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Brazil

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Name in French:Brésil
Name in German:Brasilien
Name in Italian:Brasile
Name in Russian:Бразилия
Name in Simplified Chinese:巴西
Name in Spanish:Brasil
Name in Afrikaans:Brasilië
Name in Albanian:Brazili
Name in Arabic:البرازيل
Name in Belarusian:Бразілія
Name in Bulgarian:Бразилия
Name in Catalan:Brasil
Name in Czech:Brazílie
Name in Danish:Brasilien
Name in Dutch:Brazilië
Name in Estonian:Brasiilia
Name in Farsi/Persian:برزیل
Name in Finnish:Brasilia
Name in Galician:Brasil
Name in Greek:Βραζιλία
Name in Hebrew:ברזיל
Name in Hindi:ब्राज़ील
Name in Hungarian:Brazília
Name in Icelandic:Brasilía
Name in Indonesian:Brasil
Name in Irish Gaelic:An Bhrasaíl
Name in Japanese:ブラジル
Name in Korean:브라질
Name in Latvian:Brazīlija
Name in Lithuanian:Brazilija
Name in Macedonian:Бразил
Name in Norwegian:Brasil
Name in Polish:Brazylia
Name in Portuguese:Brasil
Name in Romanian:Brazilia
Name in Serbian:Бразил
Name in Slovak:Brazília
Name in Slovenian:Brazilija
Name in Swahili:Brazil
Name in Swedish:Brasilien
Name in Tagalog:Brasil
Name in Thai:ประเทศบราซิล
Name in Turkish:Brezilya
Name in Ukrainian:Бразилія
Name in Vietnamese:Brasil
Name in Welsh:Brasil
Area:8,515,767 km2
Locality type:Country
Museums in region:


Brazil is the largest country in South America, and the fifth largest country in the world, at about 8.5 million square kilometers. That compares to 8.1 million square kilometers for the lower 48 states in the United States and 9.8 million total for the U.S. The population of Brazil in 2016 was 206.7 million, compared to 323.1 million for the U.S. Brazil includes 26 states plus a Federal District (Figure 1). Brazilian states are divided into municipalities–roughly equivalent to counties in the U.S.

Figure 1. Map of Brazil showing states with their names. "D.F." refers to the Distrito Federal, where the capital of Brasília is located. Modified from Free World Maps on the Internet.


Brazil includes only modest topographic features, with highest points of land somewhat in excess of 1500 meters. Prominent mountains are lacking, but locally the hills are deeply dissected and may be quite rugged. Much of the terrain is covered by savanna vegetation. The savanna grades northwestward into rain forests in the Amazon Basin, and generally eastward and southward into tropical, semi-deciduous forests where influenced by proximity to the Atlantic ocean. Much of the northeastern portion of the country has a semi-arid climate with thorny scrub vegetation.

Brazil has the second largest economy in the Western Hemisphere, second only to the United States. World-wide, Brazil ranks sixth in overall mining production. In 2011 there were 8870 mining companies operating in Brazil, employing about 175,000 workers (Brazilian Mining Association, 2012). In recent years, Brazil has led the world in niobium production, accounting for 98% of the world’s total. As of 2010, Brazil was the world’s second largest producer (and largest exporter) of iron ore. Brazil is also third in bauxite production, fifth in manganese and tin, seventh in nickel, eighth in aluminum, twelfth in uranium, and thirteenth in gold (Soutter, 2012; Gurmendi, 2015).

About two-thirds of Brazil is underlain by Precambrian rocks (Figure 2), including ancient cratonic (long stable) regions and orogenic (“mobile”) belts that were active largely from about two billion years ago through the end of the Precambrian and extending into the earliest Paleozoic. The richest iron, tin, and nickel deposits formed in Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks, as did much of the gold and platinoid metals found in placer deposits

Figure 2. Map showing major tectonic/lithologic regions of Brazil. Comparison with the mineral commodities and gemological maps shows that both groups of materials are associated with particular tectonic/lithologic settings. For example, coastal plains and regions underlain by Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic basins are relatively poor mineralogically. Cratonic regions and mobile (orogenic) belts are rich in minerals, with the mobile belts being richest of all. Modified from Lacerda (2010).

