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Sweetwater Mine (Milliken Mine; Frank R. Milliken; Blair Creek; Ozark Lead Company Mine; Adair Creek; Logan Creek), Ellington, Viburnum Trend District, Reynolds Co., Missouri, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 21' 32'' North , 91° 8' 48'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 37.35900,-91.14689
GeoHash:G#: 9yxhtbuzg
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate


A Pb-Zn occurrence/mine located about 12 miles NW of Ellington. Formerly owned & operated by Ozark Lead Company from 1968 to 1986 (although it was not in production from 1983 - 1986 due to low lead prices). Sold to ASARCO in 1986, reopened December 1987. Sold to the Doe Run Company in 1997, and presently in operation.

Reserves in 1988 amounted to 22.6 million tons of ore at an average of 4.84% Pb & 0.59% Zn.

Mining Method: Room and Pillar. Drill+Blast with LHD or mine truck haulage to ore chutes below. After crushing underground, the ore is hauled to a 20-foot diameter x 1,250 foot deep, central 3-compartment hoisting shaft.

Regional Geology: The Viburnum Trend is a 6-mile x 40-mile North-trending deposit discovered in the late 1950's and early 1960's whose Pb-Ag-Zn deposits are exploited by the Brushy Creek, Buick, Fletcher, Magmont, Sweetwater, West Fork, and Viburnum mines Nos. 27, 28, 29, and 35 at depths ranging from 1,000-1,450 feet.

The Viburnum Trend deposits differ from other Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits in that ores are shallower, they include nickel and cobalt minerals, and some copper-iron sulfides. Also, while ores were formed from hot, saline brines, it is generally accepted that for the Viburnum Trend, this was a repetitive precipitation and dissolution process for the sulfides, particularly galena and suggests that the ore-forming base metal constituents were transported with reduced sulfur in the same solutions, with precipitation initiated by a change in pH, dilution, and/or a decrease in temperature. For the Sweetwater ores, the repetitive precipitations comprised decreasing base metal concentrations in the mineralizing fluids.

Most ore minerals are found as sulfides such as galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Gangue minerals associated with the economic minerals include pyrite, calcite, dolomite, and quartz.

Sweetwater Geology: There are 8 distinct ore bodies distributed at depth within the Bonneterre formation. The Bonneterre itself comprises four facies; fore reef, reef complex, back reef, and shelf. These facies are petrographic units developed in response to sea level fluctuations and the distribution of Precambrian knobs and ridges in a shallow Cambrian sea. Oolitic and digitate stromatolite facies predominate in the mine, and stratigraphic relationships record a prograding sedimentary pattern during lower Bonneterre sedimentation that expresses as an interfingering of the planar stromatolitic burrowed lime mudstone (reef complex) facies with the digitate (back reef) facies.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Sweetwater Mine, Ellington, Viburnum Trend District, Reynolds Co., Missouri, USA
Sweetwater Mine
Sweetwater Mine (Milliken Mine; Frank R. Milliken; Blair Creek; Ozark Lead Company Mine; Adair Creek; Logan Creek), Ellington, Viburnum Trend District, Reynolds County, Missouri, United States
Sweetwater Mine, Reynolds County, Missouri
Sweetwater Mine (Milliken Mine; Frank R. Milliken; Blair Creek; Ozark Lead Company Mine, Adair Creek, Logan Creek), Ellington, Viburnum Trend District, Reynolds Co., Missouri, USA
Sweetwater mine, Reynolds Co., Missouri, USA
Sweetwater Mine, Viburnum Trend District, Reynolds Co., Missouri
Sweetwater Mine Ellington, Viburnum Trend District, Reynolds Co., Missouri, USA
Sweetwater Mine, Vibernum Trend, Reynolds County, Missouri

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


24 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anilite
Formula: Cu7S4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.
'Bitumen'
Reference: Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: Hexagonal prisms with simple rhomb terminations to 7 cm
Colour: slight yellowish white
Fluorescence: SW- dull orange; MW- magenta-pink; LW- dull orange
Description: If only these perched doubly terminated xls were water clear like the Big Rig specimens
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960
Carrollite
Formula: Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Reference: R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: simple sphenoids and twins to several mm
Colour: yellow
Fluorescence: none
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960; Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1875-1910
Chalcopyrite var: Blister Copper
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Kevin Conroy Collection
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: R&M 73:2 pp 98-117; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Description: Crystals to 0.75 inches
Reference: Rocks & Min.:72:417.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Habit: simple rhombs to several mm
Colour: white
Reference: Rocks & Min.:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960; Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1875-1910
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
Fletcherite
Formula: Cu(Ni,Co)2S4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Habit: cubes and cube-octos to several cm
Colour: lead grey
Fluorescence: none
Description: The cube faces are often bright and lustrous, while the octahedral faces are dull
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960; Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1875-1910
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S Geological Survey,Reston, Virginia
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Norman King (see www.mindat.org/mesg-11-287183.html)
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Polydymite
Formula: Ni2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: R&M 73:2 pp 98-117; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Siegenite
Formula: CoNi2S4
Habit: octos and spinel twins to several mm
Colour: grey
Fluorescence: none
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960
Vaesite
Formula: NiS2
Reference: MinRec 9:111-112; Rocks & Min.:64:22&26.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Anilite'2.BA.10Cu7S4
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Carrollite2.DA.05Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
var: Blister Copper2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Djurleite2.BA.05Cu31S16
Fletcherite2.DA.05Cu(Ni,Co)2S4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Linnaeite2.DA.05Co2+Co3+2S4
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Polydymite2.DA.05Ni2+Ni3+2S4
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Siegenite2.DA.05CoNi2S4
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Vaesite2.EB.05aNiS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Erythrite8.CE.40Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Dickite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Bitumen'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Anilite2.4.7.5Cu7S4
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
Djurleite2.4.7.2Cu31S16
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Carrollite2.10.1.2Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Fletcherite2.10.1.3Cu(Ni,Co)2S4
Linnaeite2.10.1.1Co2+Co3+2S4
Polydymite2.10.1.7Ni2+Ni3+2S4
Siegenite2.10.1.6CoNi2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Vaesite2.12.1.2NiS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Erythrite40.3.6.3Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Dickite71.1.1.1Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Bitumen'-
Chalcopyrite
var: Blister Copper
-CuFeS2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S AniliteCu7S4
S Chalcopyrite (var: Blister Copper)CuFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CovelliteCuS
S DigeniteCu9S5
S DjurleiteCu31S16
S FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
S GalenaPbS
S LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MilleriteNiS
S PolydymiteNi2+Ni23+S4
S PyriteFeS2
S SiegeniteCoNi2S4
S SphaleriteZnS
S VaesiteNiS2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FeIron
Fe Chalcopyrite (var: Blister Copper)CuFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
CoCobalt
Co CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Co ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Co LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
Co SiegeniteCoNi2S4
NiNickel
Ni CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Ni FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni PolydymiteNi2+Ni23+S4
Ni SiegeniteCoNi2S4
Ni VaesiteNiS2
CuCopper
Cu AniliteCu7S4
Cu Chalcopyrite (var: Blister Copper)CuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu DjurleiteCu31S16
Cu FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleozoic
251.902 - 541 Ma



