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Loudville Lead Mines (Manhan Lead-Silver Mine; Southampton Lead Mine; Northampton Lead Mine), Easthampton, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts, USAi
Regional Level Types
Loudville Lead Mines (Manhan Lead-Silver Mine; Southampton Lead Mine; Northampton Lead Mine)Group of Mines
Easthampton- not defined -
Hampshire Co.County
MassachusettsState
USACountry

This page kindly sponsored by Connecticut Valley Mineral Club
Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
42° 16' 51'' North , 72° 43' 55'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Mines
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Westhampton1,494 (2017)4.2km
Easthampton16,611 (2017)5.4km
Southampton5,481 (2017)5.8km
Northampton28,540 (2017)8.9km
Montgomery665 (2017)10.2km


Former lead mines in the vicinity of the village of Loudville. The largest mine, and the one best known to collectors, is the Manhan mine, last operated in the mid-nineteenth century by the Manhan Silver Lead Mining Company.

Mineralization is a hydrothermal fault deposit.

Loudville, the name of a village straddling the Easthampton-Westhampton town line near the mines, has been used as the name of the mining district (Loudville District) by Robinson and Woodruff (1988), and as a general name for the lead mines of the area by Lincks (1967), Marshall & Dunn (1976) and many others. "Loudville" has also commonly been used as the name of the largest mine, the Manhan (Richardson, 1854, and others). The name "Southampton mine" was often used in older references for this mine (Robinson, 1825, and others), though some authors made a distinction between the Southampton mine and Loudville/Manhan mine (Emerson, 1895, Schrader, et al., 1917). Most present-day collecting is done in the dumps of the Manhan mine, located on the North Branch of the Manhan River, in the town of Easthampton. Other mines and prospects mentioned in the literature include sites in Southampton, Northampton, and Westhampton (Nash, 1827). Shifting town boundaries need to be taken into account when studying the history of the district [Southampton was part of Northampton until 1775; Westhampton was part of Northampton until 1778; and Easthampton was part of Northampton until 1809].

Lead was discovered in the area by Robert Lyman of Hartford, Connecticut in 1678 or 1679. A mining company was formed in Northampton at a town meeting, on October 23, 1679, and work commenced in 1680 and lasted probably into the 1690s (Trumbull, 1898). The first geological survey of the mines was conducted in the spring of 1765 by Colonel James, Royal Engineer, and Solomon Simpson, Esq. (Stearns, 1853). The mines were in operation again until 1775, when work stopped due to the American Revolution.

On October 6, 1765, "Charles Scott, Ethan Allen, Benjamin Stiles, Abram Bronson, Israel Bronson, John Frederick Stendall, Thomas Row, and three slaves, Tom, Cato, and Cesar, left Roxbury, Connecticut, for Northampton, took possession of the mines, and began to work them." (Stearns, 1852). [Slavery was not outlawed in Massachusetts until 1783.] Ethan Allen (1738-1789), who would be a hero of the American Revolution ten years later, had been mining in search of silver at Mine Hill in Roxbury, Connecticut (Hall, 1895).

The mines were opened again in 1809. Work ceased in 1828. Opened again in 1852; last worked in 1865 (Pulsifer, 1888; Trumbull, 1898). Among the prominent early researchers who visited the mines were Professors Dana, Hitchcock, Mead, Shepard and Clark (Stearns, 1853).

See also: Schrantz Farm lead mine.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


