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Searles Lake, San Bernardino Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Searles LakeLake
San Bernardino Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
35° 44' 17'' North , 117° 22' 26'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Searles Valley1,739 (2011)4.2km
Ridgecrest28,780 (2017)29.7km
China Lake Acres1,876 (2011)36.9km
Inyokern1,099 (2018)40.9km
Johannesburg172 (2011)47.0km


Dry lake in the Searles Valley of the Mojave Desert. The evaporite basin is approximately 19 km (12 mi) long and 13 km (8.1 mi) at its widest point. The mining community of Trona is on its western shore.

Borax is mined since 1873. Nowadays also sodium sulphate, sodium carbonate and sodium chloride (halite) are produced.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

35 valid minerals. 10 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1962), Authigenic silicate minerals in Pleistocene sediments of Searles Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Special Paper 73: 168; …Sedimentology: 2: 323; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 25; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 370; Tschernich, 1992. Zeolites of the World, p.315
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 537; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 76.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Habit: Bladed or tabular
Colour: Colourless or yellow-orange
Description: Occurs as crystals or as fine-grained aggregates; central levels upper salt layer.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 629; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 8-9; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 279.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Description: Occurs in very fine-grained, nearly pure beds in the Parling mud, lower salt & mixed layers.
Reference: Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 8-9; Eugster, H.P. and G.I. Smith (1965) Mineral equilibria in the Searles Lake evaporates, California. Journal of Petrology: 6: 473-522; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 216.
Borax
Formula: Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Description: Occurs as a surficial efflorescence and in large crystals in drill cores associated with many unusual saline minerals. The most abundant borate mineral here. Crystals 0.5 mm to 15 cm.
Reference: Pabst, Adolf & Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. (1948), Tincalconite crystals from Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 33: 472; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340, 402, 629; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Burkeite (TL)
Formula: Na6(CO3)(SO4)2
Description: Occurs chiefly in the lower salt; some fine-grained in the upper salt; pods and nodules in the mixed layer.
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1935), Burkeite, a new mineral species from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 20: 50-56; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 50; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 283; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340, 633; Mineralogical Magazine (1979): 43: 341.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Colour: Ivory-coloured
Description: Occurs sparingly as minute crystals at the base of the upper salt and at several horizons in the parting and bottom mud layers.
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1935), Burkeite, a new mineral species from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 20: 51; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 25-26; Eugster, H.P. and G.I. Smith (1965) Mineral equilibria in the Searles Lake evaporates, California. Journal of Petrology: 6: 473-522; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 211; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 633.
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Reference: Hanks, Henry Garber (1889), On the occurrence of hanksite in California: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 37: 63; De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 537; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 123.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Description: A little was found.
Reference: De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 537; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 125.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Chlorargyrite var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
Formula: Ag(Cl,Br)
Reference: De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 537; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 174.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Description: Occurs as minute crystals in some mud layers.
Reference: Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 26-28; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 221.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Galeite (TL)
Formula: Na15(SO4)5F4Cl
Type Locality:
Reference: Pabst, Adolf, Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. & George S. Switzer (1955), Galeite, a new mineral from Searles Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America: 66: 1658; Pabst, Adolf, Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. & George S. Switzer (1963), Galeite and related phases in the system Na2SO4.NaF.NaCl: American Mineralogist: 48: 485; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 27; Speckels, M.L. (1965) Minerals for everyone: the complete guide to micromounts. Gembooks, Mentone, California.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 281.
Gaylussite
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Reference: Hanks, Henry Garber (1892), Gaylussite (new variety), San Bernardino County, California): Mining & Science Press: 64: 222; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235, 633.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Glauberite
Formula: Na2Ca(SO4)2
Habit: Platy
Reference: Rath, Gerhart vom (1887),Ueber Glauberit und Hanksit von San Bernardino County: Niederrheinische Gesell. Sitzungsber., Band 44: 233; De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 535; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 303; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 200; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 433.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Description: Occurs as a minor mineral here.
