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Brazil

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Area:8,515,767 km2
Locality type:Country
Museums in region:
Name(s) in local language(s):Brasil


Brazil is the largest country in South America, and the fifth largest country in the world, at about 8.5 million square kilometers. That compares to 8.1 million square kilometers for the lower 48 states in the United States and 9.8 million total for the U.S. The population of Brazil in 2016 was 206.7 million, compared to 323.1 million for the U.S. Brazil includes 26 states plus a Federal District (Figure 1). Brazilian states are divided into municipalities–roughly equivalent to counties in the U.S.

Figure 1. Map of Brazil showing states with their names. "D.F." refers to the Distrito Federal, where the capital of Brasília is located. Modified from Free World Maps on the Internet.


Brazil includes only modest topographic features, with highest points of land somewhat in excess of 1500 meters. Prominent mountains are lacking, but locally the hills are deeply dissected and may be quite rugged. Much of the terrain is covered by savanna vegetation. The savanna grades northwestward into rain forests in the Amazon Basin, and generally eastward and southward into tropical, semi-deciduous forests where influenced by proximity to the Atlantic ocean. Much of the northeastern portion of the country has a semi-arid climate with thorny scrub vegetation.

Brazil has the second largest economy in the Western Hemisphere, second only to the United States. World-wide, Brazil ranks sixth in overall mining production. In 2011 there were 8870 mining companies operating in Brazil, employing about 175,000 workers (Brazilian Mining Association, 2012). In recent years, Brazil has led the world in niobium production, accounting for 98% of the world’s total. As of 2010, Brazil was the world’s second largest producer (and largest exporter) of iron ore. Brazil is also third in bauxite production, fifth in manganese and tin, seventh in nickel, eighth in aluminum, twelfth in uranium, and thirteenth in gold (Soutter, 2012; Gurmendi, 2015).

About two-thirds of Brazil is underlain by Precambrian rocks (Figure 2), including ancient cratonic (long stable) regions and orogenic (“mobile”) belts that were active largely from about two billion years ago through the end of the Precambrian and extending into the earliest Paleozoic. The richest iron, tin, and nickel deposits formed in Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks, as did much of the gold and platinoid metals found in placer deposits

Figure 2. Map showing major tectonic/lithologic regions of Brazil. Comparison with the mineral commodities and gemological maps shows that both groups of materials are associated with particular tectonic/lithologic settings. For example, coastal plains and regions underlain by Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic basins are relatively poor mineralogically. Cratonic regions and mobile (orogenic) belts are rich in minerals, with the mobile belts being richest of all. Modified from Lacerda (2010).

today. Orogenic belts formed by convergence of crustal plates largely in the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic. Most pegmatitic granites that yield colored gemstones formed in the Neoproterozoic to earliest Paleozoic (1,000-541 million years ago), as did more metallic ores including gold and Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits. Many of the diamond-bearing kimberlites and related rock types were intruded during the Cretaceous Period. Amethyst, agate, and opal-bearing volcanic rocks were also deposited in the Cretaceous. Bauxite (aluminum) and manganese deposits formed during the Cenozoic by intense tropical weathering that continues today. Cenozoic weathering also produced extensive secondary deposits of iron, nickel, phosphate, and even gold. Sites of industrial minerals production are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Map of mineral commodities (ore deposits) in Brazil, illustrating their widespread nature. These localities range from high-reserve, world-class mines to lower-grade deposits supporting smaller operations. Note that regions having poorly-developed infrastructure have been poorly explored. Most commodities in those areas can be discovered in stream alluvium, such as gold, tin, and diamonds. Other regions include large areas reserved for indigenous peoples, and some of these have seen little exploration or actual mining. The map nevertheless serves to suggest the potential for mineral resource exploitation across much of the country. Some commodities, such as niobium and phosphorus, are listed in groups. Such materials were produced together during single events or a series of related events. Modified from numerous Internet sources, including especially Vale (2011) and Swedish Trade and Invest [sic] Council (2016).