48 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 3 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Emerson, 1917. Geology of Mass. and Rhode Island; Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Emerson, 1917. Geology of Mass. and Rhode Island; Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Dunn, P.J. and Marshall, J.H. (1975). The Loudville lead mine (Mineralogical Record 6(6):293-298).
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Anderson, Violet (1982): Microminerals. (Mineralogical Record Jan-Feb 1982, pp. 44-46.) Good photos of wroewolfeite, opal, barite, wulfenite, and malachite from the mine.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Dunn, P.J. and Marshall, J.H. (1975). The Loudville lead mine (Mineralogical Record 6(6):293-298).
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Emerson, 1917. Geology of Mass. and Rhode Island; Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Emerson, B. K. (1895): A Mineralogical Lexicon of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden Counties, Massachusetts (USGS Bulletin 126).
Cotunnite
Formula: PbCl2
Description: The "cotunnite" reported and examined by Shepard (1866) was found in four specimens collected by Mr. P. W. Lyman. Emerson (1895) reexamined these same specimens and found them to be insoluble. He found them to contain lead and sulfur, but no chlorine, and identified them as anglesite. Ref; Emerson, B. K. (1895): A Mineralogical Lexicon of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden Counties, Massachusetts (USGS Bulletin 126).
Reference: Shepard, C. U. (1866). Cotunnite at Southampton lead mine (American Journal of Science, 2nd series 47:247-48).
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Emerson, B. K. (1895): A Mineralogical Lexicon of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden Counties, Massachusetts (USGS Bulletin 126).
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Habit: coating
Colour: red
Description: Red coating on drusy quartz.
Reference: Alfred Patrie collection
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Dunn, P.J. and Marshall, J.H. (1975). The Loudville lead mine (Mineralogical Record 6(6):293-298).
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: P. Cristofono collection, 2011
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Lapis (1996): 21(6).
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Dunn, P.J. and Marshall, J.H. (1975). The Loudville lead mine (Mineralogical Record 6(6):293-298).
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Emerson, 1917. Geology of Mass. and Rhode Island
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Dunn, P.J. and Marshall, J.H. (1975). The Loudville lead mine (Mineralogical Record 6(6):293-298).
Litharge
Formula: PbO
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Emerson, 1917. Geology of Mass. and Rhode Island; Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
'Manganese Oxides'
'Manganese Oxides var: Manganese Dendrites'
Mendipite
Formula: Pb3Cl2O2
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Habit: botryoidal crusts
Colour: pink
Description: Emerson, B. K. (1895): "In thin, pink, botryoidal crusts at the Loudville lead mine on decomposed granite."
Reference: Emerson, B. K. (1895): A Mineralogical Lexicon of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden Counties, Massachusetts (USGS Bulletin 126).
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
'Percylite'
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Phosgenite
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Description: Ref: C. U. Shepard: On scheeletine; Am Jour. Sci., 2nd series. Vol XLI, p.215., 1866 "The original mineral described by Meade can not have been phosgenite, which dissolves with effervescence in dilute nitric acid. Almost all the points given in the description of Meade agree with Anglesite. The crystals of anglesite found here are often superficially green from copper. It is described further as a vitreous, nearly the luster of a precious stone, glassy fracture, brittle, melts to orange mass with lead globules, formed on galena, and but slightly acted upon by nitric acid. All these points agree with anglesite, and only the crystalline form remains; “in cubic form terminated by tetrahedral prisms”. It will be noted further that no one has ever found the mineral since Meade’s description, but all have copied him. I found in 1885 (in the Clark collection of Smith College, which has the finest series of crystals from the Loudville mine) specimens which agreed also in crystallization. They are an exceptional form of anglesite and appear in grouped prismatic aggregates up to 10 mm in length, surrounded by acute pyramids, and resembling acicular aragonite. At times the aggregated prisms are finely striate longitudinally, changing the resinous lister to satiny. It is translucent, colorless to slightly amber. A fragment of a crystal treated with HNO3 was only slightly affected. Before the blowpipe it turns yellow, decrepitates, and with soda gives lead globules and test for sulphur."
Reference: Breithaupt A (1841) Phosgenites plumbosus kürzer phosgenit, Vollständiges Handbuch der Mineralogie 2, 183-184 (as 'Southampton, Massachusetts) Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258; Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Plumbogummite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Harvard U. collection
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Reference: Krueger, D.: Mineral Paragenesis at the Manhan Lead Mine
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Emerson, 1917. Geology of Mass. and Rhode Island
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Emerson, 1917. Geology of Mass. and Rhode Island
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: crystals
Colour: green
Description: see http://www.mindat.org/photo-64510.html
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 893; Rocks & Minerals (1948): 23: 594-597.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 23: 594-597.