ID: 3187973
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 541 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Ordovician
470 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2742491
Gasconade Dolomite

Age: Early Ordovician (470 - 485.4 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Gasconade Dolomite

Description: Coarse - crystalline cherty dolomite with a basal Gunter Sandstone Member.

Comments: IN SOUTHEAST MO-Gasconade Dolomite- (700 ft max) coarsely crystalline cherty dolomite with basal sandstone member; Gunter Sandstone Member- (30 ft. max) quartzose sandstone. Host to barite deposits on the northwest flank of Ozark Uplift.

Lithology: Major:{dolostone}, Minor:{sandstone}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (1970) A.I.M.E. World Symposium on Mining and Metallurgy of Lead and Zinc, D.O. Rausch and B.C. Mariacher, editors, A.I.M.E., New York, New York, Volume I: 483-498.
Christiansen, C.R. and Scott, J.J. (1970) Mining Systems in the New Lead Belt of Southeast Missouri, chapter 11, volume 1, of Lead & Zinc, A.I.M.E. Symposium, 1970: 206-217.
Engineering and Mining Journal (1970) The New Lead Belt (October 1970): 67-78.
Ryan, J.P. and Martin, J.A. (1971) The Mineral Industry of Missouri. U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook, volume 2, Area Reports, Domestic: 423-435.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Yearbook (1971) Volume 2: 431.
Gerity, C.E. (1972) Ozark's Haulage System Gets the Lead Out. Mining Engineering (November 1972): 41-44.
Lagergren, M.A. and Griffith, A.W. (1973) Design Construction and Operation of Ozark Lead Company's Tailings Disposal System. Proceedings (entitled "Tailings Disposal Today") of the First International Tailing Symposium, October 31 - November 3, 1972, Miller Freeman Publications, San Francisco, California, 1973: 714-733.
Mouat, M.M. and Clendenin, C.W. Jr. (1975) Ozark Lead Company Mine, Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri, chapter in Guidebook to the Geology and Ore Deposits of Selected Mines, Missouri Department of Natural Resources Report of Investigations No. 58, 1975: 48-56.
Mouat, M.M. and Clendenin, C.W. (1977) Geology of the Ozark Lead Company Mine, Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri. Economic Geology, 72(3), 398-407.
Seeger, C.M. (2008) History of Mining in the Southeast Missouri Lead District and Description of Mine Processes, Regulatory Controls, Environmental Effects, and Mine Facilities in the Viburnum Trend Subdistrict.
White, T.G. and Clifford, K.L. (1977) Milling of Lead-Zinc Ores - USA, chapter in Lead-Zinc Update, D.O. Rausch, F.M. Stephens, Jr., and B.C. Mariacher, editors, Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, New York, New York: 125, 127, 135, 137, 140-143.
Mineralogical Record (1978) 9, 111-112.
Dressel, W.M. (1979) former state liaison officer, personal communications, August 2, 1979.
Weakly, L.A. (1982) Ore Moving Logistics for Room and Pillar Mines in the Viburnum Trend. Mining Engineering (April 1982), 406-407.
Skillings Mining Review Magazine (1987) ASARCO Slates Sweetwater Mine for Limited Production (August 8, 1987), 3.
Economic Geology (1988) 83, 355-376.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook - Zinc (1988) 2.
Mineralogical Record (1989) 20, 481.
Mining Magazine (January 1989) 45.
Rocks & Minerals (1989) 64, 22 & 26.
ASARCO Incorporated (1993) Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-K Report (December 31, 1993): A16-A18.
Economic Geology (1993) 88, 957-960.
ASARCO Incorporated (1995) Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-K Report.
USGS (2005) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS). U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10293984 & 10085082 (& 10196555 = mill).
American Mineral Treasures (2008) Lithographie, LLC, 66-73.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0291790008 (& 0291790009 = mill).
Hagni, R.D. (2018) Platy Galena from the Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri: Character, Mine Distribution, Trace Element Content, Nature of Twinning and Condition of Formation. Minerals, 8, 93, 16 pp.

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