Reference: Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 285; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 211.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Gypsum var: Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Description: Occurs as crystals; the main beds are solid halite.
Reference: Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 298; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 14; Eugster, H.P. and G.I. Smith (1965) Mineral equilibria in the Searles Lake evaporates, California. Journal of Petrology: 6: 473-522; Pemberton, H.E. (1975): The crystal habits and forms of the minerals of Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California. Mineralogical Record 6 (2): 75-83; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 192; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 629.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Hanksite (TL)
Formula: Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
Description: Occurs as euhedral crystals principally in the upper salt in beds to 5 feet (1.5 meters) thick. Crystals 5 - 30 mm long and to 150 mm.
Reference: American Journal of Science (1885), ser. 3, 30, 133-135; Hidden, William Earl (1885), On hanksite, a new anhydrous sulphate-carbonate of sodium from San Bernardino County, California: New York Academy of Science Annals: 3: 230-241; Hanks, Henry Garber (1889), On the occurrence of hanksite in California: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 37: 63; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 16-18; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 549, 629; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
'Heulandite subgroup'
Reference: Tschernich, 1992. Zeolites of the World, p.315
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Tschernich, 1992. Zeolites of the World, p.315
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 118.
Merlinoite
Formula: (K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
Reference: Tschernich, 1992. Zeolites of the World, p.315
Mirabilite
Formula: Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Description: Dissolved in large amounts in the lake water. Abundant only in a zone 10 to 30 feet (3 to 9 meters) below the top of the bottom mud layer.
Reference: De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 534; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 30; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Nahcolite
Formula: NaHCO3
Description: Occurs in large amounts in various horizons in the lake bed.
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1940), Sodium bicarbonate (nahcolite) from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 25: 769; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 135.
Natron
Formula: Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Reference: Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 297; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 278.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Northupite (TL)
Formula: Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Type Locality:
Description: Occurs as nodules of micro-crystals; layers or veins of aggreagtes of fine crystals.
Reference: Foote, Warren M. (1895), Preliminary note on a new alkali mineral: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 50: 480; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 30; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 208; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 279, 340, 633; Tschermaks Min. Pet. Mitt. 22 (1975), 158.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Tschernich, 1992. Zeolites of the World, p.315
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Description: Found in the bottom mud and mixed layer of sediments.
Reference: Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1962), Authigenic silicate minerals in Pleistocene sediments of Searles Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Special Paper 73: 168; …Sedimentology: 2: 312-332 (1962): 323; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 362.
'Phillipsite'
Description: Authogenic mineral in Pleistocene sediments.
Reference: Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1962), Authigenic silicate minerals in Pleistocene sediments of Searles Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Special Paper 73: 168; …Sedimentology: 2: 323; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 31; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 382; Tschernich, 1992. Zeolites of the World, p.315
Pirssonite (TL)
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Pratt, Joseph Hyde (1896), On northupite; pirssonite, a new mineral; Gaylussite and hanksite from Borax Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 2: 126; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 208; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 279.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Occurs as pseudomorphs after glauberite.
Reference: Frondel, Clifford (1935), Catalogue of mineral pseudomorphs in the American Museum, Museum of Natural History Bulletin 67, art. IX: 420; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 348.
Realgar
Formula: As4S4
Description: Occurs as small crystals with hanksite, pirssonite and halite.
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 319.
Schairerite (TL)
Formula: Na21(SO4)7ClF6
Type Locality:
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931), Schairerite, a new mineral from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 133; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340, 548.; Pabst, Adolf, Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. & George S. Switzer (1963), Galeite and related phases in the system Na2SO4.NaF.NaCl: American Mineralogist: 48: 485; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 27, 32; Speckels, M.L. (1965) Minerals for everyone: the complete guide to micromounts. Gembooks, Mentone, California.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280.
Searlesite (TL)
Formula: Na(H2BSi2O7)
Description: Occurs in the upper salt, bottom mud and mixed layer horizons.
