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Cornwall Mines (Cornwall Iron Mine), Cornwall Borough (Cornwall), Lebanon Co., Pennsylvania, USAi
Regional Level Types
Cornwall Mines (Cornwall Iron Mine)Group of Mines
Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)Borough
Lebanon Co.County
PennsylvaniaState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
40° 16' 0'' North , 76° 23' 60'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Cornwall4,226 (2017)0.9km
Quentin594 (2017)3.7km
Mount Gretna Heights323 (2017)6.0km
Mount Gretna197 (2017)6.4km
Lebanon South2,270 (2017)6.8km


Originally, a series of three open pit mines (Big Hill, Middle Hill, Grassy Hill) with underground openings, located at Cornwall, near Lebanon. Started in 1732 and owned by the Cornwall Ore Banks Company (1864) and later, the Bethlehem Steel Company.

Lapham (1973, including Plate 22) notes that in the 20th century, 2 major deposits were being worked: the western by the open pit and underground No. 3 mine, and the eastern by the No. 4 mine. Much of the operation came to an abrupt halt in June 1972 when floods from Hurricane Agnes flooded the underground mines. Neither underground operation was reopened.

Smith et al. (1988) note that more copper-, cobalt-, and possibly gold-rich ore with substantial byproduct iron was actively pursued from the eastern end of the open pit until June 30, 1973. The smaller, footwall ore body beneath the eastern end of the open pit was never mined, but may contain as much as 0.006 ounce/ton Au. The ore bodies consisted of replacement of contact metamorphic scarn by slightly later copper and iron-bearing hydrothermal fluids. The ore-bearing fluids may have been derived in part from the Triassic, York Haven Diabase, which forms the footwall to the larger ore bodies (Rose et al. 1985). Certainly, the diabase served for the heat engine.

Smith et al. (1988) report that the total ore production known is 106,000,000 tons of recovered ore with an apparent greade of 0.4 % copper. From 1908 to 1973, the period for which records could be found, 67,000 ounces of gold were recovered and 443,000 ounces silver. Recovered pyrite concentrates contained 1.1 % Co and 0.1 % Ni. This is the type "Cornwall Type" iron ore deposit.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


68 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Habit: Trapazoidal crystals, larger crystals often exhibit poor edging
Colour: white to colorless
Fluorescence: none
Description: Occurance in the triassic diabase at the Cornwall Magnetite mines of the Bethlehem Steel Company. fine crystals of Analcime assocciated with very good Apophyllite crystals, and other zeolites have been found, notably, in The number 4 mine at Cornwall.
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania, 1922-1965; A. Montgomery, pg 89; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 70
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Description: According to "Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975", Robert C. Smith, Andalusite has been removed from the list of occurrences in Pennsylvania. All existing specimens tested by x-ray powder diffraction proved to be Kyanite pseudos (M. L. Crawford, 1975).
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975, Robert C. Smith, pg. 3
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gordon, S.G. (1922) The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania. 255 pp., Philadelphia.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Anorthite var: Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Weber, J. and Greer, R., 1965, Dehydration of Serpentine, American Mineralogist, v 50,p 450-464.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Apophyllite'
Habit: rossettes of tabular crystals
Colour: colorless
Reference: Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 70
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Kearns, L.E. & Kearns, C.A. (2008) Mineral News, 24, #1, 8-9.
Bieberite
Formula: CoSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: No reference listed
Botryogen
Formula: MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania; Rocks & Min.: 13:213.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 13:213.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 70; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Habit: Botryoidal and stalagtitic coatings.
Colour: Beautiful shades between blue and green, also blackish green
Fluorescence: none
Description: specimens of great beauty, of various shades between green and blue, sometimes of a blackish green color, and has also be found as a pseudomorph after dolomite. (Genth, pg.105)
Reference: Ref 1. Second Geological survey of Pennsylvania: 1874 Preliminary Report on the Mineralogy of Pennsylvania; F. A. Genth, Pg. B.105. Ref. 2.)Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Clinochrysotile'
Reference: Weber, J. and Greer, R., 1965, Dehydration of Serpentine, American Mineralogist, v 50,p 450-464.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Kearns, L.E. & Kearns, C.A. (2008) Mineral News, 24, #1, 8-9.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Crednerite ?
Formula: CuMnO2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Samuel G. Gordon (1922) "Mineralogy of Pennsylvania" p. 208.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series' ?
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania; Smith, II R. C. (1973) Geochemistry of Triassic Diabase from Southeastern Pennsylvcania
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Smith, II R. C. (1973) Geochemistry of Triassic Diabase from Southeastern Pennsylvcania
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
'Gmelinite' ?
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Harmotome ?
Formula: (Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 13:213.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
'Heulandite subgroup'
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Hornblende'
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Reference: Kearns, L.E. & Kearns, C.A. (2008) Mineral News, 24, #1, 8-9.
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Reed, Juliet C. (1976), Annotated Biblio. of Minerals New to the PA List 1965-1974, The Min. Soc. of PA, Inc.: 51-52; Gordon, Samuel G. (1922), Mineralogy of PA: 147.
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: The tumbler - Zeolites And TheirAssociations, Milt Leet Sept 2004 pg. 4; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 70
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Habit: octahedral, frequently with crystal edging modifications
Colour: Silvery grey, metalic luster
Description: Magnetite was the main constituant or primary ore processed at Cornwall. The mines were in continuous operation, to varying degrees, from 1740, up to the time of it's closing and ranked as the longest continuing mining operation in the US. The mines were finally closed by flood waters created when Hurricane Agnes came through the area in 1972.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 13:213.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Habit: needles
Reference: Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 70
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Pigeonite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 13:213; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 70; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Pyroaurite
Formula: Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: No reference listed
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Rhodochrosite ?
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Ruizite
Formula: Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Reference: Kearns, L.E. & Kearns, C.A. (2008) Mineral News, 24, #1, 8-9.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 13:213.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
'Stilbite subgroup'
Reference: Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 70
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Thomsonite-Ca
Formula: NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Tochilinite
Formula: Fe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tochilinite2.FD.35Fe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Wurtzite2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Crednerite ?4.AB.05CuMnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Pyroaurite5.DA.50Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Rhodochrosite ?5.AB.05MnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Bieberite7.CB.35CoSO4 · 7H2O
Botryogen7.DC.25MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Erythrite8.CE.40Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Andalusite ?9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Anorthite9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
var: Labradorite9.FA.35(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
'Anorthoclase'9.FA.30(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Antigorite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Chrysotile9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Clinochrysotile'9.ED.
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Harmotome ?9.GC.10(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pigeonite9.DA.10(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ruizite9.BJ.35Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Thomsonite-Ca9.GA.10NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Apophyllite'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series' ?-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Gmelinite' ?-
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Stilbite subgroup'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Hydroxysulfides and Hydrated Sulfides
Tochilinite2.14.2.1Fe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
ABX2
Crednerite ?7.1.2.1CuMnO2
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite ?14.1.1.4MnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Pyroaurite16b.6.2.3Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Bieberite29.6.10.4CoSO4 · 7H2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
(AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Botryogen31.9.6.1MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Erythrite40.3.6.3Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite ?52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 57 - SOROSILICATES Si3O10 Groups and Larger Noncyclic Groups
Insular Si3O10 and Larger Noncyclic Groups with [Si4O13] groups
Ruizite57.2.2.1Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Pigeonite65.1.1.4(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Antigorite71.1.2a.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Chrysotile71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Clinochrysotile'71.1.2d.1
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
'Anorthoclase'76.1.1.6(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Harmotome ?77.1.3.5(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
var: Labradorite-(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Apophyllite'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series' ?-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Gmelinite' ?-
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Hornblende'-
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)-KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Stilbite subgroup'-
Thomsonite-Ca-NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
H RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
H Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
H AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
LiLithium
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
BBoron
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
OOxygen
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O CupriteCu2O
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Anorthite (var: Labradorite)(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
O RutileTiO2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
O RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
O Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O CredneriteCuMnO2
O Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F FluoriteCaF2
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
F Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
NaSodium
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Anorthite (var: Labradorite)(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Na Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Mg Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Mg AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
AlAluminium
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Anorthite (var: Labradorite)(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
SiSilicon
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Anorthite (var: Labradorite)(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Si Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
S CovelliteCuS
S BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S ChalcociteCu2S
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MilleriteNiS
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
S BaryteBaSO4
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
K Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Anorthite (var: Labradorite)(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Ca Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Ca Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Ca Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mn RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Mn CredneriteCuMnO2
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
CoCobalt
Co BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
Co ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
NiNickel
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CopperCu
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu CredneriteCuMnO2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
AsArsenic
As ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Triassic
201.3 - 251.902 Ma