today. Orogenic belts formed by convergence of crustal plates largely in the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic. Most pegmatitic granites that yield colored gemstones formed in the Neoproterozoic to earliest Paleozoic (1,000-541 million years ago), as did more metallic ores including gold and Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits. Many of the diamond-bearing kimberlites and related rock types were intruded during the Cretaceous Period. Amethyst, agate, and opal-bearing volcanic rocks were also deposited in the Cretaceous. Bauxite (aluminum) and manganese deposits formed during the Cenozoic by intense tropical weathering that continues today. Cenozoic weathering also produced extensive secondary deposits of iron, nickel, phosphate, and even gold. Sites of industrial minerals production are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Map of mineral commodities (ore deposits) in Brazil, illustrating their widespread nature. These localities range from high-reserve, world-class mines to lower-grade deposits supporting smaller operations. Note that regions having poorly-developed infrastructure have been poorly explored. Most commodities in those areas can be discovered in stream alluvium, such as gold, tin, and diamonds. Other regions include large areas reserved for indigenous peoples, and some of these have seen little exploration or actual mining. The map nevertheless serves to suggest the potential for mineral resource exploitation across much of the country. Some commodities, such as niobium and phosphorus, are listed in groups. Such materials were produced together during single events or a series of related events. Modified from numerous Internet sources, including especially Vale (2011) and Swedish Trade and Invest [sic] Council (2016).

In 2005 Brazil was ranked first in the world in variety and quantity of gemstones produced (Baretto and Bittar, 2010), and continues to be pre-eminent today (see Figure 4). Brazil once led the world in diamond production, but has steadily slipped in world ranking since kimberlite deposits were discovered (1869) in other places, falling to less than 1% today; most of Brazil’s diamonds have been recovered from placer deposits. Production of colored gemstones has increased dramatically during the latter half of the 20th Century, and Brazil is now the world’s leading producer of amethyst, citrine, and topaz, and produces a major portion of the aquamarine, tourmaline, chrysoberyl (alexandrite and cat's-eye), emerald, garnet, and opal (e.g., Baretto and Bittar, 2010).
Figure 4. Where diamonds (dashed outlines) and colored gemstones (symbols at specific sites) have been found in commercial quantities in Brazil. Note the conspicuous concentration of localities and variety of gemstones in Minas Gerais due to the presence of the Eastern Brazil Pegmatite Province in the eastern half of the state. Modified from IBGM (2005); available on Internet in Barreto and Bittar (2010).


In 2012, approximately 61% of diamonds and gemstones were mined by individuals and small independent operators ("garimpeiros"); major mining companies produced 39%. Deposits of both diamonds and colored gemstones exploited by garimpeiros tend to be localized and very small, requiring time-consuming techniques of extraction, and both factors have discouraged larger companies from pursuing them. Predominance of small-scale operations has tended to keep garimpeiros and their workings out of the public eye and hidden from government monitoring. Historically, tax burdens for mineral extraction and sale were very high (at one time as high as 53%), contributing to a culture of "underground" activities (i.e., outside legal registration and reporting). Therefore the true value of gemstone production has been difficult to quantify. Official production of gemstones in 2005 amounted to US$47 million, whereas exportation of gemstones in that year was US$135 million (Baretto and Bittar, 2010). Thus, much of the actual production seems to have gone unreported. In recent years lower tax rates have helped this situation. Other functions involved in the chain of gemstone production include cutting and polishing, trade, and export. The entire gemstone industry in Brazil, from mining to export, was estimated to employ 350,000 workers in 2006 (Baretto and Bittar, 2010). Officially, the state of Minas Gerais accounts for 74% of colored gemstone production in Brazil. Four other states, including Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, Matto Grosso, and Goiás (states labeled in Figure 1) are also big producers, with all five of those states accounting for 97% of Brazil's total production in 2005 (Barreto and Bittar, 2010).

As of late 2017, there were 771 different minerals reported from Brazil, and 72 minerals have their type localities in Brazil (data from Mindat website). The distribution of mineral wealth is skewed toward certain states. State size, geological history, transportation to and within them, and degree of cover by vegetation and surficial deposits including soils and other loose materials, all play a role in the number of minerals reported from each state (see Table 1 below). Note that Minas Gerais leads the second most prolific state, Bahia, by a more than two-to-one margin. Details of the geology and mineralogy at the state, regional, and district levels, as well as for more precise descriptions down to the level of specific localities, have been added on many of the Mindat locality pages.

Table 1. States in Brazil with number of different minerals found in each. Data from Mindat, December 2017.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Brasil

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

781 valid minerals. 73 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 4 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
'Adamellite'
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Aenigmatite
Formula: Na4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]
'Aeschynite'
'Agardite'
Akaganeite
Formula: (Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 166 localities in this region.