In 2005 Brazil was ranked first in the world in variety and quantity of gemstones produced (Baretto and Bittar, 2010), and continues to be pre-eminent today (see Figure 4). Brazil once led the world in diamond production, but has steadily slipped in world ranking since kimberlite deposits were discovered (1869) in other places, falling to less than 1% today; most of Brazil’s diamonds have been recovered from placer deposits. Production of colored gemstones has increased dramatically during the latter half of the 20th Century, and Brazil is now the world’s leading producer of amethyst, citrine, and topaz, and produces a major portion of the aquamarine, tourmaline, chrysoberyl (alexandrite and cat's-eye), emerald, garnet, and opal (e.g., Baretto and Bittar, 2010).
Figure 4. Where diamonds (dashed outlines) and colored gemstones (symbols at specific sites) have been found in commercial quantities in Brazil. Note the conspicuous concentration of localities and variety of gemstones in Minas Gerais due to the presence of the Eastern Brazil Pegmatite Province in the eastern half of the state. Modified from IBGM (2005); available on Internet in Barreto and Bittar (2010).


In 2012, approximately 61% of diamonds and gemstones were mined by individuals and small independent operators ("garimpeiros"); major mining companies produced 39%. Deposits of both diamonds and colored gemstones exploited by garimpeiros tend to be localized and very small, requiring time-consuming techniques of extraction, and both factors have discouraged larger companies from pursuing them. Predominance of small-scale operations has tended to keep garimpeiros and their workings out of the public eye and hidden from government monitoring. Historically, tax burdens for mineral extraction and sale were very high (at one time as high as 53%), contributing to a culture of "underground" activities (i.e., outside legal registration and reporting). Therefore the true value of gemstone production has been difficult to quantify. Official production of gemstones in 2005 amounted to US$47 million, whereas exportation of gemstones in that year was US$135 million (Baretto and Bittar, 2010). Thus, much of the actual production seems to have gone unreported. In recent years lower tax rates have helped this situation. Other functions involved in the chain of gemstone production include cutting and polishing, trade, and export. The entire gemstone industry in Brazil, from mining to export, was estimated to employ 350,000 workers in 2006 (Baretto and Bittar, 2010). Officially, the state of Minas Gerais accounts for 74% of colored gemstone production in Brazil. Four other states, including Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, Matto Grosso, and Goiás (states labeled in Figure 1) are also big producers, with all five of those states accounting for 97% of Brazil's total production in 2005 (Barreto and Bittar, 2010).

As of late 2017, there were 771 different minerals reported from Brazil, and 72 minerals have their type localities in Brazil (data from Mindat website). The distribution of mineral wealth is skewed toward certain states. State size, geological history, transportation to and within them, and degree of cover by vegetation and surficial deposits including soils and other loose materials, all play a role in the number of minerals reported from each state (see Table 1 below). Note that Minas Gerais leads the second most prolific state, Bahia, by a more than two-to-one margin. Details of the geology and mineralogy at the state, regional, and district levels, as well as for more precise descriptions down to the level of specific localities, have been added on many of the Mindat locality pages.

Table 1. States in Brazil with number of different minerals found in each. Data from Mindat, December 2017.


Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Acanthite

Actinolite

Aegirine

Aegirine-augite

Aenigmatite

'Aeschynite'

'Agardite'

Akaganeite

Alabandite

Albite

var: Andesine

var: Cleavelandite

var: Oligoclase

var: Pericline

'Albite-Anorthite Series'

Aleksite

'Alkali Feldspar'

Allanite-(Ce)

'Allanite Group'

Alluaudite

Almandine

'Almandine-Pyrope Series'

'Almandine-Spessartine Series'

Almeidaite (TL)

Alstonite

Altaite

Althausite

Aluminocopiapite

Alumotantite

Alunite

Amblygonite

'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'

'Amphibole Supergroup'

Analcime

Anatase

var: Niobian Anatase

'Ancylite'

Ancylite-(Ce)

Ancylite-(La)

Andalusite

var: Viridine

Andradite

var: Melanite

Anglesite

Anhydrite

Anilite

Ankerite

Annite

Anorthite

'Anorthoclase'

Anthophyllite

'Anthosiderite'

Antigorite

Antimony

'Antitaenite'

'Apatite'

'var: Carbonate-rich Apatite'

'var: Collophane'

'Apatite Group'

'Apophyllite'

Aragonite

Arfvedsonite

Armalcolite

Arrojadite-(KFe) (TL)

Arrojadite-(PbFe) (TL)

Arsenopalladinite (TL)

Arsenopyrite

var: Danaite

Artsmithite

Arupite (TL)

