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Iron Hill deposit (Iron Hill carbonatite complex), White Earth Mining District (Powderhorn Mining District), Gunnison Co., Colorado, USAi
Regional Level Types
Iron Hill deposit (Iron Hill carbonatite complex)Hill
White Earth Mining District (Powderhorn Mining District)Mining District
Gunnison Co.County
ColoradoState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
38° 15' 11'' North , 107° 3' 11'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Lake City367 (2017)33.8km
Gunnison6,076 (2018)34.4km
Creede405 (2011)46.3km


A REE-V-Fe-Mn-F-Nb-Ti-P-Ba-Pt-Cu-Mica-Th occurrence located in secs. 11 & 12, T46N, R2W, NMM, on patented (private) land, on located claim(s) and on private lease. Discovered in 1885. Operated by Du Pont (1957-1958). Owned by Reunion Energy Co. (100%), Houston, Texas (1994). Owned by Teck Resources (1990-2010).

Mineralization is a massive carbonatite stock (Mineral occurrence model information: Model code 24; USGS model code: 10; deposit model name: carbonatite), that forms the core of the Iron Hill carbonatite complex. The ore body is funnel-shaped, pear-shaped in plan view. The ore is disseminated in the pipe. It is 200 meters thick, 460 meters wide, 900 meters long, with a depth-to-top of 0 meters, and covering an area of 1,300 HA. It is irregular in form. The primary mode of origin was magmatic differentiation. Primary ore control was igneous activity and the secondary control was lithology. There is no wallrock alteration. It is hosted in nepheline syenite, pyroxenite and carbonatite intrusive. There is one main ore body located on and around Iron Hill. Three smaller ore bodies occur around the main ore body. The carbonatite stock is enriched in rare earth elements, niobium, and thorium; the adjacent pyroxenite unit is enriched in these elements also and in substantial amounts of titanium. The Th is in veins in the country rock. Biotite-bearing zones in the pyroxenite contain 0.2% Cu. Carbonate rocks are rich in Sr (to 2%). Pods of apatite follow flow bands in the carbonatite. Associated rocks include granite. Local rocks include intrusives.

The Iron Hill carbonatite complex is exposed for 31 km2 (12 square miles) near the small town of Powderhorn, about 35 km (22 miles) south-southwest of Gunnison, Colorado. The intrusion is alkaline with a prominent carbonatite stock at its core. This intrusive complex is noteworthy because of its classic geology and its mineral resource potential. This intrusive complex was described by Olson and Hedlund as “the best example of the carbonatite-alkalic rock association in the United States and is one of the outstanding occurrences in the world, comparable to many of the classic areas in Africa and other continents.” The primary rock types of the complex are, from oldest to youngest, pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, nepheline syenite, and carbonatite (Olson (1974); Olson and Hedlund, 1981; Armbrustmacher, 1983). Substantial titanium concentrations have been measured in the pyroxenite unit, which is thought to host the largest titanium (Ti) resource in the United States (Thompson, 1987; Shaver and Lunceford, 1998; Van Gosen and Lowers, 2007). The carbonatite stock is enriched in rare earth elements (REE), niobium (Nb), and thorium (Th); the pyroxenite unit is also enriched in these elements plus vanadium (V). Thus, it may be economic to extract several resources from this complex with a well-coordinated mine and mill plan. Thus far, none of these resources has been developed at Iron Hill.

A dolomitic carbonatite stock was the last major igneous phase of the Iron Hill intrusive complex. The stock forms Iron Hill and the ridge to its northwest, and it is exposed throughout an area of about 3.7 km (2.3 miles) long by 1.9–0.8 km (1.2–0.5 mile) wide, making it the largest exposed carbonatite mass in the United States. Staatz and others (1979) estimated that the carbonatite stock of Iron Hill contains 655.6 million metric tons (722.7 million tons) of carbonatite. On the basis of the averaged analytical results of 28 samples of the carbonatite stock—0.4 percent for total rare earth oxides and 0.004 percent ThO2—Staatz and others (1979) calculated potential reserves within the stock of 2.6 million metric tons (2.865 million tons) of rare earth elements oxides and 28,190 metric tons (31,080 tons) of ThO2. Recent sampling of the Iron Hill carbonatite stock by Van Gosen (2008) found median values (from 13 samples) of 0.19 percent total rare earth oxides (table 17) and 0.0035 percent ThO2; this result represents estimated resources within the stock of about 1.22 million metric tons (1.34 million tons) of rare earth element oxides and about 23,000 metric tons (25,300 tons) of ThO2.