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Albite var: Pericline
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 60 localities in this region.
Aleksite
Formula: PbBi2Te2S2
'Alkali Feldspar'
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Alluaudite
Formula: (Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Almeidaite (TL)
Formula: PbZn2(Mn,Y)(Ti,Fe3+)18O37(OH,O)
Reference: Luiz A.D. Menezes Filho, L.A.D., Chukanov, N.V., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Aksenov, S.M., Pekov, I.V., Chaves, M.L.S.C., Scholz, R., Atencio, D., Branda˜o, P.R.G., Romano, A.W., de Oliveira, L.C.A., Ardisson, J.D., Krambrock, K., Moreira, R.L., Guimara˜es, F.S., Persiano, A.C. and Richards, R.P. (2013) Almeidaite, IMA 2013-020. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, 2013, page 2705; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709; Menezes Filho, L.A.D., Chukanov, N.V., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Aksenov, S.M., Pekov, I.V., Chaves, M.L.S.C., Richards, R.P., Atencio, D., Brandão, P.R.G., Scholz, R., Krambrock, K., Moreira, R.L., Guimarães, F.S., Romano, A.W., Persiano, A.C., de Oliveira, L.C.A., Ardisson, J.D. (2015): Almeidaite, Pb(Mn,Y)Zn2(Ti,Fe3+)18O36(O,OH)2, a new crichtonite-group mineral, from Novo Horizonte, Bahia, Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 269–283
Alstonite
Formula: BaCa(CO3)2
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
Althausite
Formula: Mg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,☐)
Aluminocopiapite
Formula: Al2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Alumotantite
Formula: AlTaO4
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
'Amphibolite'
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Anatase var: Niobian Anatase
Formula: (Ti,Nb)O2
'Ancylite'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Ancylite-(Ce)
Formula: CeSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
Ancylite-(La)
Formula: LaSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Andalusite var: Viridine
Formula: (Al,Mn3+)2SiO4O
'Andesite'
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Andradite var: Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
'Angrite meteorite'
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Anilite
Formula: Cu7S4
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Anthophyllite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Anthosiderite'
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Antimony
Formula: Sb
'Antitaenite'
Formula: Fe3Ni
'Apatite'
Localities: Reported from at least 120 localities in this region.
'Apatite var: Carbonate-rich Apatite'
'Apatite var: Collophane'
'Apatite Group'
'Apophyllite'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
'Arenite'
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
'Argillite'
Armalcolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Arrojadite-(KFe) (TL)
Formula: {KNa}{Fe2+◻}{Ca}{Na2◻}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 680; Rocks & Minerals (Jan.2000).
Arrojadite-(PbFe) (TL)
Formula: {Pb◻}{Fe2+◻}{Ca}{Na2◻}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2
Reference: Chopin, C., Oberti, R., Cámara, F. (2006): The arrojadite enigma: II. Compositional space, new members and nomenclature of the group. American Mineralogist, 91, 1260-1270
Arsenopalladinite (TL)
Formula: Pd8(As,Sb)3
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist: 15: 70-73; Chem. Index of Minerals (1955) p. 23 and 339; Mineralogical Magazine(1974): 39, 528-543
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
Arsenopyrite var: Danaite
Formula: (Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
Artsmithite
Formula: (Hg+2)2Al(PO4)1.74(OH)1.78
Arupite (TL)
Formula: Ni3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: [Mandarino, 1997]
Astrophyllite
Formula: K2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O28(OH)4F
Atencioite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Fe2+3Mg2Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
Reference: Chukanov, N.V., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Möckel, St., Zadov, A.E., and Levitskaya, L.A. (2006) The roscherite group and its new representative member atencioite, Ca2Fe2+□Mg2Fe2+2Be4(PO4)6(OH)4•6H2O. New Data on Minerals, 41,18-25; http://www.universia.com.br/materia/materia.jsp?materia=2964
Atheneite (TL)
Formula: Pd2As0.75Hg0.25
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1974) 39, 528-543
Augelite
Formula: Al2(PO4)(OH)3
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Augite var: Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Augite var: Soda-Augite
Augite var: Titanian Augite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Ti, Fe,Al,)(Si,Al)2O6
Aurostibite
Formula: AuSb2
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
'Axinite Group'
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
'commodity:Baddeleyite'
Bahianite (TL)
Formula: Al5Sb3O14(OH)2
Reference: Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 33
Barbosalite (TL)
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Science (1954): 119, 739.; Lindberg, M.L. and Pecora, W.T. (1955) Tavorite and barbosalite, two new phosphate minerals from Minas Gerais, Brazil. American Mineralogist 40, 952-966.
