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Cruzeiro mine, São José da Safira, Minas Gerais, Brazili
Regional Level Types
Cruzeiro mineMine
São José da Safira- not defined -
Minas Gerais- not defined -
BrazilCountry

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Name(s) in local language(s):Lavra do Cruzeiro (Mina do Cruzeiro)
Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 18° South , 42° West (est.)
Margin of Error:~15km
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Aw : Tropical savanna, wet


A gemstone and specimen mine in pegmatites.
Safira pegmatite district, Eastern Brazilian pegmatite province.

Note on the mineral list: for "coeruleolactite" see references and information given for Planerite-Turquoise Series.

Mine Information: This is one of the worlds most important gem and specimen mines. It was mined from about 1915, firstly for mica (muscovite), and was a major producer during WWII, after which mining efforts dropped dramatically. In the 1950s, mining resumed for tourmaline and other minerals.

Specimen mine accessed via a 4ft x 5ft adit that intercepts and follows the pegmatites via drifts, winzes, and at least one shaft for ventilation.
Development work utilizes drill+blast, but gem areas are excavated using hand-mining methods.

Regional Geology: In the southeast corner of the Macacos quadrangle a relatively large and arcuate mass of medium- to coarse-grained metagabbro is associated with talc schist and serpentinite in terrain of Rio das Velhas series rocks. The metagabbro consists of actinolite, hornblende, plagioclase (mostly albite), clinozoisite, and zoisite. Commonly the metagabbro is separated from the serpentinite by a zone of talc schist. Evidence found underground at the southwest end of the main level in the Cruzeiro asbestos mine indicates that the metagabbro has been partly altered, or replaced by talc near the contact with the serpentinite. In most places this zone is sheared, resulting in talc schist, although the rock locally retains a gabbroic texture and appearance even when it is composed mostly of talc.

Mine Geology: There are at least five distinct pegmatites worked in the mine. They are hosted by Precambrian quartzites, mica schists and amphibolites. The "amphibolites" are probably altered ultramafics, with olivine, pyroxene and garnet (pyrope). Association minerals indicate the pegmatites are rich in lithium, boron, beryllium, manganese, tin, niobium, tantalum, phosphorus, uranium, and copper.

The pegmatites are classically zoned granite pegmatites and from the border to core the zones are typically:
1. A thin mica rich selvage
2. The main border zone of granitic rock
3. The outer intermediate zone with muscovite rich granite
4. The inner intermediate zone, mostly K-feldspar
5. The central zone, of most I interest mineralogically, with coarse grained quartz and K-feldspar, and vugs with albite, tourmaline and spodumene
6. A quartz core

Since the formation is weathered; with feldspars altered to kaolin, and spodumenes altered to montmorillonite; the tourmalines are typically recovered without matrix. Tourmaline indicators are clevelandite, lepidolite, and coatings of iron-manganese oxides and phosphates.

Regions containing this locality

South America PlateTectonic Plate
South AmericaContinent

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

17 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
'Chlorite Group'
'Coeruleolactite'
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Fluor-elbaite (TL)
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Type Locality:
Foitite
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'
'K Feldspar'
'Lepidolite'
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Petalite
Formula: LiAl(Si4O10)
Phosphuranylite
Formula: (H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O
'Planerite-Turquoise Series'
Pyrope
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
'Pyroxene Group'
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
'Rubellite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Phosphuranylite8.EC.10(H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O
Torbernite8.EB.05Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Andesine9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Cookeite9.EC.55(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite9.CK.05(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Petalite9.EF.05LiAl(Si4O10)
Pyrope9.AD.25Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Coeruleolactite' ?-
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
Fluor-elbaite (TL)-Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Lepidolite'-
'Planerite-Turquoise Series'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Torbernite40.2a.13.1Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Phosphuranylite42.4.8.1(H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
'Coeruleolactite' ?42.9.3.2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Pyrope51.4.3a.1Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite61.3.1.1(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Cookeite71.4.1.2(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with tetrahedral Al cross-linking
Petalite72.6.1.1LiAl(Si4O10)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
var: Andesine-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
var: Cleavelandite-Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
Fluor-elbaite (TL)-Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Lepidolite'-
'Planerite-Turquoise Series'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2
'Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
H Phosphuranylite(H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O
H Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
LiLithium
Li Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Li Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O CassiteriteSnO2
O TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
O Phosphuranylite(H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O
O Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
O PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
FFluorine
F Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
MgMagnesium
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
AlAluminium
Al Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Al PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
SiSilicon
Si Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Si PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
PPhosphorus
P TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
P Phosphuranylite(H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K Phosphuranylite(H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca Phosphuranylite(H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
TiTitanium
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
NiNickel
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CuCopper
Cu TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
UUranium
U TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
U Phosphuranylite(H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Rocks & Minerals: 63:49 & 53.
Cassedanne, J.P & J.O. (1980): Famous mineral localities: The Cruzeiro mine, past and present. Mineralogical Record 11: 363-367 + 370.
"Gem Pegmatites Of Minas Gerais, Brazil: The Tourmalines Of The Governador Valadares District" by Keith Proctor, Gems & Gemology, Spring, 1985, pp 96-104.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10066479 & 10066283 (Cruzeiro #1) & 10105385 (Cruzeiro #2).
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID TC42691 & TC42416 (Cruzeiro #1) & TC42431(Cruzeiro #2).
Bosi, F., Andreozzi, G.B., Skogby, H., Lussier, A.J., Abdu, Y.A., Hawthorne, F.C. (2013): Fluor-elbaite, Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F, a new mineral species of the tourmaline supergroup. American Mineralogist, 98, 297–303.

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