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Chimney Rock Quarry (Houdaille Industries Quarry; The Bound Brook Quarry; Stavola Industries Quarry), Bridgewater Township, Somerset Co., New Jersey, USAi
Regional Level Types
Chimney Rock Quarry (Houdaille Industries Quarry; The Bound Brook Quarry; Stavola Industries Quarry)Quarry
Bridgewater TownshipTownship
Somerset Co.County
New JerseyState
USACountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 40° 35' 4'' North , 74° 33' 55'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 40.58472,-74.56528
GeoHash:G#: dr4yzhppp
Locality type:Quarry
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Martinsville11,980 (2017)1.9km
Finderne5,600 (2017)2.6km
Bound Brook10,497 (2017)2.9km
Somerville12,202 (2017)3.9km
Green Knoll6,200 (2017)4.3km


An Orange Mountain (First Watchung Mountain) basalt quarry, which began operations in the early 1900s. The quarry is currently owned by the Stavola group of Companies.

This quarry has produced world-class specimens of native copper, chalcocite, natrolite, and chalcopyrite. The chalcopyrite occurs as botryoidal masses up to 50 cm across from a single discovery that yielded at least 500 pounds of specimens. Many of these specimens are polished to bring out the golden color under the tarnish and they closely resemble the classic "blister ore" specimens from Cornwall, England.

Although large masses of native copper (some weighing several hundred pounds) are known from here a single discovery in the late 1990s produced beautiful crystallized specimens. Some specimens have crystals to 4 cm across which are complex in symmetry and often associated with amethyst or chrysocolla. Although thousands of pounds of copper were found at that time only 20 or so specimens were truly world class with large crystals.

The best of the chalcocites from this locality were also found at the same time as the copper crystals. The best specimens have dull, slightly etched crystals to 7 cm on matrix. These occurred in thin calcite veins with associated chrysocolla. Most of the finest chalcocites from this find were etched out of calcite, however, some had brilliant luster and occurred in pockets.

A major natrolite discovery, circa 1973, at this quarry yielded white translucent to transparent crystals to 22 cm long. The pocket was exposed on the top surface of a bench. The material was extracted by underhanding. A pump was required to remove water. In 1978 the lower extension of this pocket was exposed and a smaller but significant amount of additional material was recovered. The natrolite crystals recovered from this pocket are the finest examples of the species from North America and although thousands of crystals were collected they are relatively rare on the market today. Some of the crystals were faceted and yielded flawless stones to over 10 carats.
(James Zigras, 2011.)

The Chimney Rock Quarry and the coincident Chimney Rock Copper Mine are located approximately 3000 feet NE of the intersection of US Route 22 and I-287, 1 mile SSW of Martinsville and 1.5-2 miles NW of Bound Brook, New Jersey.

The quarry is developed in the lower and middle portions of the Orange Mountain (First Watchung) basalt. In spite of an apparent exposure of over 350 feet of the basalt, there is no amygdaloidal horizon that definitively marks the top of a flow unit. The only amygdaloidal horizon is exposed on the upper benches of the north side of the quarry, near the stratigraphic upper limit of the exposure. Unlike the amygdaloidal horizons normally found at the tops of flow units, this one has limited lateral continuity. The nature of this amygdaloidal horizon is still unclear. The lack of a flow top suggests that there has been a repetition of the stratigraphic section by faulting.

Most secondary minerals at Chimney Rock occur in veins. The basalt is cut by numerous fractures. Although brecciation associated with these fractures is often extensive displacements appear to be small in most cases. The bulk of the secondary vein filling is calcite or datolite. Veins containing abundant prehnite are much less common and tend to be limited to the stratigraphically upper parts of the exposure. Because of the abundance of calcite veins, the Chimney Rock Quarry was long known for its calcite crystals. Locally, other minerals including quartz, opal, zeolites, and copper minerals were also found in the veins. Two local but spectacular occurrences of large natrolite and analcime crystals have been recorded. Both were found in extensional portions of fractures. Neither was a steam explosion breccia, a spiracle, as has been suggested elsewhere.

The secondary minerals found in the fracture system do not occur randomly. They are found in a recognizable pattern that indicates deposition from a hydrothermal fluid, probably basin brine, that migrated upward out of the Passaic formation, into and through the basalt. In the literature the copper mineral assemblage and the prehnite(datolite)- zeolite mineral assemblage are usually treated as separate entities. It is important to recognize that the Chimney Rock Quarry has provided abundant evidence that these two mineral assemblages resulted from the same hydrothermal system and are parts of a single, more inclusive assemblage.

Amygdules, 2.5 to 6 inches in diameter, occur isolated and sparsely scattered through the basal meter of the flow. Most of the larger amygdules are subrounded, but pipe vugs are occasionally seen and are up to 2 inches across and 20 inches long. Alteration associated with these amygdules is very minor. The secondary minerals within these amygdules are generally limited to chalcedony/jasper, quartz, calcite, hematite, and goethite. Goethite occurs as small, exquisite crystals and groups of crystals.