Astrophyllite

Atencioite (TL)

Atheneite (TL)

Augelite

Augite

var: Fassaite

var: Soda-Augite

var: Titanian Augite

Aurostibite

Autunite

Awaruite

'Axinite Group'

Azurite

Baddeleyite

Bahianite (TL)

Barbosalite (TL)

Barringerite

Baryte

Barytocalcite

Bassetite

'Bastnäsite'

Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Bastnäsite-(La)

Bearsite

Bementite

Bendadaite

Benjaminite

Beraunite

Bergslagite

Berlinite

Bermanite

Berthierine

Berthierite

Bertrandite

Beryl

var: Alkali-beryl

var: Aquamarine

var: Blue Beryl (Maxixe)

var: Emerald

var: Goshenite

var: Heliodor

var: Morganite

Beryllonite

Berzelianite

Beusite

Bílinite

'Bindheimite'

'Biotite'

'var: Titanian Biotite'

Birnessite

Bismite

Bismoclite

Bismuth

Bismuthinite

Bismutite

'Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)'

Bismutotantalite

Bityite

Bixbyite

Bohdanowiczite

Böhmite

Bornite

Boulangerite

Bournonite

Braggite

Brandãoite (TL)

Brannerite

'Bravoite'

Brazilianite (TL)

Britholite-(Ce)

'Britholite-(La)'

Brochantite

Brockite

Brookite

Brucite

Brumadoite (TL)

'Burangaite-Matioliite Series'

Burbankite

Bütschliite

Cacoxenite

Cahnite

Calaverite

Calcioancylite-(Ce)

'Calciopyrochlore'

Calcite

var: Ferroan Calcite

var: Iceland Spar

'Caldasite'

Calzirtite

Cancrinite

Carbocernaite

Carlhintzeite

Carlosbarbosaite (TL)

Carnallite

Carrollite

Cassiterite

var: Wood Tin

Catapleiite

Cavansite

Celadonite

Celestine

Celsian

Cerianite-(Ce)

Cerussite

Césarferreiraite (TL)

'Chabazite'

'var: Phacolite'

Chabazite-Ca

Chalcocite

Chalcophyllite

Chalcopyrite

Chalcosiderite

Chamosite

'Chamosite-Clinochlore Series'

Chenevixite

Cheralite

Cherepanovite

Chernikovite

Chernovite-(Y)

'Chevkinite Group'

Childrenite

'Childrenite-Eosphorite Series'

Chlorapatite

'Chlorite Group'

Chloritoid

Chrombismite

'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'

Chromite

var: Aluminian Chromite

var: Titaniferous Chromite

Chrysoberyl (TL)

var: Alexandrite

Chrysocolla

'Chrysoprase'

Chrysotile

Churchite-(Y)

Cinnabar

Claudetite

Clausthalite

'Clays'

Clinochlore

Clinoenstatite

Clinoferrosilite

Clinohumite

var: Titanclinohumite

'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'

Clino-suenoite

Clinozoisite

Cobaltite

Cobaltpentlandite

Coesite

Coffinite

Cohenite

Collinsite

Colquiriite

Columbite-(Fe)

'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'

'Columbite Group'

Columbite-(Mn)

'Columbite-Tantalite'

Cookeite

Coombsite

Cooperite

Copper

Cordierite

var: Iolite

Cornubite

Cornwallite

Coronadite

Correianevesite (TL)

Corundum

var: Ruby

var: Sapphire

Cosalite

Cotunnite

Coutinhoite (TL)

Covellite

Crandallite

var: Strontian Crandallite

Crichtonite

Cristobalite

Crocoite

Cryolite

Cryptomelane

Cubanite

Cummingtonite

Cuprite

Cuprorhodsite

Cuspidine

Cyrilovite

Danalite

Datolite

Daubréelite

Derbylite (TL)

Descloizite

Diamond

var: Carbonado

Diaspore

Dickite

Digenite

Diopside

var: Chromian Diopside

'Diopside-Hedenbergite Series'

Djurleite

Dolomite

var: Ferroan Dolomite

var: Manganoan Dolomite

Dravite

Dufrénite

Dukeite (TL)

Dumortierite

Dzhalindite

Edenite

Edingtonite

Eitelite

Elbaite

var: Cuprian Elbaite

'Elbaite-Schorl Series'

