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Sweetwater Mine (Milliken Mine; Frank R. Milliken; Blair Creek; Ozark Lead Company Mine; Adair Creek; Logan Creek), Ellington, Viburnum Trend District, Reynolds Co., Missouri, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 21' 32'' North , 91° 8' 48'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 37.35900,-91.14689
GeoHash:G#: 9yxhtbuzg
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate

A Pb-Zn occurrence/mine located about 12 miles NW of Ellington. Formerly owned & operated by Ozark Lead Company from 1968 to 1986 (although it was not in production from 1983 - 1986 due to low lead prices). Sold to ASARCO in 1986, reopened December 1987. Sold to the Doe Run Company in 1997, and is presently in operation.

Reserves in 1988 amounted to 22.6 million tons of ore at an average of 4.84% Pb & 0.59% Zn.

Mining Method: Room and Pillar. Drill+Blast with LHD or mine truck haulage to ore chutes below. After crushing underground, ore is hauled to a 20-foot diameter x 1,250 foot deep, central 3-compartment hoisting shaft.

Regional Geology: The Viburnum Trend is a 6-mile x 40-mile North-trending deposit discovered in the late 1950's and early 1960's whose Pb-Ag-Zn deposits are exploited by the Brushy Creek, Buick, Fletcher, Magmont, Sweetwater, West Fork, and Viburnum mines Nos. 27, 28, 29, and 35 at depths ranging from 1,000-1,450 feet.

The Viburnum Trend deposits differ from other Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits in that ores are shallower, they include nickel and cobalt minerals, and some copper-iron sulfides. Also, while ores were formed from hot, saline brines, it is generally accepted that for the Viburnum Trend, this was a repetitive precipitation and dissolution process for the sulfides, particularly galena and suggests that the ore-forming base metal constituents were transported with reduced sulfur in the same solutions, with precipitation initiated by a change in pH, dilution, and/or a decrease in temperature. For the Sweetwater ores, the repetitive precipitations comprised decreasing base metal concentrations in the mineralizing fluids.

Most ore minerals are found as sulfides such as galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Gangue minerals associated with the economic minerals include pyrite, calcite, dolomite, and quartz.

Sweetwater Geology: There are 8 distinct ore bodies distributed at depth within the Bonneterre formation. The Bonneterre itself comprises four facies; fore reef, reef complex, back reef, and shelf. These facies are petrographic units developed in response to sea level fluctuations and the distribution of Precambrian knobs and ridges in a shallow Cambrian sea. Oolitic and digitate stromatolite facies predominate in the mine, and stratigraphic relationships record a prograding sedimentary pattern during lower Bonneterre sedimentation that expresses as an interfingering of the planar stromatolitic burrowed lime mudstone (reef complex) facies with the digitate (back reef) facies.

Mineral List

24 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

252.17 - 541 Ma

ID: 3187973
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Paleozoic (252.17 - 541 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Ordovician
470 - 485.4 Ma

ID: 2742491
Gasconade Dolomite

Age: Early Ordovician (470 - 485.4 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Gasconade Dolomite

Description: Coarse - crystalline cherty dolomite with a basal Gunter Sandstone Member.

Comments: IN SOUTHEAST MO-Gasconade Dolomite- (700 ft max) coarsely crystalline cherty dolomite with basal sandstone member; Gunter Sandstone Member- (30 ft. max) quartzose sandstone. Host to barite deposits on the northwest flank of Ozark Uplift.

Lithology: Major:{dolostone}, Minor:{sandstone}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (1970) A.I.M.E. World Symposium on Mining and Metallurgy of Lead and Zinc, D.O. Rausch and B.C. Mariacher, editors, A.I.M.E., New York, New York, volume I: 483-498.
Christiansen, C.R. and J.J. Scott (1970) Mining Systems in the New Lead Belt of Southeast Missouri, chapter 11, volume 1, of Lead & Zinc, A.I.M.E. Symposium, 1970: 206-217.
Engineering and Mining Journal (1970) The New Lead Belt (October 1970): 67-78.
Ryan, J.P. and Martin, J.A. (1971) The Mineral Industry of Missouri. U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook, volume 2, Area Reports, Domestic: 423-435.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Yearbook (1971) Volume 2: 431.
Gerity, C.E. (1972) Ozark's Haulage System Gets the Lead Out. Mining Engineering (November 1972): 41-44.
Lagergren, M.A. and A.W. Griffith (1973) Design Construction and Operation of Ozark Lead Company's Tailings Disposal System. Proceedings (entitled "Tailings Disposal Today") of the First International Tailing Symposium, October 31 - November 3, 1972, Miller Freeman Publications, San Francisco, California, 1973: 714-733.
Mouat, M.M. and Clendenin, C.W. Jr. (1975) Ozark Lead Company Mine, Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri, chapter in Guidebook to the Geology and Ore Deposits of Selected Mines, Missouri Department of Natural Resources Report of Investigations No. 58, 1975: 48-56.
Mouat, M.M. and Clendenin, C.W. (1977) Geology of the Ozark Lead Company Mine, Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri. Economic Geology: 72(3): 398-407.
Seeger, C.M. (2008) History of Mining in the Southeast Missouri Lead District and Description of Mine Processes, Regulatory Controls, Environmental Effects, and Mine Facilities in the Viburnum Trend Subdistrict.
White, T. G. and K. L. Clifford (1977) Milling of Lead-Zinc Ores - USA, chapter in Lead-Zinc Update, D.O. Rausch, F.M. Stephens, Jr., and B.C. Mariacher, editors, Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, New York, New York: 125, 127, 135, 137, 140-143.
Mineralogical Record (1978) 9: 111-112.
Dressel, W. M. (1979) former state liaison officer, personal communications, August 2, 1979.
Weakly, L.A. (1982) Ore Moving Logistics for Room and Pillar Mines in the Viburnum Trend. Mining Engineering: April 1982: 406-407.
Skillings Mining Review Magazine (1987) ASARCO Slates Sweetwater Mine for Limited Production (August 8, 1987): 3.
Economic Geology (1988) 83: 355-376.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook - Zinc (1988) 2.
Mineralogical Record (1989) 20: 481.
Mining Magazine (1989) January: 45.
Rocks & Minerals (1989) 64: 22 & 26.
ASARCO Incorporated (1993) Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-K Report (December 31, 1993): A16-A18.
Economic Geology (1993) 88: 957-960.
ASARCO Incorporated (1995) Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-K Report.
USGS (2005) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS). U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10293984 & 10085082 (& 10196555 = mill).
American Mineral Treasures (2008) Lithographie, LLC: 66-73.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0291790008 (& 0291790009 = mill).

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