Barringerite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)2P
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Barytocalcite
Formula: BaCa(CO3)2
'Basalt'
Bassetite
Formula: Fe2+(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10H2O
'Bastnäsite'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Bastnäsite-(La)
Formula: La(CO3)F
'Bauxite'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'commodity:Bauxite (Aluminium)'
Formula: Al
Bearsite
Formula: Be2(AsO4)(OH) · 4H2O
Bementite
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Bendadaite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Benjaminite
Formula: Ag3Bi7S12
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Bergslagite
Formula: CaBeAsO4(OH)
Berlinite
Formula: AlPO4
Bermanite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Berthierine
Formula: (Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 142 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Alkali-beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Localities: Reported from at least 46 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Blue Beryl (Maxixe)
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Beryllonite
Formula: NaBePO4
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Berzelianite
Formula: Cu2Se
Beusite
Formula: Mn2+Mn2+2 (PO4)2
Bílinite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
'Biotite'
Localities: Reported from at least 98 localities in this region.
'Biotite var: Titanian Biotite'
'Biotite schist'
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Bismite
Formula: Bi2O3
Bismoclite
Formula: BiOCl
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Bismutotantalite
Formula: Bi(Ta,Nb)O4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Bityite
Formula: LiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Bohdanowiczite
Formula: AgBiSe2
Böhmite
Formula: AlO(OH)
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Braggite
Formula: (Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Brandãoite (TL)
Formula: BeAl2(PO4)2(OH)2(H2O)5
Reference: Menezes, L., Chaves, M.L.S.C., Cooper, M.A., Ball, N., Abdu, Y., Sharp, R., Hawthorne, F.C. and Day, M. (2017) Brandãoite, IMA 2016-071a. CNMNC Newsletter No. 39, October 2017, page 1283; Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1279–1286.
Brannerite
Formula: (U4+,REE,Th,Ca)(Ti,Fe3+,Nb)2(O,OH)6
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Brazilianite (TL)
Formula: NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Cassedanne, J.P. (1983): Famous mineral localities: The Córrego Frio mine and vicinity, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 14 (4): 227-237; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 911; Mineralogical Record: 14: 233; Rocks & Minerals (1988): 63: 42.
'Breccia'
Breyite (TL)
Formula: Ca3Si3O9
Reference: Brenker, F., Nestola, F., Brenker, L., Peruzzo, L., Secco, L. and Harris, J.W. (2018) Breyite, IMA 2018-062. CNMNC Newsletter No. 45, October 2018: page xxx; Mineralogical Magazine: 82: xxx-xxx; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=14984
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
'Britholite-(La)'
Formula: Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Brockite
Formula: (Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2O
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Brumadoite (TL)
Formula: Cu3(Te6+O4)(OH)4 · 5H2O
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine72,1201-1205(2008)
'Burangaite-Matioliite Series'
Burbankite
Formula: (Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Bütschliite
Formula: K2Ca(CO3)2
Cacoxenite
Formula: Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Cahnite
Formula: Ca2[B(OH)4](AsO4)
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Calcioancylite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca,Sr)CO3(OH,H2O)
'Calciopyrochlore'
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 121 localities in this region.
Calcite var: Ferroan Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Fe)CO3
Calcite var: Iceland Spar
Formula: CaCO3
'Caldasite'
Calzirtite
Formula: CaZr3TiO9
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Carbocernaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2
'Carbonatite'
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Carlhintzeite
Formula: Ca2[AlF6]F · H2O
Carlosbarbosaite (TL)
Formula: (UO2)2Nb2O6(OH)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Atencio, D., Roberts, A.C., Cooper, M.A., Menezes Filho, L.A.D., Coutinho, J.M.V., Stirling, J.A.R., Ball, N.A., Moffatt, E., Chaves, M.L.S.C., Brandaõ, P.R.G. and Romano, A.W. (2010) Carlosbarbosaite, IMA 2010-047. CNMNC Newsletter No. 7, February 2010, page 28; Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 27-31; D. Atencio, A. C. Roberts, M. A. Cooper, L. A. D. Menezes Filho, J. M. V. Coutinho, J. A. R. Stirling, K. E. Venance, N. A. Ball, E. Moffatt, M. L. S. C. Chaves, P. R. G. Brandão, and A. W. Romano (2012): Carlosbarbosaite, ideally (UO2)2Nb2O6(OH)2•2H2O, a new hydrated uranyl niobate mineral with tunnels from Jaguaraçu, Minas Gerais, Brazil: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 75-90.