'Electrum'

Eleonorite

Enstatite

var: Bronzite

Eosphorite

Epidote

Epistilbite

Epsomite

Erlichmanite

Ernstite

Eskolaite

Euclase (TL)

Eudialyte

'Eudialyte Group'

'var: Eucolite'

Eudidymite

Euxenite-(Y)

Faheyite (TL)

Fairfieldite

Fayalite

'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'

'Feldspar Group'

'var: Perthite'

Ferberite

var: Reinite

Fergusonite-(Y)

Ferrihydrite

Ferrimolybdite

Ferripyrophyllite

Ferrisicklerite

Ferristrunzite

Ferro-actinolite

Ferro-edenite

Ferro-hornblende

'Ferro-kaersutite'

Ferrokentbrooksite

Ferro-pargasite

Ferrosaponite

Ferroselite

Ferro-tschermakite

Ferrowodginite

Fersmanite

Fersmite

'Florencite'

Florencite-(Ce) (TL)

Florencite-(La)

Fluocerite-(Ce)

Fluorapatite

var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

Fluorapophyllite-(K)

Fluorbritholite-(Ce)

Fluorcalciomicrolite (TL)

Fluor-elbaite (TL)

Fluorite

Fluorlamprophyllite (TL)

Fluornatromicrolite (TL)

Fluor-uvite

Foitite

Footemineite

Forsterite

Fourmarierite

Franklinite

Freibergite

Frohbergite

Frondelite (TL)

'Frondelite-Rockbridgeite Series'

Froodite

Gagarinite-(Y)

Gahnite

Gaidonnayite

Galena

'Garnet Group'

'Garnierite'

Gayite

Gedrite

Geikielite

Genthelvite

Geocronite

Georgechaoite

Gersdorffite

Geversite

Gibbsite

Gilalite

Gladite

'Glass'

Glaucodot

Goethite

Gold

var: Palladian Gold

var: Porpezite

Gonnardite

Gorceixite (TL)

Gordonite

Gormanite

'Gormanite-Souzalite Series'

Goudeyite

Goyazite (TL)

var: Barian Goyazite

Graftonite

Graphite

Greenalite

Greenockite

Greifensteinite

Grossular

Grunerite

Guanajuatite

Guimarãesite (TL)

'Gummite'

Gypsum

var: Selenite

Hainite-(Y)

Haiweeite

Halite

'Halloysite'

Harrisonite

Hastingsite

Hausmannite

Haxonite

Heazlewoodite

Hechtsbergite

Hectorite

Hedenbergite

Hedleyite

Helvine

Hematite

var: Iron Rose

var: Martite

var: Specularite

Hemimorphite

Hentschelite

Hercynite

var: Picotite

Herderite

Hessite

Heterosite

'Heulandite'

Heulandite-Ca

Hilairite

Hinsdalite

Hiortdahlite

Hollandite

Hollingworthite

Holmquistite

Honessite

Hongshiite

'Hornblende'

Hörnesite

Huanghoite-(Ce)

Humboldtine

Humite

Hureaulite

var: Bastinite

Hydrokenomicrolite (TL)

'Hydrokenomicrolite-3R' (FRL)

Hydrokenoralstonite

Hydromagnesite

'Hydrophilite'

'Hydrotalcite-2H'

Hydroxycalciomicrolite (TL)

Hydroxycalcioroméite (TL)

Hydroxykenopyrochlore (TL)

Hydroxylapatite

var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite

Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)

Hydroxylherderite

Hydrozincite

'Hypersthene'

Idaite

'Iddingsite'

Ilmenite

Ilsemannite

'Indicolite'

Irarsite

Iron

var: Kamacite

Isocubanite

Isoferroplatinum

Isokite

Isomertieite (TL)

Ixiolite

Jacobsite

Jacutingaite (TL)

Jadeite

Jahnsite-(CaMnFe)

Jahnsite-(CaMnMg)

Jahnsite-(CaMnMn)

'Jahnsite Group'

'Jahnsite-(MnMnFe2+)'

'Jahnsite-(MnMnMg)'

Jahnsite-(MnMnMn)

Jamesonite

Jarosite

Jeffbenite (TL)

Johnsomervilleite

Jordisite

'Joséite'

Joséite-B (TL)

Kaersutite

Kalinite

Kalsilite

Kalungaite (TL)