Geological structures include concentric structures (Concentric Structures formed by arcuate shapes of different rock types, cone sheets of carbonatite; radial carbonate dikes; and later faults and dikes)

Workings include unspecified underground openings.

Reserves/resources: Type: in-situ (estimate year = 1998): Total resources 1,600,000,000 metric tons ore. Titanium (TiO2): 10.9 weight percent.

Analysis test results: Pt = 39 ppb (Field No. WP-741). Analyses averages: 0.026% Cu, 0.025% Zn, 0.010% Ni, 1.65% Ba, 0.27% Sr, 2.9% Ti, 0.049% Zr, 0.071% Nb, 0.41% Mn, 0.23% La, 0.59% Ce, 0.008% Y (see Temple and Grogan). Also reported: V, U, As, Ta. Ta grade is not known and Thompson states Ta2O5 grade occurs in geochemical amounts (less than 10 ppm).

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Rocky Mountains, North AmericaMountain Range

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


75 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Åkermanite
Formula: Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: Eckel, E.(1997): Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised, p. 17; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 65; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Andradite var: Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Description: Up to 20% ZrO2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
'Bastnäsite'
Reference: Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Britholite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; The Mineralogical Record, volumbe 25/5, pp. 371-374
Brugnatellite
Formula: Mg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Cebollite (TL)
Formula: Ca5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
Type Locality:
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 135, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Cerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Gehlenite
Formula: Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Grayite
Formula: (Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
'Gunnisonite'
Reference: Clarke and Perry (1882) American Chem. Journal: 4: 140.; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Hastingsite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Hematite var: Martite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Juanite (TL)
Formula: Ca10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
Type Locality:
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Leucoxene
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Magnesio-arfvedsonite
Formula: {Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Description: Originally reported as glaucophane.
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
'Melilite Group'
Formula: Ca2M(XSiO7)
Habit: Cleavages to 1 foot across
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Monticellite
Formula: CaMgSiO4
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Eckel, E. (1997): Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised, p. 17; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 65; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Norsethite
Formula: BaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Parisite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
'Pyrochlore'
Reference: Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Pyrophanite
Formula: Mn2+TiO3
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Rhabdophane-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4) · H2O
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Richterite
Formula: {Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS Bull 2192
Riebeckite
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS Bull 2192
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Schorlomite
Formula: Ca3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Siegenite
Formula: CoNi2S4
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
'Synchysite'
Reference: Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Synchysite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe(CO3)2F
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Tainiolite
Formula: KLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
'Thorogummite' ?
Formula: (Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Vermiculite
Formula: Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Reference: USGS Bull 2192
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Vishnevite ?
Formula: (Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
'Wad'
Reference: Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Winchite
Formula: ☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: USGS Bull 2192
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS ProfessionaL Paper 197A
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Theodore J. Armbrustmacher, (1981) The complex of alkaline rocks at Iron Hill, Powederhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. in 32nd Field Conference New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 293-296.
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Siegenite2.DA.05CoNi2S4
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Brookite4.DD.10TiO2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Martite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
'Pyrochlore Group'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Pyrophanite4.CB.05Mn2+TiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Bastnäsite-(Ce)5.BD.20aCe(CO3)F
Brugnatellite5.DA.45Mg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2O
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Norsethite5.AB.30BaMg(CO3)2
Parisite-(Ce)5.BD.20bCaCe2(CO3)3F2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Synchysite-(Ce)5.BD.20cCaCe(CO3)2F
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Grayite8.CJ.45(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Rhabdophane-(Ce)8.CJ.45Ce(PO4) · H2O
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Aegirine9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var: Melanite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Britholite-(Ce)9.AH.25(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Britholite-(Y)9.AH.25(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Cancrinite9.FB.05(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Cebollite (TL)9.BB.10Ca5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
Cerite-(Ce)9.AG.20(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Gehlenite9.BB.10Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Hastingsite9.DE.15{Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Juanite (TL)9.HA.70Ca10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
Magnesio-arfvedsonite9.DE.25{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Magnesio-hornblende9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Monticellite9.AC.10CaMgSiO4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Nepheline9.FA.05Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Piemontite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Richterite9.DE.20{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Riebeckite9.DE.25◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Schorlomite9.AD.25Ca3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Tainiolite9.EC.15KLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
Thorite9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vermiculite9.EC.50Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Vishnevite ?9.FB.05(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
