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Benallt Mine (Tyddyn Meirion mine; Ty Canol mine), Rhiw, Llanfaelrhys, Lleyn Peninsula, Gwynedd, Wales, UKi
Regional Level Types
Benallt Mine (Tyddyn Meirion mine; Ty Canol mine)Mine
Rhiw- not defined -
Llanfaelrhys- not defined -
Lleyn PeninsulaPeninsula
GwyneddCounty
WalesCountry
UKCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
52° 49' 14'' North , 4° 38' 20'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
SH222281
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Mynytho536 (2017)8.9km
Abersoch783 (2017)8.9km
Llanbedrog613 (2017)11.0km
Morfa Nefyn857 (2017)13.8km
Nefyn1,373 (2017)14.9km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Caernarvonshire


The Benallt mine was opened in 1886 and continued to produce manganese ore until 1894 when the site was abandoned.

Although separately owned, Benallt and the adjoining Rhiw Mine worked the same orebody and both surface and undergound workings were amalgamated. The north-east part of the orebody worked by the Rhiw Mine was Crown property whilst the larger Benallt Mine to the south-west was in private ownership.The distinction between the two mines on the ground is unclear (however, a large steam boiler remaining on the site is in the Rhiw Mine set).

The Benallt mine was reworked in 1904 as the Benallt No 2 mine when further reserves of manganese were delineated. However, the orebody appears to have been almost exhausted by 1914 and the company then turned their attention to The Nant mine, a more regular orebody on the coast that was located about 1 mile SSW of Benallt. Nant Mine lasted until 1925.

Benallt was reopened by the Ministry of Supply in 1939 to produce minerals for the war effort, this final working incorporating the Rhiw Mine together with the small Tyddyn Meirion (SH221277) and Ty Canol (SH220278) mines immediately to the south. Together with local men, Cornish tin miners, Welsh coal miners, and a contingent of the Royal Canadian Engineers (1941) were also employed. The main use of the latter being to drain old workings and to drill to locate other orebodies.

Bennalt mine was also one of the first to use a magnetometric survey to locate ore reserve. The survey indicated 3 anomalies, 2 of which produced 10,000 tons of manganese ore. The mine worked until the end of 1945.

The Benallt/Rhiw mines were linked to a jetty on the coast at the Nant Mine by a ropeway during the earlier working, this was later replaced by a 3-foot gauge railway.

Recorded output for Benallt, Rhiw, and Nant mines is estimated to be around 150,000 tons of manganese ore.

Given the linkage between the Benallt and Rhiw mines, it is likely that many of the minerals listed here for the Benallt Mine will also have occurred at Rhiw Mine. Whilst some specimens (e.g. the exceptional celsian and paracelsian found in 1911) can be related specifically to underground workings at Benallt Mine, given that no minerals are listed separately for Rhiw Mine, it appears that mineralogically at least, the two mines seem to be grouped together under the umbrella name of the larger Benallt Mine.

The parish of Rhiw has merged into that of Llanfaelrhys to the south.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