ID: 3187923
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Triassic (201.3 - 251.902 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2916784
Hamburg sequence rocks

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Description: Predominantly greenish gray, gray, purple, and maroon shale, siltstone, and graywacke; includes some wildflysch having Martinsburg matrix.

Comments: Original map source: Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Miles, C.E., and Whitfield, T.G., compilers, 2001, Bedrock Geology of Pennsylvania, edition: 1.0, digital map, scale 1:250,000.

Lithology: Major:{shale}, Minor:{graywacke,siltstone}, Incidental:{conglomerate}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Genth, F. A. (1874), Second Geological survey of Pennsylvania: 1874 Preliminary Report on the Mineralogy of Pennsylvania: B.105.
Gordon, Samuel G. (1922), Mineralogy of Pennsylvania: 147.
Berkey, C.P. (1933), Mineral Deposits of New Jersey & Eastern Pennsylvania; XVI International Geological Congress Guidebook 8, Excursion A-8.
Rocks & Minerals (1938): 13: 213.
Weber, J. and Greer, R. (1965), Dehydration of Serpentine, American Mineralogist: 50: 450-464.
Lapham, D. M. (1968) Triassic Magnetite and Diabase at Cornwall, Pennsylvania in Graton-Sates Volume 1, Ore Deposite of the United States 1933-1967, p. 72-94.
Smith, II R. C. (1973) Geochemistry of Triassic Diabase from Southeastern Pennsylvania.
Reed, Juliet C. (1976), Annotated Bibliography of Minerals New to the Pennsylvania List 1965-1974, The Mineralogical Society of Pennsylvania, Inc.: 51-52.
Rose, A. W., Herrick, D. C. and Peter Deines (1985) An oxygen and sulfur isotope study of skarn-type magnetite deposits of the Cornwall type, southeastern Pennsylvania, Economic Geology: 80: 418-443.
Smith, II, R. C., Berkheiser, S. W. Jr. and D. T. Hoff (1988) Locations and analyses of selected Early Nesozoic Copper Occurrences in Pennsylvania in Studies of the Early Mesozoic Basins of the Eastern United States, USGS Bulletin 1776, p. 320-332.
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1 (1990) (tochilinite).
Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World: 70.
Leet, Milt (2004), The Tumbler - Zeolites and Their Associations (September): 4.
Kearns, L.E. & Kearns, C.A. (2008), Mineral News: 24(1): 8-9.


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