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Great Consolidated Mines, Clifford Amalgamated Mines, St Day, Gwennap, Cornwall, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Great Consolidated MinesGroup of Mines
Clifford Amalgamated MinesGroup of Mines
St Day- not defined -
GwennapCivil Parish
CornwallCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 14' 8'' North , 5° 9' 51'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
St. Day700 (2011)1.6km
Chacewater1,226 (2017)2.4km
Perranwell1,207 (2017)4.0km
Redruth42,690 (2017)4.3km
Ponsanooth967 (2017)4.4km


This group of mines was formed in 1780, by amalgamation of West Wheal Virgin, Wheal Virgin, East Wheal Virgin, Wheal Lovely, Wheal Girl, and Wheal Fortune. In 1861, the Great Consolidated Mines were combined with the United Mines under the name Clifford Amalgamated Mines.

The sett is an elongated stretch of land, about 600 yards wide from north to south and more than 2,000 yards long. To the north, it is bound by the stream that flows eastwards between Carharrack and St Day and joins the Carnon river at Hale Mills. To the south, it is adjoined by the United Mines. The western boundary is about 300 yards west of the road leading from Todpool to Sunny Corner, and the eastern boundary is marked by the Carnon river. Within the sett, the mines were arranged from west to east in the order given above. The individual boundaries, however, are not always clear today.

The lodes were predominantly copper lodes, consisting of primary and secondary copper ores with pyrite in a gangue of quartz and clay. They generally trend NE to ENE, as do the elvan dykes within the sett, and crop out within a transverse distance of 500 yards. The most important lodes, from north to south, were Taylor's lode, Deebles lode and Virgin lode (Fortune lode). They dip northwards, following the dykes, but there are numerous minor lodes branching from their hangingwalls which dip southwards and cut the dykes at acute angles. In the eastern part of the sett, the lodes show comb structures with open cavities; they are disordered near crosscourses and usually thin where passing through the dykes.

All mines were still active when they were amalgamated with the United Mines in 1861. They were started as copper mines, but later also produced some tin.

The group lies within the parish of Gwennap.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
Devon and Cornwall metalliferous mining district, England, UKMining District
Camborne-Redruth and St Day Mining District, Cornwall, England, UKMining District

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

27 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Chris Popham Collection
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Collins, J.H. (1892): A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon, 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.; Hill, J.B., MacAlister, D.A., and Flett, J.S. (1906): The geology of Falmouth and Truro and of the mining district of Camborne and Redruth. HSMO Publications (London), 335 pp.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Phillips, W. (1823): An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy, 3rd ed. William Phillips (London), 535 pp.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
'Chlorite Group'
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 34 (1986)
Copper
Formula: Cu
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Henwood, W.J. (1843): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 5, 1-386
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Henwood, W.J. (1843): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 5, 1-386
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), pp. 108.
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 34 (1986)
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), pp. 108.
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 34 (1986)
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), pp. 108.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 34 (1986)
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), pp. 108.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 418-420.
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: Phillips, W. (1823): An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy, 3rd ed. William Phillips (London), 535 pp.; Hill, J.B., MacAlister, D.A., and Flett, J.S. (1906): The geology of Falmouth and Truro and of the mining district of Camborne and Redruth. HSMO Publications (London), 335 pp.
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: Collins, J.H. (1892): A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon, 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.; Hill, J.B., MacAlister, D.A., and Flett, J.S. (1906): The geology of Falmouth and Truro and of the mining district of Camborne and Redruth. HSMO Publications (London), 335 pp.
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 418-420

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Olivenite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
A2(XO4)Zq
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Olivenite41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Chlorite Group'-
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
'Feldspar Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Quartz
var: Rock Crystal
-SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
BBoron
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O CupriteCu2O
O CassiteriteSnO2
O QuartzSiO2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O BaryteBaSO4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O TenoriteCuO
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O UraniniteUO2
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S ChalcociteCu2S
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
KPotassium
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
CuCopper
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3192903
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 2033495
Upper Devonian Rocks (Undifferentiated)

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 3135052
Late Devonian claystone

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Lithology: Claystone

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 418-420.
- Lapis 11(2), 33-34 (1986)

Localities in this Region
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