37 valid minerals. 4 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alleghanyite
Formula: Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Banalsite (TL)
Formula: Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Type Locality:
Reference: UK Journal of mines & Minerals, 29, 47-48; Mineralogical Magazine(1944) 27, 33-48;; Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Bannisterite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.; UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177.;
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: BMS Collection; Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Reference: No reference listed
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: W. Campbell Smith and F. A. Bannister (1948) Ganophyllite from the Benallt Mine, Rhiw, Carnarvonshire Mineralogical Magazine 28:343-352; Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Spencer, L.J. (1942) Barium feldspars, (celsian and paracelsian) from Wales. Mineralogical Magazine, 26, 231-245; BMS Collection.; UKJMM Vol.29 p.14; Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Cymrite (TL)
Formula: BaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Type Locality:
Habit: masses to 2mm
Reference: Campbell Smith, W., Bannister, F. A., & Hey, M. H. (1949). Cymrite, a new barium mineral from the Benallt manganese mine, Rhiw, Carnarvoshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 676-681. ; UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48; UKJMM Vol.29 p.14
Epidote-(Sr)
Formula: {CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Colour: Crimson
Description: Analyses show that crimson needles embedded in celsian are almost exclusively epidote-(Sr)
Reference: Cotterell, T., Tayler, R.(2012): Epidote-(Sr) and piemontite-(Sr): two minerals new to Britain from Benallt mine, Pen Llŷn, Gwynedd, Wales. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 33:39-42.
Feitknechtite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48
Ganophyllite
Formula: (K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
Reference: W. Campbell Smith and F. A. Bannister (1948) Ganophyllite from the Benallt Mine, Rhiw, Carnarvonshire. Mineralogical Magazine 28: 343-352.; Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177.;
Harmotome
Formula: (Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Reference: Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Reference: UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
'Jacobsite-Q'
Formula: T(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4
Reference: UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: No reference listed
Manganosite
Formula: MnO
Reference: No reference listed
Microcline var: Hyalophane
Formula: (K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Paracelsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Spencer, L.J. (1942) Barium feldspars, (celsian and paracelsian) from Wales. Mineralogical Magazine, 26, 231-245.; Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Paragonite
Formula: NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: No reference listed
Pennantite (TL)
Formula: Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Type Locality:
Reference: Campbell, et al (1946); Canadian Mineralogist:21(1983):545.; UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48; Am Min (1955) 40:32-40; W. Campbell Smith and F. A. Bannister (1948) Ganophyllite from the Benallt Mine, Rhiw, Carnarvonshire Mineralogical Magazine 28:343-352
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: BMS Collection
Piemontite-(Sr)
Formula: {CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: UKJMM Vol.29 p.14; Cotterell, T., Tayler, R.(2012): Epidote-(Sr) and piemontite-(Sr): two minerals new to Britain from Benallt mine, Pen Llŷn, Gwynedd, Wales. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 33:39-42.
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Description: creamy-white microcrystals
Reference: Mational Museum of Wales database
Pyrochroite
Formula: Mn(OH)2
Reference: R. E. Bevins (1988) Sixth Supplementary List of British Isles Minerals (Welsh). Mineralogical Magazine 52:121-124
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: No reference listed
Pyrophanite
Formula: Mn2+TiO3
Reference: Smith, W.C. & Claringbull, G.F. (1947): Pyrophanite from the Benallt Mine, Rhiw, Carnarvonshire. Mineralogical Magazine 28, 108-110.; Am Min (1955) 40:32-40; Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Reference: No reference listed
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Reference: No reference listed
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: No reference listed
Tephroite
Formula: Mn2+2SiO4
Reference: Liferovich, R. P., Mitchell, R. H., Zozulya, D. R., & Shpachenko, A. K. (2006). Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite, and their solid solution in nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(4), 929-942.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Birnessite4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Bixbyite4.CB.10Mn3+2O3
Feitknechtite4.FE.25Mn3+O(OH)
Hausmannite4.BB.10Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Jacobsite4.BB.05Mn2+Fe3+2O4
'Jacobsite-Q'4.BB.10T(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Manganosite4.AB.25MnO
Pyrochroite4.FE.05Mn(OH)2
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Pyrophanite4.CB.05Mn2+TiO3
Romanèchite4.DK.10(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Alleghanyite9.AF.45Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Banalsite (TL)9.FA.60Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Bannisterite (TL)9.EG.75(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
Caryopilite9.ED.15Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Celsian9.FA.30Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Cymrite (TL)9.EG.05BaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Epidote-(Sr)9.BG.05a{CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ganophyllite9.EG.30(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
Harmotome9.GC.10(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Microcline
var: Hyalophane
9.FA.30(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Paracelsian9.FA.40Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Paragonite9.EC.15NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pennantite (TL)9.EC.55Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Piemontite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite-(Sr)9.BG.05{CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Rhodonite9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
Tephroite9.AC.05Mn2+2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX
Manganosite4.2.1.3MnO
A2X3
Bixbyite4.3.7.2Mn3+2O3
Pyrophanite4.3.5.3Mn2+TiO3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Feitknechtite6.1.4.3Mn3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
X(OH)2
Pyrochroite6.2.1.3Mn(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hausmannite7.2.7.1Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Jacobsite7.2.2.2Mn2+Fe3+2O4
'Jacobsite-Q'7.2.6.2T(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4
(AB)2X3
Birnessite7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
AB8X16
Romanèchite7.9.2.1(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Tephroite51.3.1.4Mn2+2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Alleghanyite52.3.2b.1Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote-(Sr)58.2.2.3{CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite58.2.1a.11{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite-(Sr)58.2.1a.12{CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Caryopilite71.1.2b.1Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Paragonite71.2.2a.2NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Pennantite (TL)71.4.1.8Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined islands
Bannisterite (TL)74.1.1.4(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
Ganophyllite74.1.2.1(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Banalsite (TL)76.1.6.1Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Celsian76.1.1.4Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Microcline
var: Hyalophane
76.1.1.3(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Paracelsian76.1.5.1Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Harmotome77.1.3.5(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Miscellaneous
Cymrite (TL)78.1.3.1BaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
H CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
H PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
H Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
H CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
H Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
CCarbon
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
O Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
O CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
O PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
O CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
O TephroiteMn22+SiO4
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O BixbyiteMn23+O3
O Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
O Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
O HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
O JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O ManganositeMnO
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
O ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
O Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe23+)O4
O CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O CalciteCaCO3
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
Na Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Na Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
Na Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
AlAluminium
Al BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
Al Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
Al CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Al PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
Al Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Al ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
SiSilicon
Si BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
Si Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
Si CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Si PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
Si CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Si TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
Si Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Si ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Si Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Si Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
K Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
K Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
K Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
CaCalcium
Ca Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
Ca Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Ca Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
Ca Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Ca Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
TiTitanium
Ti PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
MnManganese
Mn Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
Mn PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mn AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
Mn TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Mn Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Mn BixbyiteMn23+O3
Mn Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
Mn HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
Mn JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn ManganositeMnO
Mn Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Mn PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Mn Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Mn FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe23+)O4
Mn CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Mn Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FeIron
Fe Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
Fe JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Fe Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe23+)O4
Fe Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
SrStrontium
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
Sr Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Sr Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
MoMolybdenum
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
BaBarium
Ba BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
Ba CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Ba CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Ba Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Ba ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Ba Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Smith, W.C. & Claringbull, G.F. (1947): Pyrophanite from the Benallt Mine, Rhiw, Carnarvonshire. Mineralogical Magazine 28, 108-110.
Cotterell, T. (2008): The first British occurrence of feitknechtite at Benallt manganese mine, Rihw, Pen Llyn, Gwynedd, Wales. UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48.
Cotterell, T., Tayler, R. (2012): Epidote-(Sr) and piemontite-(Sr): two minerals new to Britain from Benallt mine, Pen Llŷn, Gwynedd, Wales. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 33, 39-42.


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