Carnallite
Formula: KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Carrollite
Formula: Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 58 localities in this region.
Cassiterite var: Wood Tin
Formula: SnO2
Catapleiite
Formula: Na2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2O
Cavansite
Formula: Ca(VO)Si4O10 · 4H2O
Celadonite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Cerianite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce4+,Th)O2
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Césarferreiraite (TL)
Formula: Fe2+ Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2·8H2O
Reference: Scholz, R., Chukanov, N. V., Menezes Filho, L. A., Atencio, D., Lagoeiro, L., Belotti, F. M., ... & Pekov, I. (2014). Césarferreiraite, Fe2+ Fe23+ (AsO4) 2 (OH) 2· 8H2O, from Eduardo mine, Conselheiro Pena, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Second arsenate in the laueite mineral group. American Mineralogist, 99(4), 607-611.
'Chabazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
'Chabazite var: Phacolite'
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 101 localities in this region.
Chalcosiderite
Formula: CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Chamosite-Clinochlore Series'
Chenevixite
Formula: Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cheralite
Formula: CaTh(PO4)2
Cherepanovite
Formula: RhAs
Chernikovite
Formula: (H3O)2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
Chernovite-(Y)
Formula: Y(AsO4)
'Chert'
'Chevkinite Group'
Childrenite
Formula: Fe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
'Childrenite-Eosphorite Series'
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 89 localities in this region.
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Chrombismite
Formula: Bi16CrO27
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Chromite var: Aluminian Chromite
Formula: Fe(Cr,Al)2O4
Chromite var: Titaniferous Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
'Chromitite'
Chrysoberyl (TL)
Formula: BeAl2O4
Type Locality: Brazil
Reference: DLG Carsten (1789) modified by MH Klaprorh (1795) Beitr. Kenntn. Min. Chem. 1, 97
Chrysoberyl var: Alexandrite
Formula: BeAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Chrysoprase'
Locality: Bahia, Brazil
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Churchite-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Claudetite
Formula: As2O3
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
'Clays'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Clinoenstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Clinoferrosilite
Formula: Fe2+SiO3
Clinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Clinohumite var: Titanclinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Clino-suenoite
Formula: □{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Cobaltpentlandite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Cohenite
Formula: Fe3C
Collinsite
Formula: Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Colquiriite
Formula: CaLi[AlF6]
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: FeNb2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
'Columbite Group'
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: (Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
'Conglomerate'
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Coombsite
Formula: K(Mn,Fe,Mg)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14
Cooperite
Formula: PtS
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Cordierite var: Iolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Cornubite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Correianevesite (TL)
Formula: Fe2+Mn2+2(PO4)2 · 3H2O
Reference: http://www.mindat.org/mesg-25-290977.html; Chukanov, N.V., Scholz, R., Zubkova, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Van, K.V., Lagoeiro, L., Graça, L.M., Krambrock, K., de Oliveira, L.C.A., Menezes Filho, L.A.D., Sa Carneiro Chaves, M.L., Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2014): Correianevesite, Fe2+Mn2+2(PO4)2·3H2O, a new reddingite-group mineral from the Cigana mine, Conselheiro Pena, Minas Gerais, Brazil. American Mineralogist, 99, 811-816
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Locality: Goiás, Brazil
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Cotunnite
Formula: PbCl2
Coutinhoite (TL)
Formula: ThxBa(1-2x)(UO2)2Si5O13 · (H2O)1+y (0 < x < 0.5 and 0 < y < (2+x))
Reference: American Mineralogist (2004): 89(5-6): 721-724.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Crandallite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Crandallite var: Strontian Crandallite
Formula: (Ca,Sr)Al3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
Crichtonite
Formula: Sr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Crocoite
Formula: PbCrO4
Cryolite
Formula: Na2NaAlF6
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Cummingtonite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Cupropavonite
Formula: Cu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5
Cuprorhodsite
Formula: (Cu,Fe)Rh2S4
Cuspidine
Formula: Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Cyrilovite
Formula: NaFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
'Dacite'
Danalite
Formula: Be3Fe2+4(SiO4)3S
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Daubréelite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Derbylite (TL)
Formula: Fe3+4Ti3Sb3+O13(OH)
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine (1895): 11: 85; Mineralogical Magazine (1897): 11: 176; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1026.; Hussak and Prior (1900) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 244.