The Chimney Rock Quarry was excavated on top of the old Chimney Rock Copper Mine and has been known for its copper minerals for many years. Although the copper minerals occur in the veins that transect the basalt, most of the copper is found in the Passaic formation sediments immediately beneath the basalt. The Passaic Formation beds are mudstones ranging from thick bedded to laminated. Some beds are riddled with small cavities left by preexisting evaporite minerals, mainly gypsum and glauberite. Within approximately 1.5 feet of the overlying basalt, the sediments have been darkened due to the recrystallization of hematite pigment to specularite. Chemical analyses (Woodward, 1944) do not indicate significant conversion to magnetite. This darkened rock is widespread in areas where copper is abundant and has been referred to as “hornfels”. However, this alteration may be of hydrothermal origin since it is only associated with copper deposition. The true hornfels is probably no thicker than the approximately 2 inches seen at other exposures of the base of the Orange Mountain Basalt where copper minerals are not present.

In the darkened zone just beneath the basalt native copper and minor native silver occur in veinlets, approximately 0.1 inches in width and perpendicular to the basalt contact. The veinlets extend from the basalt/sediment contact downward for up to a foot, rarely more, and terminate abruptly. Within these veinlets, copper appears to replace the sediment. The copper-bearing veinlets form a polygonal network, like shrinkage cracks but larger, perhaps 18 inches across. This may represent some sort of sediment dewatering structure.

Copper also occurs as a variety of irregular replacements within the thin, darkened zone. Some are localized by an identifiable feature, such as a bedding plane or a layer of root casts, but many are not.

The sediment surrounding virtually all native copper replacements is strikingly bleached. The bleaching, from dark maroon to tan, is due to the reduction of ferric iron and the partial leaching of ferrous iron (Woodward, 1944).

This copper deposit is of the “red bed” type. The principal difference between Chimney Rock and typical red bed copper deposits is that the chemical reducing agent appears to have been ferrous iron in the basalt rather than pyrite, carbonaceous matter or sulphate-reducing bacteria in a black shale. The Chimney Rock deposit is typical of all the copper deposits associated with the basal contact of the Orange Mountain basalt.

Chalcocite is also present in the zone of darkened sediments immediately beneath the basalt but deposited later than, and is subordinate to, native copper. Chalcocite deposition is limited to thin, crosscutting veins.

A number of secondary minerals are associated with the native copper and chalcocite. The most common of these are chrysocolla, malachite and cuprite.

In recent years a fault was exposed that contained a large mass of red sediment. This fault bounded mass of sediment was progressively exposed, beginning circa 1989 until about 2001 when it was finally leveled to the quarry floor. For several years it stood as a prominent monolith, known informally as “The Great Red Wall”. Copper mineralization occurred in veins, mostly in the heavily sheared outer margins of the sediment mass, and as replacements of the sediment. Although much more complex in detail there were many similarities between the occurrences of copper minerals in this fault-bounded sediment and the sediments beneath the basalt.

NOTE: Trespassing at this locality results in arrest.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