Reference: Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1962), Authigenic silicate minerals in Pleistocene sediments of Searles Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Special Paper 73: 168; …Sedimentology: 2: 324; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 118, 333; American Mineralogist (1950): 35: 1014.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Sulphohalite (TL)
Formula: Na6(SO4)2FCl
Type Locality:
Habit: Cubo-octahedrons; simple octahedrons
Description: Occurs throughout the mud and saline units; most common in the upper salt layer. Occurs on hanksite.
Reference: Hidden, William Earl & James B. MacKintosh (1888), Sulphohalite a new sodium sulphato-chloride: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 36: 464; Penfield, Samuel Lewis (1900), On the chemical composition of sulphohalite: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 9: 425-428; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340, 549; Pabst, Adolf, Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. & George S. Switzer (1963), Galeite and related phases in the system Na2SO4.NaF.NaCl: American Mineralogist: 48: 485; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 27; Speckels, M.L. (1965) Minerals for everyone: the complete guide to micromounts. Gembooks, Mentone, California.; Mineralogical Magazine (1975): 40: 131; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 281-283;
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Pratt, Joseph Hyde (1896), On northupite; pirssonite, a new mineral; Gaylussite and hanksite from Borax Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 2: 124; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 356.
Teepleite
Formula: Na2[B(OH)4]Cl
Description: Occurs in the lower layers of the lake bed.
Reference: American Mineralogist (1939): 24: 48-52; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 20; Pemberton, H.E. (1975): The crystal habits and forms of the minerals of Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California. Mineralogical Record 6 (2): 80; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 261;
'Thénardite'
Formula: Na2SO4
Description: Occurs in layers several feet thick.
Reference: Robottom, Arthur (1874), Borax deposits in California – an interesting discovery: Engineering & Mining Journal: 18: 82; Ayers, Edward F. (1889a), Mineralogical notes (thenardite, pyrite): American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 37: 235; De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 534-535; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 292; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406, 633; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Tincalconite (TL)
Formula: Na2(B4O7) · 5H2O
Type Locality:
Description: Occurs as a primary mineral, not a dehydration product of borax. Well-formed crystals to 4 mm in drill cores in lower salt.
Reference: Pabst, Adolf & Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. (1948), Tincalconite crystals from Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 33: 472; Bowser, C.J. (1964), The origin of tincalconite at Searles Lake, California: (title) American Mineralogist: 49: 1507; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 21; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 261; American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 281; American Mineralogist (1973): 58: 523.
Trona
Formula: Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Description: Second most abundant mineral. Thick layers of solid trona with borates. Lath-like crystals very common.
Reference: American Mineralogist 50:281; Ayers, Edward F. (1889), Notes on the crystallization of trona (urao): American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 38: 65-66; Pabst, Adolf & Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 102; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 294; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308; Foshag, William Frederick (1935), Burkeite, a new mineral species from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 20: 51; Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. (1948), Tincalconite crystals from Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 33: 472; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139, 340, 629; Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Speckels, M.L. (1965) Minerals for everyone: the complete guide to micromounts. Gembooks, Mentone, California.; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 212.
Tychite (TL)
Formula: Na6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
Type Locality:
Description: A few octahedral crystals mixed with northupite crystals; bottom mud and mixed layers.