Quartz var: Agate
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Geoffrey Small 2012
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: P. Cristofono collection
Quartz var: Citrine
Formula: SiO2
Colour: yellow
Description: According to Edward Hitchcock (1822): "Yellow Quartz: In crystals at the Southampton lead mine; of a honey yellow, resembling the Siberian topaz." Hitchcock (1835) also wrote: "Sometimes the crystals are penetrated throughout by a yellow coloring matter, so as to form genuine yellow quartz." Citrine confirmed in 2009 by P. Cristofono. Specimens collected and treated with "Iron Out" maintained their original yellow color. See photo. References: Hitchcock, Edward (1822): A Sketch of the Geology, Mineralogy, and Scenery of Regions contiguous to the River Connecticut; with a Geological Map and Drawings of Organic Remains; and Occasional Botanical Notices. Read Before the American Geological Society at their Sitting; Sept. 11th, 1822. in American Journal of Science vol. VI, page 213 (1823). Hitchcock, Edward (1835) in Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts, p. 489
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward (1835): Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts, p 489. Also, P. Cristofono collection 2009.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Krueger, D.: Mineral Paragenesis at the Manhan Lead Mine
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Dunn, P.J. and Marshall, J.H. (1975). The Loudville lead mine (Mineralogical Record 6(6):293-298).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Emerson, 1917. Geology of Mass. and Rhode Island; Rocks & Min.: 23: 594-597.
Stolzite
Formula: Pb(WO4)
Reference: Emerson, 1917. Geology of Mass. and Rhode Island; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1088.
'Turgite'
Reference: P. Cristofono collection
Witherite
Formula: BaCO3
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Wroewolfeite (TL)
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Dunn, P. J., R. C. Rouse and J. A. Nelen (1975): Wroewolfeite, a new copper sulfate hydroxide hydrate, Mineralogical Magazine 40:1-5.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Colour: orange, yellow
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1084; Rocks & Minerals (1948): 23: 594-597.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Djurleite2.BA.05Cu31S16
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Polybasite2.GB.15[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Cotunnite ?3.DC.85PbCl2
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Mendipite3.DC.70Pb3Cl2O2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Litharge4.AC.20PbO
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Agate4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
var: Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrocerussite5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite ?5.BE.20Pb2CO3Cl2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Witherite5.AB.15BaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Caledonite7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Stolzite ?7.GA.05Pb(WO4)
Wroewolfeite (TL)7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Plumbogummite8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'var: Manganese Dendrites'-
'Percylite'-
'Turgite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Djurleite2.4.7.2Cu31S16
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Polybasite3.1.7.2[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Litharge4.2.4.1PbO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Cotunnite ?9.2.7.1PbCl2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A3(O,OH)2Xq
Mendipite10.3.1.1Pb3Cl2O2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Witherite14.1.3.2BaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrocerussite16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite ?16a.3.4.1Pb2CO3Cl2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Wroewolfeite (TL)31.4.2.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Plumbogummite42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Stolzite ?48.1.3.2Pb(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'var: Manganese Dendrites'-
'Percylite'-
Quartz
var: Agate
-SiO2
var: Amethyst-SiO2
var: Chalcedony-SiO2
var: Citrine-SiO2
'Turgite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
CCarbon
C CerussitePbCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C WitheriteBaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
OOxygen
O WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O QuartzSiO2
O CerussitePbCO3
O AnglesitePbSO4
O BaryteBaSO4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O CupriteCu2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O LithargePbO
O MendipitePb3Cl2O2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O WitheriteBaCO3
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O SideriteFeCO3
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O HematiteFe2O3
O PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
O StolzitePb(WO4)
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
SSulfur
S WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S GalenaPbS
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S SphaleriteZnS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CovelliteCuS
S DjurleiteCu31S16
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl MendipitePb3Cl2O2
Cl CotunnitePbCl2
Cl PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu DjurleiteCu31S16
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
Ag Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
SbAntimony
Sb Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba WitheriteBaCO3
WTungsten
W StolzitePb(WO4)
PbLead
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb LithargePbO
Pb MendipitePb3Cl2O2
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pb CotunnitePbCl2
Pb PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Pb StolzitePb(WO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Triassic
201.3 - 251.902 Ma



