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Argyle mine (Argyle AK1 pipe), Lake Argyle area, Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire, Western Australia, Australiai
Regional Level Types
Argyle mine (Argyle AK1 pipe)Mine
Lake Argyle areaArea
Wyndham-East Kimberley ShireShire
Western AustraliaState
AustraliaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 16° 42' 59'' South , 128° 23' 20'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -16.71639,128.38889
GeoHash:G#: qv52cscgv
Owned/operated by:Rio Tinto Group
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate


Located a few miles South of Lake Argyle. A large diamond-bearing lamproite pipe discovered by Ashton Joint Venture in 1979. Open-pit mining began in 1985.
Argyle's production consists of 5% gem and 70% near-gem stones, with the remaining 25% being industrial diamonds. The mine also produces between 90% and 95% of the world's highly priced pink diamonds.
Underground mining is scheduled for 2013.

Rio Tinto's Argyle Diamond Mine is the largest producer of natural diamonds in the world.

Exploration for diamonds in the Kimberley region started in 1972 by Ashton Mining Ltd, as Ashton Joint Venture led by Maureen Muggeridge, then by CRA Ltd in 1976, later taken over by Rio Tinto. Apart from an area of diamond pipes in the Ellendale district in the west Kimberley, little was found.

In 1979 diamonds were found in Smoke Creek in the east Kimberley. These were found by Lyn Tagliaferri who was part of the exploration team, who initially thought they had been placed there by the company to test the worth of the team. She arrived back at the exploration camp announcing: ' I have found the test diamonds'. It led to a mad scramble to locate the source of the diamonds. It was followed upstream to the source of the diamonds later known as the AK1 pipe. It is said the pipe was located after a diamond was spotted embedded in an anthill. It could be argued credit for the discovery of the diamond pipe should go to the ant colony.

What followed next was secrecy which would put the CIA to shame. The AK1 pipe area was held by another company under lease exploring for uranium. CRA had to wait for this lease to expire without anyone finding out about the diamonds in the meantime. Due to the remote nature of the location, only HF radio was available and all communication was done in code. All available maps of the area were purchased, all available 4 wheel drives and helicopters hired in an effort to slow any other company. A large block of tenements was staked in the west Kimberley to throw off any other company who got wind of the discovery.

Alluvial mining started in 1983 and is now exhausted. Open pit mining started in 1985 and is now being wound down (2012) in favour of underground mining due to start production in 2013. Estimated life of the mine is 2019.

The volcanic pipe is a diatreme of olivine lamproite as tuff and lava. The diamonds are found in lamproite rather than the usual kimberlite. The Argyle Pipe consists of quartz-sand tuff, non-sandy tuff, and cross-cutting olivine lamproite. The highest grades of diamonds are found in the sandy tuff at 3-30 carats per tonne, with lower amounts in the other two rock types.

The sandy tuff is composed of volcanic clasts of olivine lamproite, exotic clasts of sandstone and shale. The fine-grained volcanic matrix has been partly recrystallised to a hard potassium-feldspar. The clasts range from blocky to highly vesicular. The dark green-brown blocky clasts were formed from rapid chilling when the hot magma hit water. Nearly all the primary minerals in the lamproite have been altered. Only phlogopite and chromite have survived alteration. In the northern section of the pipe, the sandy tuff is well bedded showing low angle cross bedding, scour and fill channels, accretionary lapilli, and water escape structures.

Non-sandy tuff is composed of olivine lamproite clasts in a finer grained altered ash matrix. The lamproite dykes have been altered to either olivine phlogopite lamproite, or phlogopite olivine lamproite, and cross cut the sandy tuffs as a late stage intrusion.

At the margins of the pipe is shattered fragmented volcanic breccia. This marginal area contains zeolites, mica, kaolinite, and clays. Diamonds are found in the core, and to a lesser extent in the marginal area. The diamonds formed in a relatively rapid period of 400 million years, 1.58 billion years ago. The rapid development may explain how many of the diamonds from the mine show odd shapes, etched surfaces, and stressed crystal structures.

The magma is thought to have violently exploded at the surface under a shallow water body with a sandy floor. The water caused the magma to flash to steam, causing an excavation of the vent, which worked its way downwards for hundreds of metres. Within the vent at this time was a chaotic and turbulent mix of hot tuff, water, and sand pouring into the vent from the surface. This violent mixing is seen to explain the lack of stratigraphy in the pipe.