Reference: Penfield, Samuel Lewis & George S. Jamieson (1905), On tychite, a new mineral from Borax Lake, California, and on its artificial production and its relations to northupite: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 20: 217; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 308; Foshag, William Frederick (1935), Burkeite, a new mineral species from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 20: 51; Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 31; Pabst, Adolf, Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. & George S. Switzer (1963), Galeite and related phases in the system Na2SO4.NaF.NaCl: American Mineralogist: 48: 487; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 208; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 279, 294, 340, 633; American Mineralogist (1969): 54: 302.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Ulexite
Formula: NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Reference: Korbel & Novak (1999) Min. Encylopaedia, p.133.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Realgar2.FA.15aAs4S4
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite3.AA.15Ag(Cl,Br)
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Gaylussite5.CB.35Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Nahcolite5.AA.15NaHCO3
Natron5.CB.10Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Northupite (TL)5.BF.05Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Pirssonite (TL)5.CB.30Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Trona5.CB.15Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Tychite (TL)5.BF.05Na6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
Group 6 - Borates
Borax6.DA.10Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Teepleite6.AC.40Na2[B(OH)4]Cl
Tincalconite (TL)6.DA.15Na2(B4O7) · 5H2O
Ulexite6.EA.25NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Aphthitalite7.AC.35(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Burkeite (TL)7.BD.25Na6(CO3)(SO4)2
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Galeite (TL)7.BD.10Na15(SO4)5F4Cl
Glauberite7.AD.25Na2Ca(SO4)2
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
var: Selenite7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hanksite (TL)7.BD.30Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
Mirabilite7.CD.10Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Schairerite (TL)7.BD.10Na21(SO4)7ClF6
Sulphohalite (TL)7.BD.05Na6(SO4)2FCl
'Thénardite'7.AC.25Na2SO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Merlinoite9.GC.15(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Searlesite (TL)9.EF.15Na(H2BSi2O7)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Phillipsite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Realgar2.8.21.1As4S4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Group 13 - ACID CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Nahcolite13.1.1.1NaHCO3
Trona13.1.4.1Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 15 - HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)·xH2O
Natron15.1.2.1Na2CO3 · 10H2O
AmBn(XO3)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p > 1:1
Gaylussite15.2.2.1Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Pirssonite (TL)15.2.1.1Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Northupite (TL)16a.3.9.1Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Tychite (TL)17.1.1.1Na6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
Group 25 - ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Monoborates
Teepleite25.1.4.1Na2[B(OH)4]Cl
Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Tetraborates
Borax26.4.1.1Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Tincalconite (TL)26.4.2.1Na2(B4O7) · 5H2O
Pentaborates
Ulexite26.5.11.1NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
Aphthitalite28.2.2.1(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
'Thénardite'28.2.3.1Na2SO4
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Miscellaneous
Glauberite28.4.2.1Na2Ca(SO4)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4·xH2O
Mirabilite29.2.2.1Na2SO4 · 10H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Galeite (TL)30.1.8.1Na15(SO4)5F4Cl
Schairerite (TL)30.1.9.1Na21(SO4)7ClF6
Sulphohalite (TL)30.1.7.1Na6(SO4)2FCl
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates
Burkeite (TL)32.1.1.1Na6(CO3)(SO4)2
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Hanksite (TL)32.3.1.1Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Searlesite (TL)71.3.5.4Na(H2BSi2O7)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Merlinoite77.1.3.11(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
Chlorargyrite
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
-Ag(Cl,Br)
Gypsum
var: Selenite
-CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Phillipsite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
H SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)
H TincalconiteNa2(B4O7) · 5H2O
H BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
H NahcoliteNaHCO3
H TeepleiteNa2[B(OH)4]Cl
H Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
H GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
H MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
H TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
H UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
H NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
BBoron
B SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)
B TincalconiteNa2(B4O7) · 5H2O
B BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
B TeepleiteNa2[B(OH)4]Cl
B UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
CCarbon
C HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
C NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
C PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
C BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2
C TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
C NahcoliteNaHCO3
C GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
C TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
OOxygen
O HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
O NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
O PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
O BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2
O GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4Cl
O SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)
O SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
O TincalconiteNa2(B4O7) · 5H2O
O TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
O SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6
O Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
O BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
O NahcoliteNaHCO3
O TeepleiteNa2[B(OH)4]Cl
O ThénarditeNa2SO4
O Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
O GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
O MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
O TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
O UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O AragoniteCaCO3
O CelestineSrSO4
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O QuartzSiO2
FFluorine
F GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4Cl
F SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
F SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6
NaSodium
Na HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
Na NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Na PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Na BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2
Na GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4Cl
Na SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)
Na SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
Na TincalconiteNa2(B4O7) · 5H2O
Na TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
Na SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6
Na Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Na BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Na HaliteNaCl
Na NahcoliteNaHCO3
Na TeepleiteNa2[B(OH)4]Cl
Na ThénarditeNa2SO4
Na GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Na MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
Na TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Na UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
Na GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
Na NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Mg TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
S BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2
S GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4Cl
S SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
S TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
S SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6
S Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
S ThénarditeNa2SO4
S Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
S MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
S GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S CelestineSrSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S RealgarAs4S4
S SulphurS8
ClChlorine
Cl HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
Cl NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Cl GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4Cl
Cl SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
Cl SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl TeepleiteNa2[B(OH)4]Cl
Cl Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
KPotassium
K HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
K Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
K Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Ca Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Ca UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Ca Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
AsArsenic
As RealgarAs4S4
BrBromine
Br Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
AgSilver
Ag Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
BaBarium
Ba Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Holocene - Pliocene
0 - 5.333 Ma



ID: 2875507
Quaternary alluvium and marine deposits

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 5.333 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Temescal Formation; Modesto Formation; Victor Formation; Alameda Formation; Aromas Red Sands; Bautista Beds; Brawley Formation; Borrego Formation; Burnt Canyon Breccia; Cabezon Fanglomerate; Campus Formation; Casitas Formation; Chemehuevi Formation; Corcoran Clay; Cushenbury Springs Formation; Dos Picachos Gravels; Dripping Springs Formation; Frazier Mountain Formation; Friant Formation; Harold Formation; Heights Fanglomerate; Hookton Formation; Huichica Formation; La Habra Formation; Manix Lake Beds; Mohawk Lake Beds; Montezuma Formation; Nadeau Gravel; Ocotillo Conglomerate; Orcutt Formation; Pacoima Formation; Pauba Formation; Peckham Formation; Pinto Formation; Resting Springs Formation; Riverbank Formation; Rohnerville Formation; San Dimas Formation; Shoemaker Gravel; Temecula Arkose; Battery Formation; Bay Point Formation; Colma Formation; Lindavista Formation; Lomita Marl; Merritt Sand; Millerton Formation; Palos Verdes Sand; San Pedro Formation; Sweitzer Formation; Timms Point Silt

Description: Alluvium, lake, playa, and terrace deposits; unconsolidated and semi-consolidated. Mostly nonmarine, but includes marine deposits near the coast.

Comments: Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{coarse alluvium}, Minor:{fine alluvium}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Robottom, A. (1874) Borax deposits in California – an interesting discovery: Engineering & Mining Journal: 18: 82.
Hidden, W.E. (1885) On hanksite, a new anhydrous sulphate-carbonate of sodium from San Bernardino County, California: New York Academy of Science Annals: 3: 238-241; […American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 30: 133-135 (1885); …Mining & Scientific Press: 50: 1 (1885)]: 230-241.
vom Rath, G. (1887) Ueber Glauberit und Hanksit von San Bernardino County. Niederrheinische Gesell. Sitzungsber., Band 44: 233.
Hidden, W.E. and MacKintosh, J.B. (1888) Sulphohalite, a new sodium sulphato-chloride. American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 36: 463; […Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 15: 294 (1889)]: 464.
Hanks, H.G. (1889) On the occurrence of hanksite in California. American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 37: 63-66.
De Groot, H. (1890) The Searles borax marsh. California Mining Bureau Report 10: 534-539.
Hanks, H.G. (1892) Gaylussite (new variety), San Bernardino County, California). Mining & Science Press: 64: 222.
Pratt, J.H. (1896) On northupite; pirssonite, a new mineral; Gaylussite and hanksite from Borax Lake, San Bernardino County, California. American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 2: 123-135; […Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 27: 416-429 (1896); …(abstract): Neues Jahrb., Band 2: 451-455 (1897)]: 124, 126.
Ayers, E.F. (1889) Mineralogical notes (thenardite, pyrite). American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 37: 235-236.
Ayers, E.F. (1889) Notes on the crystallization of trona (urao). American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 38: 65-66.