Kamiokite

Kanonaite

Kaolinite

Karibibite

Kentbrooksite

'K Feldspar'

'var: Adularia'

Kidwellite

Kimzeyite

Kirschsteinite

Kochite

Kosnarite

Kotulskite

Krut'aite

Kupletskite

Kutnohorite

Kyanite

'Labradorite'

Lamprophyllite

'Lanthanite'

Lanthanite-(La)

Lanthanite-(Nd) (TL)

Laueite

Laumontite

Laurite

Låvenite

Lazulite

Lead

Lefontite (TL)

Legrandite

Lepidocrocite

'Lepidolite'

Leucite

Leucophosphite

Leucoxene

'Lévyne'

Libethenite

'Limonite'

Lindbergite (TL)

Lipscombite (TL)

Lithiophilite

'Lithiophilite-Triphylite Series'

Lithiophorite

Lithiophosphate

Lithiotantite

Lizardite

Löllingite

Loparite-(Ce)

Ludjibaite

Ludlamite

Luinaite-(OH)

Mackinawite

Maghemite

'Magnesian hastingsite'

Magnesio-arfvedsonite

Magnesioferrite

Magnesio-hornblende

Magnesite

var: Breunnerite

Magnetite

var: Titaniferous Magnetite

Malachite

Malanite

Maldonite

'Manganese Oxides'

'var: Manganese Dendrites'

Manganite

'Manganoan Calcite'

'Manganocummingtonite'

Manganoeudialyte (TL)

Manganosite

Mannardite

var: Ankangite

Marcasite

Margarite

Marialite

'Maskelynite'

Maslovite

Matioliite (TL)

Maucherite

Meionite

Melcherite (TL)

'Melilite Group'

Melonite

Menezesite (TL)

Merenskyite

Merrillite

'Mertieite'

Mertieite-II

Merwinite

Mesolite

Messelite

Meta-autunite

Metaswitzerite

Metatorbernite

Metauranocircite-I

Metavariscite

Metavivianite

Metazeunerite

'Meteoritic Iron'

'Meurigite'

Meurigite-K

'Mica Group'

Michenerite

Microcline

var: Amazonite

Microlite Group

var: Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977) (FRL)

var: Natrobistantite

var: Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)

var: Uranmicrolite (of Hogarth 1977) (FRL)

Milarite

Millerite

Minasgeraisite-(Y) (TL)

Minnesotaite

Mitridatite

Molybdenite

Molybdite

'Monazite'

Monazite-(Ce)

Monazite-(La)

Moncheite

Montebrasite

Montgomeryite

Monticellite

Montmorillonite

Moraesite (TL)

Mordenite

Mosandrite-(Ce)

Mottramite

Murmanite

Muscovite

var: Alurgite

var: Barian Muscovite

var: Fuchsite

var: Illite

var: Sericite

Muthmannite

Nacareniobsite-(Ce)

Nahcolite

Narsarsukite

Natrodufrénite

Natrojarosite

Natrolite

'Natropyrochlore'

Natrotantite

Nekoite

Nenadkevichite

Neotocite

Nepheline

Neptunite

Nickeline

'Nickel-iron'

Niter

Nontronite

Nordstrandite

Normandite

Norsethite

Nosean

'Nováčekite'

Nováčekite-I

Nsutite

Nyerereite

Olenite

'Oligoclase-Andesine'

Olivenite

'Olivereiraite'

Omeiite

Omphacite

Opal

var: Boulder Opal

var: Fire Opal

var: Hyalite

var: Jasper Opal

var: Opal-AN

var: Precious Opal

var: Wood Opal

Orthoclase

'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'

Osarsite

Osbornite

Óskarssonite

Osmium

'Oxycalciomicrolite'

Oxykinoshitalite (TL)

Pachnolite

Padmaite

Palladinite

Palladium (TL)

var: Platiniferous Palladium

Palladseite (TL)

Paragonite

Paraguanajuatite

Paranatisite

Parascandolaite

Parasymplesite

Paravauxite

Pargasite

'Parisite'

Parisite-(Ce)

Parisite-(La) (TL)

Parsonsite

Pauloabibite (TL)

Pavonite

Pectolite

Pekoite

Pentlandite

Periclase

var: Ferropericlase

Perovskite

Petalite

'Petrified Wood'

