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Piteiras Mine, Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazili
Regional Level Types
Piteiras MineMine
ItabiraMunicipality
Minas GeraisState
BrazilCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
19° 41' 36'' South , 43° 5' 33'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Nova Era15,595 (2012)8.5km
João Monlevade72,762 (2012)15.5km
Itabira99,496 (2012)16.3km
São Domingos do Prata9,466 (2012)23.1km
Rio Piracicaba10,439 (2012)27.5km


The Piteiras emerald deposit was discovered in 1998, and an underground mine was brought into production in 2000, operating until 2008. Approximately 500 tons of gravel were mined to produce two kilos of emerald rough.

In 2008 the property was acquired by Belmont Mineração Ltda. At that time, Belmont conducted studies showing a remaining resource of about 0.8 million tonnes of ore at a grade of 112 carats of emerald per tonne (22 g/t), amounting to 90 million carats. The emeralds are mostly cloudy, inclusion-rich, and fractured, with pale green color, grading to rarer inclusion-free gemstones having excellent color. Ten percent is appropriate for faceting, making cabochons, or carving, and 10% of that is considered fine quality.

The mine is located within the Itabira-Ferros-Nova Era mining district, often known as the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in recognition of its world-class banded iron formation deposits. The deposit is also considered to lie within the Eastern Brazilian Pegmatite Province in the pegmatite district of Santa Maria de Itabira (one of eleven pegmatite districts in the Province).

The ore body is a “schist-type” emerald deposit associated with pegmatitic intrusions. Emeralds occur in a thin (0.5 - 8 m) stratiform schist referred to as the “blackwall” ore body. The schist contains bands of light gray talc-chlorite schist with lenses of amphibolite and boudinaged quartz veins and clots. Emerald crystals are up to 5 cm in size, and while generally irregular in shape, some show distinct crystal faces. They occur as isolated crystals or clumps of crystals disseminated in the biotite-phlogopite schist, are concentrated adjacent to pegmatite-schist contacts, or occur next to quartz boudins and within talc-chlorite bands.

The biotite-phlogopite schist and amphibolite originated as deep-water marine sediments interlayered with mafic and ultramafic volcanics that were uplifted, folded and faulted, metamorphosed, and intruded during the Brasiliano orogeny at about 630-500 Ma. Late in the same orogenic event, pegmatites intruded slightly earlier became metasomatized to feldspar and quartz, releasing beryllium to hydrothermal solutions that invaded the schist where they reacted with chromium, vanadium, iron, and magnesium in the metavolcanics to form green beryl. Thus, the emerald deposit was the result of metamorphic processes operating on igneous material (pegmatite) and previously metamorphosed host rocks (Lynch 2014 ).

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


14 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C. E. R., & Viana, D. J. (2016). Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Kanis, J. (2002) Piteiras, Brasilien: Erfolgreiche Smaragdsuche mit modernsten Methoden. Lapis 27 (3), 13-18. Lynch, E.P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M., Blamey, N.J.F., Pironon, J. Lavin, P. (2014) The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological perspectives. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1571-1587.
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Kanis, J. (2002) Piteiras, Brasilien: Erfolgreiche Smaragdsuche mit modernsten Methoden. Lapis 27 (3), 13-18. Lynch, E.P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M., Blamey, N.J.F., Pironon, J. Lavin, P. (2014) The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological perspectives. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1571-1587.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Lynch, E.P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M., Blamey, N.J.F., Pironon, J. Lavin, P. (2014) The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological perspectives. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1571-1587.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Lynch, E.P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M., Blamey, N.J.F., Pironon, J. Lavin, P. (2014) The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological [sic] perspectives: Mineralogical Magazine, v. 78, p. 1571-1587.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Lynch, E.P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M., Blamey, N.J.F., Pironon, J. Lavin, P. (2014) The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological perspectives. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1571-1587.
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Lynch, E.P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M., Blamey, N.J.F., Pironon, J. Lavin, P. (2014) The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological perspectives. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1571-1587.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.
Titanite var: Grothite
Reference: Delgado, C.E.R; Jordt-Evangelista, H.; Viana, D.J. (2005) GROTHITA (TITANITA DE ALTO AL) DA PROVÍNCIA ESMERALDÍFERA DE ITABIRA, MG. Boletim de Resumos do 9º Simpósio de Geologia do Sudeste e 13º Simpósio de Geologia de Minas Gerais. SBG 01: 77

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
var: Grothite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
Beryl
var: Emerald
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
Titanite
var: Grothite
-CaTi(SiO4)O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O QuartzSiO2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
FeIron
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Da Silva Lopes, P.H., Cesar-Mendes, J., Roeser, H. (2008) Ein neues Smaragdvorkommen in Brasilien. Die Rocha Mineração Mine in Minas Gerais. Der Aufschluss, 59, 301-315 (in German).
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., Turner, D. (2008) Emerald deposits and occurrences: a review. Ore Geology Reviews, 34, 87-112.
Kanis, J. (2002) Piteiras, Brasilien: Erfolgreiche Smaragdsuche mit modernsten Methoden. Lapis, 27(3), 13-18.
Lynch, E.P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M., Blamey, N.J.F., Pironon, J., Lavin, P. (2014) The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological [sic] perspectives. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1571-1587.
Rondeau, B., Notari, F., Giuliani, G., Michelou, J.-C., Martin, S., Fritsch, E., Respinger, A. (2003) La mine de Pteiras, Minas Gerais, nouvelle source d’émerouade de belle qualité au Brésil. Revue de Gemmologie, 147, 1-18.
Jordt-Evangelista, H., Lana, C., Delgado, C.E.R., Viana, D.J. (2016) Age of the emerald mineralization from the Itabira-Nova Era District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on LA-ICP-MS geochronology of cogenetic titanite. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 46(3), 427-437.

Other Regions, Features and Areas containg this locality

South AmericaContinent
South America PlateTectonic Plate

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