Foote, W.M. (1895) Preliminary note on a new alkali mineral. American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 50: 480-481.
Penfield, S.L. (1900) On the chemical composition of sulphohalite. American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 9: 425-428.
Bailey, G.E. (1902) The saline deposits of California. California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 102.
Penfield, S.L. and Jamieson, G.S. (1905) On tychite, a new mineral from Borax Lake, California, and on its artificial production and its relations to northupite. American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 20: 217-224; […Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 41: 235-242 (1905)]: 217.
Gale, H.S. and Hicks, W.B. (1914) Octahedral crystals of sulphohalite. American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 38: 273-274.
Gale, H.S. (1915) Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California. USGS Bulletin 580: 251-323; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 27: 172 (1921)]: 285, 292, 294, 297, 298, 303, 306, 307, 308.
Foshag, W.F. (1920) Sulphohalite from Searles Lake, California. American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 49: 76-77.
Foshag, W.F. (1931), Schairerite, a new mineral from Searles Lake, California. American Mineralogist: 16: 133-139.
Foshag, W.F. (1935) Burkeite, a new mineral species from Searles Lake, California. American Mineralogist: 20: 50-56.
Frondel, C. (1935) Catalogue of mineral pseudomorphs in the American Museum. Museum of Natural History Bulletin 67, art. IX: 389-426.
Foshag, W.F. (1940) Sodium bicarbonate (nahcolite) from Searles Lake, California. American Mineralogist: 25: 769-778.
Pabst, A. and Sawyer, D.L., Jr. (1948) Tincalconite crystals from Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California. American Mineralogist: 33: 472-481.
American Mineralogist (1950) 35: 1014.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235, 279, 294, 402, 406, 633.
Pabst, A., Sawyer, D.L., Jr., and Switzer, G.S. (1955) Galeite, a new mineral from Searles Lake, California (abstract). Geological Society of America: 66: 1658.
Vigario, G. (1956) Notes on some Searles Lake micromounts. Rocks & Minerals: 586.
Smith, G.I. and Pratt, W.P. (1957) Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California. USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27, 31, 38, 40.
Hay, R.L.R. and Moiola, R.J. (1962) Authigenic silicate minerals in Pleistocene sediments of Searles Lake, California (abstract). Geological Society of America Special Paper 73: 168; …Sedimentology: 2: 312-332 (1962): 323, 324.
Pabst, A., Sawyer, D.L., Jr., and Switzer, G.S. (1963) Galeite and related phases in the system Na2SO4.NaF.NaCl. American Mineralogist: 48: 485-510.
Bowser, C.J. (1964) The origin of tincalconite at Searles Lake, California. American Mineralogist: 49: 1507.
Smith, G.I. and Haines, D.V. (1964) Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California. USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 8-9, 10, 16-18, 19, 20, 21, 25-26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 50, 172.
Eugster, H.P. and Smith, G.I. (1965) Mineral equilibria in the Searles Lake evaporates, California. Journal of Petrology: 6: 473-522.
Murdoch, J. and Webb, R.W. (1966) Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966). California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 71, 76, 82, 109, 118, 125, 172, 174, 185, 189, 197, 200, 211, 212, 214, 267, 276, 278, 280-281, 287, 315, 319, 328, 333, 355, 356, 360, 365, 367, 374, 376.
American Mineralogist (1969) 54: 302.
Pemberton, H.E. (1975) The crystal habits and forms of the minerals of Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California. Mineralogical Record 6 (2): 75-83.
Pemberton, H.E. (1983) Minerals of California. Van Nostrand Reinhold Press: 192, 207, 208, 211, 216, 221, 261, 279, 280, 281, 281-283, 283, 284, 348, 362, 370, 382.
Tschernich (1992) Zeolites of the World: 315.
Korbel and Novak (1999) Mineral Encylopaedia: 133.
Mineralogical Record (2007) 38: 213.
Warren, J.K. (2010) Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 98, Issues 3–4, February 2010, 217-268.

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