Pharmacosiderite

Phenakite

'Phengite'

Phlogopite

var: Barium-Phlogopite

Phosgenite

Phosphoferrite

Phosphohedyphane

Phosphosiderite

Phosphuranylite

Phurcalite

Pickeringite

Pigeonite

'Planerite-Turquoise Series'

Platarsite

Platinum

var: Palladian Platinum

Plattnerite

'Plessite'

Plumbogummite

'Plumbogummite Group'

Polezhaevaite-(Ce)

Pollucite

Polycrase-(Y)

Polylithionite

Potarite

Potassic-chloro-hastingsite

Powellite

Prehnite

Priderite

Pseudobrookite

Pseudomalachite

'Psilomelane'

Pucherite

Purpurite

Pyrite

var: Arsenian Pyrite

'Pyrochlore'

Pyrochlore Group

var: Ceriopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)

var: Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)

var: Zero valent dominant member of Pyrochlore Group

Pyrochlore Supergroup

var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Pyrolusite

Pyromorphite

Pyrope

Pyrophanite

Pyrophyllite

Pyrosmalite-(Fe)

'Pyroxene Group'

Pyroxmangite

Pyrrhotite

var: Nickeloan Pyrrhotite

Qingheiite-(Fe2+) (TL)

Qitianlingite

Quartz

var: Agate

var: Amethyst

var: Aventurine

var: Blue Quartz

var: Carnelian

var: Chalcedony

var: Citrine

var: Eisenkiesel

var: Ferruginous Quartz

var: Jasper

var: Milky Quartz

var: Onyx

var: Quartzine

var: Rock Crystal

var: Rose Quartz

var: Rutilated Quartz

var: Sceptre Quartz

var: Smoky Quartz

Quintinite (TL)

Rankamaite

Raspite

Rectorite

Reddingite

Reevesite

'Rhabdophane'

Rhabdophane-(La)

Rheniite

Rhodochrosite

Rhodonite

Richterite

Riebeckite

Ringwoodite

Rinkite-(Ce)

Robertsite

Rockbridgeite

'Roméite Group'

Roquesite

Roscherite

'Roscherite Group'

Rosenbuschite

Rossmanite

Ruarsite

'Rubellite'

Ruifrancoite (TL)

Rustenburgite

Rutherfordine

Rutile

var: Ilmenorutile

var: Niobian Rutile

var: Strüverite

Sabugalite

Safflorite

Saléeite

Samarskite-(Y)

Sanidine

Saponite

Sarcopside

'Saussurite'

'Scapolite'

Scheelite

Schneiderhöhnite

Schoonerite

Schorl

Schorlomite

Schreibersite

Schumacherite

Scolecite

Scorodite

Scorzalite (TL)

Segnitite

Sellaite

Senaite (TL)

Senegalite

Sepiolite

Serandite

'Serpentine Subgroup'

Serrabrancaite (TL)

Siderite

var: Mg-rich Siderite

Siderophyllite

Siegenite

'Silica'

Sillimanite

Silver

Simpsonite

Sklodowskite

'Smectite Group'

Smithsonite

Sobolevskite

Sodalite

Souzalite (TL)

Sperrylite

Spessartine

Sphalerite

Spinel

var: Pleonaste

'Spinel Group'

Spodumene

var: Hiddenite

var: Kunzite

Stanĕkite

Stannite

'Stannite Group'

'Staringite'

Staurolite

var: Zincian Staurolite

Stellerite

Stewartite

'Stibiconite'

Stibiopalladinite

Stibiotantalite

Stibnite

Stichtite

'Stilbite'

Stilbite-Ca

Stilpnomelane

Stishovite

Stokesite

Stolzite

Strengite

Stromeyerite

Stronadelphite

Strontianite

Strunzite

Studtite

Stumpflite

Sudovikovite

Sulphotsumoite

Sulphur

Susannite

Svanbergite

Switzerite

'Sylvinite'

Sylvite

Symplesite

'Synchysite'

Synchysite-(Y)

Tachyhydrite

Taenite

Tainiolite

Talc

var: Steatite

Tantalaeschynite-(Y) (TL)

'Tantalite'

Tantalite-(Fe)

Tantalite-(Mn)

'Tapiolite'

Tapiolite-(Fe)

'Taramite Root Name'

Tavorite (TL)