Winchite9.DE.20☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Zoisite9.BG.10Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Åkermanite9.BB.10Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Bastnäsite'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Gunnisonite'-
Leucoxene-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Melilite Group'-Ca2M(XSiO7)
'Pyrochlore'-
'Synchysite'-
'Thorogummite' ?-(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Siegenite2.10.1.6CoNi2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Perovskite4.3.3.1CaTiO3
Pyrophanite4.3.5.3Mn2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Brookite4.4.5.1TiO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Pyrochlore Group'8.2.1.1A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Norsethite14.2.2.1BaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bastnäsite-(Ce)16a.1.1.1Ce(CO3)F
Parisite-(Ce)16a.1.5.1CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Synchysite-(Ce)16a.1.3.1CaCe(CO3)2F
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Brugnatellite16b.7.5.1Mg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Grayite40.4.7.4(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Rhabdophane-(Ce)40.4.7.1Ce(PO4) · H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Monticellite51.3.2.1CaMgSiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Schorlomite51.4.3c.1Ca3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
'Thorogummite' ?51.5.2.5(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Britholite-(Ce)52.4.9.1(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Britholite-(Y)52.4.9.2(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Cerite-(Ce)52.4.6.1(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 55 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination
Gehlenite55.4.1.2Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Åkermanite55.4.1.1Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Piemontite58.2.1a.11{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Zoisite58.2.1b.1Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Richterite66.1.3b.9{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Winchite66.1.3b.1☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Tainiolite71.2.2b.9KLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
Vermiculite71.2.2d.3Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Cancrinite76.2.5.3(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Nepheline76.2.1.2Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Vishnevite ?76.2.5.15(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Miscellaneous
Cebollite (TL)78.1.1.1Ca5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
Juanite (TL)78.7.6.1Ca10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Andradite
var: Melanite
-Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Bastnäsite'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Gunnisonite'-
Hastingsite-{Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Hematite
var: Martite
-Fe2O3
var: Specularite-Fe2O3
Hydroxylapatite
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
-Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Leucoxene-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnesio-arfvedsonite-{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Magnesio-hornblende-☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'Melilite Group'-Ca2M(XSiO7)
'Pyrochlore'-
Riebeckite-◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
'Synchysite'-
'Wad'-
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
H JuaniteCa10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
H BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2O
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
H Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
H Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
H Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
H Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
H Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
H Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2O
H Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
H Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
H Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
H Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
H Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
H Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Thorogummite(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
H Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
LiLithium
Li TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
BBoron
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2O
C Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
C CalciteCaCO3
C Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
C Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
C SideriteFeCO3
C Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C NorsethiteBaMg(CO3)2
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
OOxygen
O CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
O JuaniteCa10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
O BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2O
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O AnataseTiO2
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
O Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
O Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
O BrookiteTiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
O Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
O Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
O Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
O PerovskiteCaTiO3
O Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
O Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2O
O Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
O RutileTiO2
O SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
O Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O BaryteBaSO4
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O SideriteFeCO3
O VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
O GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
O Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
O Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
O Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
O Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
O NorsethiteBaMg(CO3)2
O PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
O Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Hematite (var: Martite)Fe2O3
O HematiteFe2O3
O QuartzSiO2
O Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Thorogummite(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
O Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
FFluorine
F Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
F Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F FluoriteCaF2
F TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
NaSodium
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Na Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Na Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Na Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Na Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Na Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg JuaniteCa10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
