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Etta Mine, Keystone, Keystone District, Pennington Co., South Dakota, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 43° 52' 50'' North , 103° 25' 8'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 43.8805555556, -103.418888889

A lithium-niobium/tantalum-tin muscovite mine in pegmatite. Started in 1883. Owned by the Harney Peak Tin Co. This mine is famous for its huge crystals.

Originally exploited for muscovite in 1883, but acquired by the Harney Peak Tin Mining Company. Tin was never encountered in economic concentrations and the company collapsed by 1893 in "The Black Hills Tin Scandal".

Lithium (spodumene) mining commenced in 1898 and ceased in 1959. Over the years, the mine produced muscovite, niobium, tantalum, beryl and feldspar.

Mineral List

90 valid minerals.

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Norton, James J. (1964) Pegmatites and other Precambrian Rocks in the Southern Black Hills; Geology and mineral deposits of some pegmatites in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. USGS Professional Paper 297E.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 1088.

Rocks & Minerals: 10: 121-122, 146-147.

Rocks & Minerals: 57: 160.

Rocks & Minerals: 60: 110, 112.

Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 156-169.

"A History of Black Hills Pegmatites", Matrix Magazine, Volume 10, Number 3, Tom Loomis

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