Tellurium

Tellurobismuthite

Tennantite

Tenorite

Tephroite

'Testibiopalladite'

Tetra-auricupride

Tetradymite

Tetraferriphlogopite

Tetraferroplatinum

Tetrahedrite

Tetrataenite

Thorbastnäsite

Thoreaulite

Thorianite

Thorite

var: Orangite

'Thorogummite'

Thortveitite

Thorutite

Tinsleyite

Titanite

Tivanite

Tochilinite

Todorokite

Topaz

var: Imperial Topaz

Torbernite

'Tourmalinated Quartz'

'Tourmaline'

'var: Watermelon Tourmaline'

Tremolite

Tridymite

Trilithionite

Triphylite

Triplite

Triploidite

Tripuhyite (TL)

Tritomite-(Y)

Troilite

Trolleite

Tschermakite

Tschermigite

Tulameenite

Tungstenite

Tuperssuatsiaite

Turkestanite

Turquoise

Ullmannite

Ulvöspinel

'UM1958-01-PO:CaMn'

'UM1958-02-PO:Fe'

'UM1984-38-SiO:TiU'

'UM1992-06-E:AgPd'

'Unnamed (Au-Pd Alloy I)'

'Unnamed (Au-Pd Alloy II)'

'Unnamed (Barium-Strontium Aluminium Fluoride)'

'Unnamed (Bi Telluride Sulphide I)'

'Unnamed (Calcium Chromium Oxide Postspinel)'

'Unnamed (Ca Silicate)'

'Unnamed (Iron Carbide)'

'Unnamed (Iron Carbide II)'

'Unnamed (Iron Carbonitride)'

'Unnamed (Iron Diphosphate)'

'Unnamed (Iron Nitride I)'

'Unnamed (Iron Nitride II)'

'Unnamed (Mg analogue of Xieite)'

'Unnamed (Orthorhombic Polymorph of Magnesium Oxide)'

'Unnamed (Pb-Bi Selenide)'

'Unnamed (Pb-Sb Alloy)'

'Unnamed (Pd-Au-Hg Alloy)'

'Unnamed (Pd-I-O Compound)'

'Unnamed (Sn-Fe Arsenate-Hydrate)'

'Unnamed (Sodium-Magnesium Phosphate)'

Uralolite

Uraninite

var: Pitchblende

Uranocircite

Uranophane

Uranophane-β

'Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)'

Ushkovite

Uvite (OH-dominant end-member) (TL)

'Uvite Series'

Vaesite

Valentinite

Valleriite

Variscite

var: Ferrian Variscite

Vashegyite

Vauquelinite

'Verdelite'

Vermiculite

Vesuvianite

Vigezzite

Villiaumite

Violarite

Vivianite

Volkonskoite

'Wad'

Wadeite

Waimirite-(Y) (TL)

Wardite

Wavellite

Waylandite

Weeksite

Weishanite

'Whiteite'

Whiteite-(CaFeMg) (TL)

Whiteite-(CaMnMg)

Whiteite-(MnFeMg) (TL)

Whiteite-(MnMnMg)

'White mica'

Whitlockite

Whitmoreite

Wilancookite (TL)

Willemite

Wodginite

Wöhlerite

Wolfeite

'Wolframite'

Wollastonite

Wölsendorfite

Woodhouseite

Wüstite

Wyllieite

Xanthoxenite

'Xenotime'

Xenotime-(Y)

Xieite

Yanomamite (TL)

Yttrialite-(Y)

'Yttrocolumbite-(Y)'

Zanazziite (TL)

'Zeolite Group'

Zeunerite

Zinc

Zincite

'Zinnwaldite'

Zircon

var: Cyrtolite

var: Malacon

var: Orvillite

var: Ribeirite

Zirconolite

Zirkelite (TL)

Zoisite

Zunyite


777 valid minerals. 72 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 3 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Neoarchean to Paleogene : 2628 Ma to 66 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Cenozoic
  Paleogene
   Paleocene
ⓘ Biotite (youngest age)66 MaTapira Complex, Tapira, Minas Gerais, Brazil
 Mesozoic
  Cretaceous
   Late Cretaceous
ⓘ Apatite87.1 MaCatalão II carbonatite complex, Goiás, Brazil
    