ID: 3188891
Mesozoic volcanic and intrusive rocks

Age: Triassic (201.3 - 251.902 Ma)

Comments: Connecticut Valley Basin

Lithology: Mafic volcanic rocks; conglomerate,arkose,shale,arenite

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Devonian
393.3 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 2926002
Waits River Formation

Age: Early Devonian (393.3 - 419.2 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Waits River Formation

Description: Interbedded medium- to dark-gray, moderately rusty weathering, highly contorted, unbedded schist and punky-weathering calcareous granofels or quartzose marble, and pods and stringers of vein quartz.

Comments: Part of Connecticut Valley Belt (Silurian and Devonian Rocks). Secondary unit description per MA006 as reported in USGS Geologic Names lexicon (ref. MA024): Rocks mapped as Conway Schist by Emerson (1898, 1917) and subsequently subdivided by Segerstrom (1956) and Willard (1956) were mapped across the MA-VT State line as Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations by Doll and others (1961) on Centennial Geologic Map of Vermont. Although controversy still exists over relative ages, detailed reconnaissance mapping by authors and S.F. Clark, Jr., L.M. Hall, and J.W. Pferd shows that Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations are readily distinguished in the field. For these reasons, and to maintain continuity across the State line, authors chose to follow VT nomenclature on here and on MA State bedrock geologic map (Zen and others, 1983). Primary difference between Waits River and Gile Mountain is presence in Gile Mountain of beds of noncalcareous, commonly micaceous quartzite. Both formations contain conspicuous beds of punky brown-weathering impure marble or calcareous granulite, mostly in Waits River and less abundant in Gile Mountain. Predominant lithology of both formations is typically contorted gray, graphitic, locally very sulfidic, moderately aluminous mica schist containing quartz veins. Gradational but definitely significant boundary can be mapped between both formations. Amphibolite in both formations may correlate with Standing Pond Volcanics occurring at or near Waits River-Gile Mountain contact in VT. Report goes into great detail regarding informal subdivision of each formation. Rocks previously mapped as Waits River Formation northeast of Shelburne Falls dome by Hatch and Hartshorn (1968) are here reassigned to an unnamed member of Goshen Formation because the rocks are indistinguishable from the Goshen. Goshen-Waits River contact is defined as the line along which, going eastward, the schist changes from aluminous, planar-bedded, and virtually quartz-free (Goshen), to alumina-poor, contorted, and rich in quartz veins (Waits River) (Hatch and others, 1988). Original map source: Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of Massachusetts received from Rudi Hon of Boston College in 1998; based on the 1983 USGS paper version (MA002).