The mine produces 90-95% of the world's pink and red diamonds. Diamonds from the mine tend to fluoresce blue or dull grey under UV light, and blue-white under X-ray radiation. As part of a marketing campaign, the gemstone formerly known as brown diamond was re-named champagne and cognac diamonds. Pink, blue and red diamonds are sold at auction to invited buyers. In 2012, Rio Tinto announced they had recovered Australia's largest pink diamond at 12.76 carats, subsequently named The Argyle Pink Jubilee. Unfortunately, it wasn't left in its rough natural state and underwent cutting and faceting. Red diamond is one of the rarest gemstones in the world. The mine produces half a teaspoon of red diamonds per year, and they sell for half a million dollars upwards per stone. Garden variety rough diamond specimens from the mine are readily available for sale. The United States acts as a diamond sink as it is illegal to export diamonds from the country, even back to the stone's country of origin.

Visitors can book light plane tours to the mine from Kununurra.

The AK1 pipe is the type locality for lucasite-(Ce), which is found as brown subhedral 0.5-1mm grains in the non-sandy olivine lamproite tuff. The species is named after Hans Lucas from CRA Exploration Pty Ltd who noticed the new species in the heavy mineral concentrate they were processing.

Regions containing this locality

Australian Plate (Australia Plate)Tectonic Plate
North Australian Element, AustraliaCraton
Kalkarindji Igneous Province, Northern Territory, AustraliaGeologic Province
Lamboo Province, Halls Creek Orogen, AustraliaGeologic Province
Halls Creek Orogen, AustraliaOrogen
Carr Boyd Basin, Western Australia, AustraliaBasin
Revolver Creek Basin, Western Australia, AustraliaBasin

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


39 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Nickel, E., Grey, I., Madsen, I.(1987): Lucasite (Ce) a New Mineral from Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1987):72: 1006-1010; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Nickel, E., Grey, I., Madsen, I.(1987): Lucasite (Ce) a New Mineral from Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1987):72: 1006-1010
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Nickel, E., Grey, I., Madsen, I.(1987): Lucasite (Ce) a New Mineral from Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1987):72: 1006-1010; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: [MinRec 21:561]
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Diamond
Formula: C
Reference: [MinRec 21:561]; Rayner, M. J., Moss, S. W., Lorenz, V., Jaques, A. L., Boxer, G. L., Smith, C. B., & Webb, K. (2018). New insights into volcanic processes from deep mining of the southern diatreme within the Argyle lamproite pipe, Western Australia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-13.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: [MinRec 21:561]; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Nickel, E., Grey, I., Madsen, I.(1987): Lucasite (Ce) a New Mineral from Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1987):72: 1006-1010
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.; Rayner, M. J., Moss, S. W., Lorenz, V., Jaques, A. L., Boxer, G. L., Smith, C. B., & Webb, K. (2018). New insights into volcanic processes from deep mining of the southern diatreme within the Argyle lamproite pipe, Western Australia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-13.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Grant Boxer, Geologist, Argyle Diamond Mine, from 1979 to 1989
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: [MinRec 21:561]
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Jeppeite
Formula: (K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
Reference: [MinRec 21:561]
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Lucasite-(Ce)
Formula: CeTi2(O,OH)6
Reference: [Nickel & Nichols, 1991 -
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
'Mica Group'
Reference: Grant Boxer, Geologist, Argyle Diamond Mine, from 1979 to 1989
Moissanite
Formula: SiC
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Nickel, E., Grey, I., Madsen, I.(1987): Lucasite (Ce) a New Mineral from Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1987):72: 1006-1010
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: [MinRec 21:561]; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.; Grant Boxer, Geologist, Argyle Diamond Mine, from 1979 to 1989
Priderite
Formula: K(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16
Reference: [MinRec 21:561]; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Pyrope
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Nickel, E., Grey, I., Madsen, I.(1987): Lucasite (Ce) a New Mineral from Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1987):72: 1006-1010; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Richterite
Formula: {Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: [MinRec 21:561]
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Selenium
Formula: Se
Reference: Nickel, E., Grey, I., Madsen, I.(1987): Lucasite (Ce) a New Mineral from Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1987):72: 1006-1010
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Rayner, M. J., Moss, S. W., Lorenz, V., Jaques, A. L., Boxer, G. L., Smith, C. B., & Webb, K. (2018). New insights into volcanic processes from deep mining of the southern diatreme within the Argyle lamproite pipe, Western Australia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-13.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.; Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.; Rayner, M. J., Moss, S. W., Lorenz, V., Jaques, A. L., Boxer, G. L., Smith, C. B., & Webb, K. (2018). New insights into volcanic processes from deep mining of the southern diatreme within the Argyle lamproite pipe, Western Australia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-13.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Wadeite
Formula: K2Zr(Si3O9)
Reference: [MinRec 21:561]
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Diamond1.CB.10aC
Moissanite1.DA.SiC
Selenium1.CC.10Se
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Coesite4.DA.35SiO2
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Jeppeite4.CC.50(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
Lucasite-(Ce)4.DH.10CeTi2(O,OH)6
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Priderite4.DK.05bK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Lizardite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrope9.AD.25Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Richterite9.DE.20{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Wadeite9.CA.10K2Zr(Si3O9)
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Mica Group'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Diamond1.3.6.1C
Moissanite1.3.8.1SiC
Selenium1.3.4.1Se
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
AB8X16
Priderite7.9.4.1K(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
AB2O6
Lucasite-(Ce)8.3.5.1CeTi2(O,OH)6
Miscellaneous
Jeppeite8.7.9.1(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Pyrope51.4.3a.1Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 59 - CYCLOSILICATES Three-Membered Rings
Three-Membered Rings, anhydrous, no other anions
Wadeite59.1.1.4K2Zr(Si3O9)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Richterite66.1.3b.9{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Lizardite71.1.2b.2Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Coesite75.1.4.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Mica Group'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
H LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
CCarbon
C DiamondC
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MoissaniteSiC
OOxygen
O Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
O Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
O WadeiteK2Zr(Si3O9)
O PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O AnataseTiO2
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O CoesiteSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O QuartzSiO2
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
NaSodium
Na Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
AlAluminium
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si WadeiteK2Zr(Si3O9)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si MoissaniteSiC
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si CoesiteSiO2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
SSulfur
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S BaryteBaSO4
KPotassium
K Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
K WadeiteK2Zr(Si3O9)
K PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
TiTitanium
Ti Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
Ti Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
Ti PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
Fe PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
NiNickel
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SeSelenium
Se SeleniumSe
ZrZirconium
Zr WadeiteK2Zr(Si3O9)
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
BaBarium
Ba Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Late Devonian - Middle Devonian
358.9 - 393.3 Ma