  
 Paleozoic
  Cambrian
   Terreneuvian
ⓘ Muscovite (youngest age)524 ± 72 MaChapada Cu deposit, Uruaçu, Goiás, Brazil
ⓘ Muscovite (oldest age)532 ± 1 MaChapada Cu deposit, Uruaçu, Goiás, Brazil
ⓘ Biotite (oldest age)534 ± 16 MaChapada Cu deposit, Uruaçu, Goiás, Brazil
Precambrian
 Proterozoic
  Neoproterozoic
   Ediacaran
ⓘ Zircon (youngest age)575 ± 16 MaSerra Branca pegmatite, Pedra Lavrada, Borborema mineral province, Paraíba, Brazil
    
   
  Paleoproterozoic
   Statherian
ⓘ Mica Group1782 ± 4.6 MaMadeira pluton, Pitinga mine, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil
    
    
   Siderian
ⓘ Zircon (oldest age)2500 MaSerra Branca pegmatite, Pedra Lavrada, Borborema mineral province, Paraíba, Brazil
 Archean
  Neoarchean
ⓘ Molybdenite (youngest age)2553 MaSalobo mine, Marabá, Carajás mineral province, Pará, Brazil
ⓘ Molybdenite (oldest age)2628 MaGameleira Cu-Au deposit (Pojuca), Parauapebas, Carajás mineral province, Pará, Brazil

Localities in this Region
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This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Franco, R. R., editor (1972): Minerals of Brazil. 3 Volumes, Editora Edgard Blucher, Sao Paolo, Brazil: 426 p. [in English and Portuguese].
Damasceno, E. C. (1988): Geology of the Brazilian tin deposits, in Hutchison, C.S. (ed.), Geology of Tin Deposits in Asia and the Pacific, Springer: 216-218.
Schobbenhaus, C. (1984): Distribution of mineral deposits through geologic time in Brazil. Int. Geol. Congress, 27th (Moscow): 289.
Delaney, P. J. V. (1996): Gemstones of Brazil - Geology and Occurrence. 145 pp.
Fulfaro, Y. J., Saad, A. R., Perinotto, J. A. J., Etoherehere, M.L.C., Verolavsky, G. (1997): Paraná Basin: Mineral Resource Potentials in Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay. International Geology Review: 39(8): 703-722.
Atencio, D. (2000): Type mineralogy of Brazil. Museu de Geociências, Instituto de Geociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil: 114 p.
Kampf, A. R., Simmons, W. B., Jr. (2000): Abstracts of the 21st Annual FM-TGMS-MSA Mineralogical Symposium: The Minerals of Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 31: 177-183.
IBGM--Instituto Brasileiro de Gemas e Metais Preciosos (2005): Manuel Técnico de Gemas. Brasília, Brazil, IBGM/DNPM, Technical manual, 3rd edition: 156 p.
Toenges, W. (2008): Die "Minas Gerais" von Brasilien. Der Anschnitt 60: 66-93 [in German].
Cornejo, C., Bartorelli, A. (2009): Minerals & precious stones of Brazil. Solaris Cultural Publications, São Paulo, Brazil: 704 p.
Barreto, S. de B., and Bittar, S. M. B. (2010): The gemstone deposits of Brazil: occurrences, production and economic impact. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(1): 123-140.
Lacerda, W. A. (2010): Shear strength of soils derived from the weathering of granite and gneiss in Brazil. Geological Society of London, Engineering Geology Special Publications, 23: 167-182.
Brazilian Mining Association (2012): Information and Analyses on the Brazilian Mineral Economy. Insitituto Brasileiro de Mineracão, Brasilia, 7th Ed., 68 p.;
Atencio, D. (2015): The discovery of new mineral species and type minerals from Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 45: 143-158. [http://www.rbg.sbgeo.org.br/index.php/rbg/article/view/30242/19035]
Cassedanne, J. and Philippo, S. (2015): Mineral and gem deposits of the eastern Brazilian pegmatites, Volume 1. Publication du Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle, Luxembourg: 376 p.
Cassedanne, J. & Philippo, S. (2015) Mineral and gem deposits of the eastern Brazilian pegmatites, Volume 2. Publication du Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle, Luxembourg: 371 pp.
Gurmendi, A. C. (2015): The mineral industry of Brazil. U. S. Geological Survey 2012 Minerals Yearbook: 17 p.

External Links


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