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 70 localities in this region.
Diamond var: Carbonado
Formula: C
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
'Diatomite'
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Diopside var: Chromian Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
'Diopside-Hedenbergite Series'
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
Dolomite var: Ferroan Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Dolomite var: Manganoan Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Dufrénite
Formula: Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Dukeite (TL)
Formula: Bi3+24Cr6+8O57(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: [MinRec 32:416]
Dumortierite
Formula: (Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
'Dunite'
Dzhalindite
Formula: In(OH)3
Edenite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Edingtonite
Formula: Ba[Al2Si3O10] · 4H2O
Eitelite
Formula: Na2Mg(CO3)2
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 68 localities in this region.
Elbaite var: Cuprian Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Elbaite-Schorl Series'
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Eleonorite
Formula: Fe3+6(PO4)4O(OH)4 · 6H2O
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Enstatite var: Bronzite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Eosphorite
Formula: Mn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 58 localities in this region.
Epistilbite
Formula: CaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2O
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Erlichmanite
Formula: OsS2
Ernstite
Formula: (Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
Eskolaite
Formula: Cr2O3
Euclase (TL)
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: [MinRec 20:230]
'Eucrite cumulate meteorite'
'Eucrite monomict breccia meteorite'
Eudialyte
Formula: Na15Ca6(Fe2+,Mn2+)3Zr3[Si25O73](O,OH,H2O)3(OH,Cl)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Eudialyte Group'
'Eudialyte Group var: Eucolite'
Eudidymite
Formula: Na2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Faheyite (TL)
Formula: Be2Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)4 · 6H2O
Reference: Lindberg & Murata (1953): Faheyite, a new phosphate mineral from the Sapucaia pegmatite mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. American Mineralogist. 38, 263-270, 349; Rocks & Minerals: 62: 318.
Fairfieldite
Formula: Ca2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 52 localities in this region.
'Feldspar Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Ferberite var: Reinite
Formula: FeWO4
Fergusonite-(Y)
Formula: YNbO4
Ferrihydrite
Formula: Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Ferripyrophyllite
Formula: Fe3+Si2O5(OH)
Ferrisicklerite
Formula: Li1-x(Fe3+xFe2+1-x)PO4
Ferristrunzite
Formula: Fe3+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Ferro-actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ferro-edenite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ferro-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'Ferro-kaersutite'
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Ferrokentbrooksite
Formula: Na15Ca6(Fe,Mn)3Zr3NbSi25O73(O,OH,H2O)3Cl2
Ferro-pargasite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Ferrosaponite
Formula: Ca0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Ferroselite
Formula: FeSe2
Ferro-tschermakite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Ferrowodginite
Formula: Fe2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Fersmanite
Formula: Ca4(Na,Ca)4(Ti,Nb)4(Si2O7)2O8F3
Fersmite
Formula: (Ca,Ce,Na)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2(O,OH,F)6
'Florencite'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Florencite-(Ce) (TL)
Formula: CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Hussak and Prior (1900) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 244.
Florencite-(La)
Formula: LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Fluocerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La)F3
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 60 localities in this region.
Fluorapatite var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Fluorapatite var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite
Formula: (Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Fluorbritholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3F
Fluorcalciomicrolite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Na)2(Ta,Nb)2O6F
Reference: Andrade, M.B., Atencio, D., Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Persiano, A.I.C. and Ellena, J. (2012): Fluorcalciomicrolite, IMA 2012-036. CNMNC Newsletter No. 14, October 2012, page 1286; Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 1281-1288; Andrade, M. B., Atencio, D., Persiano, A. I. C., & Ellena, J. (2013). Fluorcalciomicrolite,(Ca, Na,□)2Ta2O6F, a new microlite-group mineral from Volta Grande pegmatite, Nazareno, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine: 77(7): 2989-2996.
Fluor-elbaite (TL)
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Reference: Dutrow, B. and Henry, D. J. (2000) Complexly zoned fibrous tourmaline: A record of evolving magmatic and hydrothermal fluids. Canadian Mineralogist, 38, 131-143; Bosi, F., Andreozzi, G.B., Skogby, H., Lussier, A.J., Abdu, Y.A., Hawthorne, F.C. (2013): Fluor-elbaite, Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F, a new mineral species of the tourmaline supergroup. American Mineralogist, 98, 297–303.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 53 localities in this region.