Mg BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2O
Mg ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
Mg Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Mg Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Mg Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg NorsethiteBaMg(CO3)2
Mg TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
Mg Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
Al JuaniteCa10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Al Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Al GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Al ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Al Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Al Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
SiSilicon
Si CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
Si JuaniteCa10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Si Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Si Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Si Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Si Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
Si MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Si Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Si SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Si Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Si GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Si Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Si TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
Si Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Thorogummite(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
Si Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2O
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
P Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
SSulfur
S Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S SiegeniteCoNi2S4
S BaryteBaSO4
S GalenaPbS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
CaCalcium
Ca CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
Ca JuaniteCa10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
Ca ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Ca Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Ca Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Ca Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
Ca MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Ca Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Ca PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ca SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Ca Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
Ca Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Ca Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ca ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Ca Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti BrookiteTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
VVanadium
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
MnManganese
Mn PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
Mn Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FeIron
Fe JuaniteCa10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
Fe BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2O
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Fe Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Fe SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Fe Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
Fe Hematite (var: Martite)Fe2O3
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
CoCobalt
Co SiegeniteCoNi2S4
NiNickel
Ni SiegeniteCoNi2S4
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SrStrontium
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
YYttrium
Y Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba NorsethiteBaMg(CO3)2
CeCerium
Ce Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
Ce Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Ce Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
Ce Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Ce Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2O
Ce Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
PbLead
Pb Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb GalenaPbS
ThThorium
Th Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Th Thorogummite(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
UUranium
U Thorogummite(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Larsen, Esper S. (1942), Alkalic rocks of Iron Hill, Gunnison County, Colorado, Shorter contributions to general geology, 1941-42, USGS Professional Paper 197-A.
Grogan, R. M. (1960), Columbium at Powderhorn, Colorado, Mines Magazine: September 1960: 15, 16 & 27.
Temple, A.K., and Grogan, R.M. (1965), Carbonatite and related alkalic rocks at Powderhorn, Colorado, Economic Geology: 60(4): 672-692.
Nash, W.P. (1972) Mineralogy and petrology of the Iron Hill carbonatite complex, Colorado. Geological Society of America Bulletin 83, 1361-1382.
Page, N.J. (1972), USGS unpublished data.
MINOBRAS (1974).
Armbrustmacher, T.J. and Brownfield, I.K. (1979) The carbonatite stock at Iron Hill, Gunnison County, Colorado - chemical and mineralogical data. USGS Open-File Report 79-537, 13 pp.
Staatz, M.H., Armbrustmacher, T.J., Olson, J.C., Brownfield, I.K., Brock, M.R., Lemons, J.F., Jr., Coppa, L.V., and Clingan, B.V. (1979), Principal thorium resources in the United States: USGS Circular 805, 42 p.
Armbrustmacher, Theodore J. (1980) Abundance and distribution of thorium in the carbonatite stock at Iron Hill, Powderhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1049-B, B1-B11.
Thompson, James V. (1980), Mining History of Powderhorn, 7 pp. (unpublished report).
Olson, J. C. & D. C. Hedlund (1981), Alkalic rocks and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Powderhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1049-C. 34 pp.
Thompson, J. V. (1987), Titanium Resource in Colorado Equals all other US Deposits, Engineering and Mining Journal: July 1987: 28.
Tschernich, R. (1992) Zeolites of the World, 65.
U.S. Bureau of Mines (1995), Minerals Availability System/Mineral Industry Location System (MAS/MILS), U.S. Bureau of Mines, file ID #0080510186 & 0080510276.
Shaver, K.C., and Lunceford, R.A. (1998), White Earth Project, Colorado. The largest titanium resource in the United States: Canadian Industrial Minerals Bulletin: 91: 63-65.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, deposit ID #10118125 & 10142743.
Van Gosen, B.S. and Lowers, H.A. (2007) Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex, Gunnison County, CO - a potential source of several uncommon mineral resources. Mining Engineering 59, 56-62.
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009) Carbonatites of the World. Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models. USGS Open-File Report 09-1139.
Van Gosen, B.S. (2009) The Iron Hill (Powderhorn) Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado - A Potential Source of Several Uncommon Mineral Resources. USGS Open-File Report 09-1005.
Long, K.R., Van Gosen, B.S., Foley, N.K., and Cordier, Daniel (2010), The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States—A summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5220, 96 p.
Buttes Gas & Oil Company, Powderhorn, Colorado & Kaiser Engineers.
DuPont Exploration Drilling job #6999-15.
USGS MRDS ID #M045346.

USGS MRDS Record:10142743
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