Lithology: Major:{schist}, Minor:{granofels,marble}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Silliman, Benjamin (1810): Description of the Lead Mines near Northampton, Massachusetts. American Mineralogical Journal: 1: 63.
Meade, William (1811): A Description of several Combinations of Lead lately discovered at Northampton. American Mineralogical Journal: 1(3): 149-150.
Hitchcock, Edward (1815): Lead Mine in Southampton, Hampshire County, Massachusetts. North American Review: 1: 334-338.
Cleaveland, Parker (1816): An Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geology, (Boston: Cummings and Hilliard), p. 514.
Eaton, Amos (1818): Account of the Strata and Minerals at the Southampton Lead Mine. American Journal of Science and Arts: 1: 136.
Hitchcock, Edward M. (1822): A Sketch of the Geology, Mineralogy, and Scenery of the Regions contiguous to the River Connecticut. American Journal of Science and Arts: VI: 1823.
Robinson, Samuel (1825): A Catalogue of American Minerals, with Their Localities: 70-71.
Nash, Alanson (1827): Notices of the Lead Mines and Veins of Hampshire County, Mass. and of the Geology and Mineralogy of that Region. American Journal of Science and Arts: 7: 238-270.
Hitchcock, Edward (1833): Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts: 57-58.
Thomson, Thomas (1836): Outlines of Mineralogy, Geology, and Mineral Analysis, Volume 1, Baldwin & Cradock, London: 569. [chloro-carbonate of lead = phosgenite]
Stearns, Charles (1852): The First Mining Operations in North America. Merchant's Magazine: 27: 747-749.
Stearns, Charles (1853): The First Mining Operations in North America (Number II). Merchant's Magazine: 28: 117-119.
Richardson, Charles (1853): Views on American Mines and Minerals. Mining Magazine: 1(5): 489-496.
Whitney, Josiah D. (1854): The Metallic Wealth of the United States. Lippincott, Grambo & Company.
Richardson, Charles (1854): Northampton District. The Loudville Mine Mining Magazine: 2: 13-20.
Holland, Gilbert H. (1855): History of Western Massachusetts, Vol. 1., Samuel Bowles & Company.
Jackson, Charles T. (1863): Manhan Silver Lead Mining Co., Hampshire County, Massachusetts, Geological Surveys and Reports, March 1863. (Boston, Alfred Mudge & Son)
Shepard, C. U. (1866). On Scheeletine [stolzite] at the Southampton Lead Mine, Massachusetts and Uwarowite [uvarovite] at Wood's Chrome Mine, Texas, Pennsylvania. American Journal of Science, 2nd series: 41: 215-216.
Shepard, C. U. (1866). Cotunnite at Southampton lead mine. American Journal of Science, 2nd series: 47: 247-48.
Day, David T. (1888). USGS Mineral Resources of the United States, Calendar Year 1887.
Pulsifer, William H. (1888): Notes for a History of Lead (NY, Van Rostrand): 74, 77-78.
Hall, Henry (1895). Ethan Allen: the Robin Hood of Vermont, Appleton and Company, New York.
Emerson, B. K. (1895): A Mineralogical Lexicon of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden Counties, Massachusetts, USGS Bulletin 126.
Emerson, B. K. (1898): Geology of Old Hampshire County. Massachusetts.
Trumbull, James R. (1898): History of Northampton Massachusetts from its Settlement in 1654, Gazette Printing Company, Northampton Massachusetts: 358-368.
Emerson. B. K. (1917), Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
Schrader, Frank C., Stone, Ralph W., and Sanford, Samuel (1917), Useful Minerals of the United States. USGS Bulletin 624.
Foster, E. C. (1948): The Lead Mines of Hampshire County. Massachusetts Rocks & Minerals: 23: 594-597.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 893, 1085, 1088.
Yedlin, N. (1957) The micromounter. Rocks & Minerals: 32: 261.
Lincks, G. Fred (1967): Revitalizing Loudville, Massachusetts, Lead Silver Mines. Rocks & Minerals: 42: 578.
Hiller (1974): Massachusetts Mines and Minerals.
Dunn, P.J. and Marshall, J.H. (1975). The Loudville lead mine. Mineralogical Record: 6(6): 293-298.
Dunn, P. J., R. C. Rouse and J. A. Nelen (1975): Wroewolfeite, a new copper sulfate hydroxide hydrate. Mineralogical Magazine: 40: 1-5.
Marshall, John and Dunn, Pete (1976): The Lead Mines of Loudville. Rocks & Minerals: 51: 250-255.
Zirlin, Sande H. (1981): A Day Trip to Loudville. Lapidary Journal: 34: 2470-2474.
Anderson, Violet (1982): Microminerals. Mineralogical Record: Jan-Feb 1982: 44-46.
Krueger, Dana A. (1985): Mineral Paragenesis at the Manhan Lead Mine. Boston Mineral Symposium program book, May 1985.
Robinson, G.R. Jr., and Woodruff, L.G. (1988): Characteristics of Base-metal and Barite Vein Deposits associated with Rift Basins, with Examples from some Early Mesozoic Basins of Eastern North America, in Studies of Early Mesozoic Basins of the Eastern US, Frolich, T.J. and Robinson, G.R. Jr., Editors, USGS Bulletin 1776: 377-390.
Gaines, R. V., et.al. (1997): Dana’s New Mineralogy.
Greene, Eric and Marshall, John Jr. (2001): Loudville Pyromorphite: The Story of an Extraordinary Boulder Unearthed at Manhan River Mine, Easthampton, Massachusetts. Rocks & Minerals: 76: 92.

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