; Kaibab Limestone; Owens Valley Group; Darwin Canyon Formation; Osborne Canyon Formation; Keeler Canyon Formation; Lone Pine Formation; Conglomerate Mesa Formation; Fairview Valley Formation

Description: Shale, conglomerate, limestone and dolomite, sandstone, slate, hornfels, quartzite; minor pyroclastic rocks

Comments: East-central Sierra Nevada, Death Valley area, and Mojave Desert. Consists primarily of sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, hornfels, and marble. Includes some rocks of Triassic and Pennsylvanian age, and some rocks of uncertain age. Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{sandstone,limestone}, Minor:{conglomerate,siltstone mudstone,hornfels}, Incidental:{marble}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Norman, L.A. & Richard M. Stewart (1951), Mines and mineral resources of Inyo County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology (Report 47): 47(1): 64.
Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, 77 pp.: 16, 41, 44-49.
Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 59, 64, 74.
Crowley, J.A. (1975), The minerals of the Zinc Hill mine, Inyo County, California: Mineralogical Record: 6: 110-113.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 83 (map 3-2), 84, 89, 225, 228, 229, 297, 300, 321, 323, 513.
Mineralogical Record (1984): 15: 13.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10076668 & 10139049.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060270240.

USGS MRDS Record:10076668
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