ID: 3188660
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 393.3 Ma)

Comments: Bonaparte Basin

Lithology: Limestone,sandstone,siltstone,conglomerate

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Stenian
1000 - 1200 Ma



ID: 765305
Argyle Lamproite

Age: Stenian (1000 - 1200 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Argyle Lamproite

Description: Volcaniclastic olivine lamproite with olivine-phlogopite dykes

Comments: igneous lamproites; synthesis of multiple published descriptions

Lithology: Igneous lamproites

Reference: Raymond, O.L., Liu, S., Gallagher, R., Zhang, W., Highet, L.M. Surface Geology of Australia 1:1 million scale dataset 2012 edition. Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia). [5]

Orosirian
1800 - 2050 Ma



ID: 2326731
Revolver Creek Formation

Age: Orosirian (1800 - 2050 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Revolver Creek Formation

Lithology: Amygdaloidal basalt, arkose, quartz sandstone, flaggy purple micaceous siltstone, massive chocolate-brown siltstone, slate

Reference: Plumb, K.A. Geology of the Lissadell. Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia). [45]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Grant Boxer, Geologist, Argyle Diamond Mine, from 1979 to 1989.
Nickel, E.H., Grey, I.E., Madsen, I.C. (1987) Lucasite-(Ce), CeTi2(O,OH)6, a new Mineral from Western Australia: its description and structure. American Mineralogist 72, 1006-1010.
Jaques, A.L., Hall, A.E., Sheraton, J.W., Smith, J.B., Sun, S.S., Drew, R.M., Foudoulis, C., and Ellingsen, K. (1989) Composition of crystalline inclusions and C-isotope composition of Argyle and Ellendale diamonds. In Kimberlite and Related Rocks, Volume 2: Their Mantle/Crust Setting, Diamonds and Diamond Exploration; Geological Society of Australia Special Publication, 14; 966–989. Blackwell Scientific, Cambridge, U.K.
Shigley, J. E., Chapman, J., & Ellison, R. K. (2001) Discovery and mining of the Argyle diamond deposit, Australia. Gems & Gemology, 37(1), 26-41.
Morris, N. (2005) Diamonds and other gems. Appleseed Editions Ltd, East Sussex.
Lapis (2010) 35(12): 6 [general info & data on planned underground mining].
Rayner, M. J., Moss, S. W., Lorenz, V., Jaques, A. L., Boxer, G. L., Smith, C. B., & Webb, K. (2018). New insights into volcanic processes from deep mining of the southern diatreme within the Argyle lamproite pipe, Western Australia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-13.

External Links



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