24 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Description: Occurs in cavities and fractures in Watchung basalt.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Description: Large, white analcime crystals were abundant in the fracture pocket that produced the famous natrolite crystals in 1972 and '78. Some of these were larger than golf balls.
Reference: Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 67. Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Description: Occurs in cavities and fractures in Watchung basalt.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14.; American Mineralogist (1929) 14: 309-311
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: Scalenohedral; rhombic
Colour: Honey-yellow, colorless to white.
Fluorescence: Golden-yellow (SW) (rhombic, honey-yellow crystals); pink (SW), white scalenohedral crystals.
Description: Calcite here occurs as rhombic, honey-yellow crystals in cavities and fissures, also as scalenohedral, colorless to white crystals associated with "blister copper" chalcopyrite.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Speiser, R.:14.; American Mineralogist (1929) 14: 309-311
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Manchester, J.G. (1931) Minerals of New York City and its Environs. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 3:67; American Mineralogist (1929) 14: 309-311
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Speiser, R.:14.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Manchester, J.G. (1931) Minerals of New York City and its Environs. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 3:67
Copper
Formula: Cu
Habit: Dodecahedrons to 2mm
Description: Masses of native copper to several hundred pounds retrieved in recent years (exhibited at the Sterling Hill Mining Museum, Ogdensburg, NJ). 96 pound specimen in Rutgers Museum Most of the copper occurs not in the basalt but in a zone of darkened, hydrothermally altered mudrock, about 18 inches thick,immediately beneath the basal contact of the basalt.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14; NJ State Geol. Ann. Rpt. (1906):147.; American Mineralogist (1929) 14: 309-311
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Manchester, J.G. (1931) Minerals of New York City and its Environs. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 3:67
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Description: Not rare as very small scale felt-like material associated with copper and chalcocite. Two good specimens from one pocket, with much larger xles, on copper, found in 1988.
Reference: Manchester, J.G. (1931) Minerals of New York City and its Environs. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 3:67. Warren Cummings, personel communication, 2008
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Description: Occurs in cavities and fractures in Watchung basalt.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14.; American Mineralogist (1929) 14: 309-311
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Cummings, W. L., 2007, Personal communication
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Bradley D. Plotkin collection
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Manchester, J.G. (1931) Minerals of New York City and its Environs. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 3:67
'Heulandite subgroup'
Description: Occurs in cavities and fractures in Watchung basalt.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14.; Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Manchester, J.G. (1931) Minerals of New York City and its Environs. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 3:67
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Manchester, J.G. (1931) Minerals of New York City and its Environs. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 3:67
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Habit: orthorhombic
Colour: clear, white
Description: Large, somewhat rough crystals were described by Sinkankas (1961). In 1972 a cavity was opened that contained mostly single crystals as "floaters" in a breccia. This material is described by Sassen (1978). Sassen calls the hosting structure "pipe-like" and due to a "steam explosion". Later exposures confirmed that the structure did not result from steam but was an exceptional tentional opening in a fracture. The lower extention of the structure was mined out in 1978 and a furthur quantity of specimans were recovered.
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31.
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Description: Occurs in cavities and fractures in Watchung basalt.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Habit: orthorhombic
Colour: green
Description: Found as light green spheres and pocket linings.
Reference: Manchester, J.G. (1931) Minerals of New York City and its Environs. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 3:67; American Mineralogist (1929) 14: 309-311
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Occurs in cavities and fractures in Watchung basalt.
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Quartz var: Agate
Description: Occurs in cavities and fractures in Watchung basalt.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Description: Occurs in cavities and fractures in Watchung basalt.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14.
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9:25-31
Silver
Formula: Ag
Description: Silver occurs as leafs and coatings on and with copper. Tiny amounts are not rare in the copper that replaces hydrothermally altered mudrock within 18 inches of the basal contact of the basalt. Silver is more common intimately associated with arboresent masses of copper in calcite-filled veins in the basal ten feet of the basalt. Silver was also found with copper in veins near the margin of "The Great Red Wall" fault bounded sediment mass. Here it was also seen as wires and horns on chalcocite.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14; NJ State Geol. Ann. Rpt. (1906):149. Warren Cummings. personal communication, 2008
'Stilbite subgroup'
Description: Occurs in cavities and fractures in Watchung basalt.
Reference: A Quest for New Jersey Minerals (1978), Speiser, R.:14.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Agate4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Quartz
var: Agate
-SiO2
var: Amethyst-SiO2
var: Chalcedony-SiO2
var: Rock Crystal-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
BBoron
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O CupriteCu2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
NaSodium
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
AlAluminium
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
SSulfur
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S GalenaPbS
CaCalcium
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
CuCopper
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu CupriteCu2O
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Jurassic
174.1 - 201.3 Ma



ID: 2821781
Orange Mountain Basalt

Age: Early Jurassic (174.1 - 201.3 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Orange Mountain Basalt

Description: (Olsen, 1980) - Dark-greenish-gray to greenish-black basalt composed mostly of calcic plagioclase (typically An65) and clinopyroxene (augite and pigeonite); crystals are generally less than 1 mm (0.04 in) long. Consists of three major flows. The flows are separated in places by a weathered zone or by a thin, up to 3-m- (10-ft-) thick bed of red siltstone (not shown on map) or volcaniclastic rock. Lowest flow is generally massive and has widely spaced curvilinear joints; columnar joints in lowest flow become more common toward the northeast. Middle flow is massive or has columnar jointing. Lower part of the uppermost flow has pillow structures; upper part has pahoehoe flow structures. Tops and bottoms of flow layers are vesicular. Maximum thickness is about 182 m (597 ft).

Comments: Newark Supergroup, Brunswick Group (Lyttle and Epstein, 1987). Original map source: Dalton, R.F., Herman, G.C., Monteverde, D.H., Pristas, R.S., Sugarman, P.J., and Volkert, R.A., 1999, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Bedrock Geology and Topographic Base Maps of New Jersey: New Jersey Geological Survey CD Series CD 00

Lithology: Major:{basalt}, Minor:{siltstone}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Triassic
201.3 - 251.902 Ma



ID: 3186144
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Triassic (201.3 - 251.902 Ma)

Comments: Newark Graben System; Newark-Gettysburg Basin

Lithology: Shale,conglomerate,quartz-feldspar sandstone,siltstone,limestone

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Manchester, J.G. (1931) The Minerals of New York City and its Environs. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 1-168.
Woodward, H.P. (1944) Copper mines and mining in New Jersey. Department of Conservation and Economic Development, State of New Jersey, Bulletin 57.
Sinkankas, J. (1961) Natrolite from Houdaille Industries quarry, Bound Brook, Somerset County, N. J.. American Mineralogist: 46: 1195 – 1197.
Sassen, R. (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record, 9: 25-31.
Speiser, R. (1978) A Quest for New Jersey Minerals: 14.
Tschernich, R. (1992) Zeolites of the World: 67.
Cummings, W. L. (1998) Geology of the Chimney Rock Copper Occurrence, A Deposit Typical of the Watchung Basalts. in Puffer, J.H. (ed.), The Economic Geology of Central New Jersey, Field Guide and Proceedings. Geological Association of New Jersey, Fifteenth Annual Meeting: 29 - 49.
Cummings, W. L. (2007) Unpublished data.


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