Fluorlamprophyllite (TL)
Formula: Na3(SrNa)Ti3(Si2O7)2O2F2
Reference: Andrade, M.B., Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Färber, G., Contreira Filho, R.R., Evans, S.H., Loehn, C.W. and Schumer, B.N. (2014) Fluorlamprophyllite, IMA 2013-102. CNMNC Newsletter No. 19, February 2014, page 166; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 165-170.
Fluornatromicrolite (TL)
Formula: (Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Reference: Witzke, T., Steins, M., Doering, T., Schuckmann, W., Wegner, R., Pöllmann, H. (2011): Fluornatromicrolite, (Na,Ca,Bi)2Ta2O6F, a new mineral from Quixaba, Paraíba, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist, 49, 1105-1110
Fluor-uvite
Formula: Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Foitite
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Footemineite
Formula: Ca2Mn2+Mn2+2Mn2+2Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Fourmarierite
Formula: Pb(UO2)4O3(OH)4 · 4H2O
Franklinite
Formula: Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Freibergite
Formula: Ag6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
Frohbergite
Formula: FeTe2
Frondelite (TL)
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Reference: Lindberg, M. L. (1949): Frondelite and the frondelite-rockbridgeite series. American Mineralogist. 34, 541-549; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 868; Mineralogical Record: 30: 347.
'Frondelite-Rockbridgeite Series'
Froodite
Formula: α-PdBi2
'Gabbro'
Gagarinite-(Y)
Formula: NaCaYF6
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Gaidonnayite
Formula: Na2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2O
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 59 localities in this region.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 53 localities in this region.
'Garnierite'
Gayite
Formula: NaMn2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Gedrite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Geikielite
Formula: MgTiO3
'commodity:Gemstones'
Genthelvite
Formula: Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Geocronite
Formula: Pb14(Sb,As)6S23
Georgechaoite
Formula: NaKZr[Si3O9] · 2H2O
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Geversite
Formula: PtSb2
Gibbsite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Gilalite
Formula: Cu5Si6O17 · 7H2O
Gladite
Formula: PbCuBi5S9
'Glass'
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Glaucodot
Formula: (Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
'Gneiss'
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 52 localities in this region.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 257 localities in this region.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 257 localities in this region.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 257 localities in this region.
Gold var: Palladian Gold
Formula: (Au,Pd)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Gold var: Porpezite
Formula: (Au,Pd)
'commodity:Gold'
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'commodity:Gold'
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'commodity:Gold'
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Gonnardite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Gorceixite (TL)
Formula: BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte,446 (1982)
Gordonite
Formula: MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Gormanite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
'Gormanite-Souzalite Series'
Goudeyite
Formula: AlCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Goyazite (TL)
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Damour, A. (1884): Note sur un nouveau phosphate d'alumine et de chaux, des terrains diamantifères. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie 7, 204-205.
Goyazite var: Barian Goyazite
Formula: (Sr,Ba)Al3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
Graftonite
Formula: Fe2+Fe2+2(PO4)2
'Granite'
'Granodiorite'
'Granulite'
Graphite
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Greenalite
Formula: (Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Greifensteinite
Formula: Ca2Fe2+5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Grunerite
Formula: ☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Guanajuatite
Formula: Bi2Se3
Guimarãesite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Be4Zn5(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
Reference: IMA website
'Gummite'
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Gypsum var: Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
'H4 chondrite meteorite'
'H5 chondrite meteorite'
'H6 chondrite meteorite'
Hainite-(Y)
Formula: Na2Ca4(Y,REE)Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Haiweeite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2[Si5O12(OH)2] · 6H2O
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Harrisonite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)6(PO4)2(SiO4)2
Hastingsite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Haxonite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)23C6
Heazlewoodite
Formula: Ni3S2
Hechtsbergite
Formula: Bi2(VO4)O(OH)
Hectorite
Formula: Na0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Hedleyite
Formula: Bi7Te3
Helvine
Formula: Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 121 localities in this region.
