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Green's Farm locality (Roxbury garnet mine; Roxbury Falls garnet mine; Garnet Hill), Roxbury, Litchfield Co., Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
Green's Farm locality (Roxbury garnet mine; Roxbury Falls garnet mine; Garnet Hill)- not defined -
Roxbury- not defined -
Litchfield Co.County
ConnecticutState
USACountry

This page kindly sponsored by Donald B Peck
Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 30' 25'' North , 73° 18' 11'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Heritage Village3,736 (2017)5.9km
Southbury19,836 (2017)8.0km
Woodbury9,755 (2017)8.9km
Woodbury Center1,294 (2017)9.2km
Newtown1,967 (2017)10.3km


An almandine garnet occurrence in schist. Dodecahedral almandine porphyroblast crystals are extremely abundant and well-formed and reach over 2.5 cm along a crystal edge. Staurolite is also common, rarer as 60 x 120-degree twins though. The other minerals are rare or are rock-forming.

The mine is just north of the county line, in Roxbury (the southern part of town is called Roxbury Falls).

Hiller (1983) provides a summary of the mine's operations. He notes that it was listed by Edward Dana of Yale University in his 1860s thesis on mineralogy and that the deposit was listed in editions of Dana's Textbook of Mineralogy as an original Dana locality.

[In the 1880s] A mill was constructed at Roxbury Falls. In Roxbury, another mill was built, about 1890, by the Armour Company. When the railroad was completed through Roxbury in 1867, the little rural farming town awakened. Opportunity came with the railroad and it became economically feasable [sic] to transport heavy loads to the New York and southern Connecticut markets. A burst of mining and quarrying activity occured [sic], with the reopening of the iron deposits at Mine Hill, Roxbury, and the quarrying of building stone near the iron mine.

The garnet production was accomplished by a milling process. The rocks were crushed and sorted by gravity to separate the garnets from the much lighter schist matrix. Then, using differing grades of screens, the garnets were sorted to grit sizes for industrial applications....The soft mica matrix was soon quarried out and a harder quartz based matrix was encountered. This made it more difficult to separate the garnets from the matrix. Operations came to a halt before 1900 when discoveries in Massachusetts, Vermont and Canada were made. The Canadian deposit was more concentrated and had a softer matrix. The milling equipment from the Roxbury Falls operation was dissassembled [sic] and transported to Canada.

The land which had been cleared for mining operations was now suitable for a more traditional Connecticut industry, dairy farming. As seen during a visit in the 1950's, the farm was a producing operation, run by Mr. Green for whom the garnet deposit is now named. At that time it was necessary to be careful in harvesting loose garnets on the surface because some apparent "garnets" were dropped by Mr. Green's sheep! The farm is no longer in operation; it closed with the passing of Mr. Green in the late 1970's. The current owner of the land at the end of Perkin's Road allows collectors to park their cars on her property for a $1.00 fee per car. The town of Roxbury has the rights to excavate the mine dumps for use as road fill. Some roadbeds, especially the dirt roads near Judd's Bridge in northern Roxbury, were constructed with this material and show fine garnets loose in the soil at the roadside. Passing cars pop them out of the matrix and clean them, but seldom crush them.


Elwell (1938) noted the presence of garnet in local roads, largely unpaved at that time:

"This place has been overgrown with bushes but recently the owner cut them down and is now charging collectors and others 25c to go on the dumps. Some of the material of the dumps has been used for top dressing on old back roads in that section; one day I picked up 2,000 garnets off such roads."

Yedlin (1947) reports that the charge was 50c on August 10, 1941. He believed that the owner of the property was Lyman Greene.

NOTE: As of November 2012 access to the site was closed by the new owners of the Perkins Road (Southbury) property immediately to the south of the quarries.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


14 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: dodecahedral
Colour: maroon to purple, nearly black
Fluorescence: none
Description: Crystals can reach over 2.5 cm on an edge. Unpublished XRF analysis by Harold Moritz found 98% Fe of total Fe+Mn content. Hiller (1983) noted that some gem quality garnets will show 4-star rays if properly cut.
Reference: Yedlin, Leo N. (1947), Garnet at Roxbury and W. Redding, Conn. Rocks and Minerals, 22(9): 824-825.; Hiller, John. (1983), The Green's Farm Garnet Mine. Gems and Minerals: (547): 34-36.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: microscopic clusters
Description: Found as small clusters under overhanging ledges.
Reference: Hiller, John. (1983), The Green's Farm Garnet Mine. Gems and Minerals: (547): 34-36.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: P Cristofono collection
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: P Cristofono collection
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Habit: elongated prisms, penetration twins
Colour: dark brown
Description: Crystals reach about 3 cm long, but typically around 1 cm.
Reference: Yedlin, Leo N. (1947), Garnet at Roxbury and W. Redding, Conn. Rocks and Minerals, 22(9): 824-825.; Hiller, John. (1983), The Green's Farm Garnet Mine. Gems and Minerals: (547): 34-36.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Habit: elongated prisms with trigonal termiations
Colour: black to dark brown
Description: Very small crystals to 3.5 mm in the schist matrix. Probably dravite or schorl.
Reference: Former John Hiller and Ed Force collections

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Löllingite2.EB.15aFeAs2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Löllingite2.12.2.9FeAs2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O HematiteFe2O3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
MgMagnesium
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
AlAluminium
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
SiSilicon
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
SSulfur
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
FeIron
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
AsArsenic
As LöllingiteFeAs2

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Schairer, John Frank (1931): The Minerals of Connecticut, State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Elwell, Wilbur J. (1936), Mineral Collecting by Hydroplane. Rocks and Minerals, 11(6): 92-3.
Elwell, Wilbur J. (1938), Some Interesting Observances. Rocks and Minerals, 13(1): 20-21.
Yedlin, Leo N. (1947), Garnet at Roxbury and W. Redding, Conn. Rocks and Minerals, 22(9): 824-825.
Gates, Robert M. (1959), Bedrock Geology of the Roxbury Quadrangle, Connecticut. USGS map GQ-121.
Schooner, Richard. (1961), The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Ryerson, Kathleen. (1972), Rock Hound's Guide to Connecticut. Pequot Press.
Hiller, John and Kurt Patzlaff. (1973), Connecticut Mines and Minerals. Privately Published.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. Mineralogical Press, Danbury.
Webster, Bud. (1978), Mineral Collector’s Field Guide Connecticut.
Hiller, John. (1983), The Green's Farm Garnet Mine. Gems and Minerals: (547): 34-36.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995), Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue), 70(6): 399.


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