Hematite var: Iron Rose
Formula: Fe2O3
Hematite var: Martite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Hentschelite
Formula: CuFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Hercynite var: Picotite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Herderite
Formula: CaBePO4(F,OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Heterosite
Formula: (Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Heulandite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
'Heulandite subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Hilairite
Formula: Na2Zr[SiO3]3 · 3H2O
Hinsdalite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hiortdahlite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2Ca4Zr(Mn,Ti,Fe)(Si2O7)2(F,O)4
Hollandite
Formula: Ba(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Hollingworthite
Formula: (Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Holmquistite
Formula: ☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Honessite
Formula: (Ni1-xFe3+x)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
Hongshiite
Formula: PtCu
'Hornblende'
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Hörnesite
Formula: Mg3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Huanghoite-(Ce)
Formula: BaCe(CO3)2F
Humboldtine
Formula: Fe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
Humite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
Hureaulite
Formula: (Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Hureaulite var: Bastinite
Formula: (Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Hydrokenomicrolite (TL)
Formula: (◻,H2O)2Ta2(O,OH)6(H2O)
Reference: Andrade, M.B., Atencio, D., Chukanov, N.V., Ellena, J. (2012) Hydrokenomicrolite, IMA 2011-103. CNMNC Newsletter No. 13, June 2012, page 809; Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 807-817; Andrade, M.B., Atencio, D., Chukanov, N.V., Ellena, J. (2013): Hydrokenomicrolite, (☐,H2O)2Ta2(O,OH)6(H2O), a new microlite group mineral from Volta Grande pegmatite, Nazareno, Minas Gerais, Brazil. American Mineralogist, 98, 292–296
'Hydrokenomicrolite-3R' (FRL)
Formula: 2Ta2[O,(OH)]6(H2O)
Reference: Ercit, T. S., Hawthorne, F. C., Cerný, P. (1986) Parabariomicrolite, a new species, and its structural relationship to the pyrochlore group, The Canadian Mineralogist 24: 655-663; Atencio, D. (2016): Parabariomicrolite discredited as identical to hydrokenomicrolite-3R. Mineralogical Magazine, 80: 923-924.
Hydrokenoralstonite
Formula: Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
'Hydrophilite'
'Hydrotalcite-2H'
Formula: Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Hydroxycalciomicrolite (TL)
Formula: Ca1.5Ta2O6(OH)
Reference: Andrade, M.B., Yang, H., Atencio, D., Downs, R.T., Chukanov, N.V., Lemée-Cailleau, M.-H., Persiano, A.I.C., Goeta, A.E. and Ellena, J. (2013) Hydroxycalciomicrolite, IMA 2013-073. CNMNC Newsletter No. 18,December 2013, page 3252; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 3249-3258
Hydroxycalcioroméite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Sb3+)2(Sb5+,Ti)2O6(OH)
Reference: Hussak and Prior (1900) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 244.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1022.; Brugger, J., Gieré, R., Graeser, S., and Meisser, N. (1997) The crystal chemistry of roméite. Contributions to Mineralogy & Petrology: 127: 136–146.; Jambor, J.L. and Roberts, A.C. (1998) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 83: 400-403.; Rouse, R.C., Dunn, P.J., Peacor, D.R., and Wang, L. (1998) Structural studies of the natural antimonian pyrochlores. I. Mixed valency, cation site splitting, and symmetry reduction in lewisite. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 141: 562-569.; Jambor, J.E., Pertsev, N.N., and Roberts, A.C. (1999) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 84: 1195-1198.;
Hydroxykenopyrochlore (TL)
Formula: (□,Ce,Ba)2(Nb,Ti)2O6(OH,F)
Reference: Miyawaki, R., Momma, K., Matsubara, S., Sano, T., Shigeoka, M. and Horiuchi, H. (2017) Hydroxykenopyrochlore, IMA 2017-030a. CNMNC Newsletter No. 39, October 2017, page 1285; Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 1279–1286.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)(OH)
Hydroxylherderite
Formula: CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
'IAB-MG iron meteorite'
Idaite
Formula: Cu5FeS6
'Iddingsite'
Formula: MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
'IIAB iron meteorite'
'IIIAB iron meteorite'
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 91 localities in this region.
Ilsemannite
Formula: Mo3O8 · nH2O
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Irarsite
Formula: (Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Iron
Formula: Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Iron
Formula: Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Iron var: Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
'commodity:Iron'
Formula: Fe
'commodity:Iron'
Formula: Fe
'commodity:Iron pyrite'
Isocubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Isoferroplatinum
Formula: Pt3Fe
Isokite
Formula: CaMg(PO4)F
Isomertieite (TL)
Formula: Pd11Sb2As2
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1974) 39, 528-543
'itabirite'
'IVA iron meteorite'
Ixiolite
Formula: (Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Loc