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Nyiragongo Volcano, Nyiragongo Territory, North Kivu, DR Congoi
Regional Level Types
Nyiragongo VolcanoVolcano
Nyiragongo TerritoryTerritory
North KivuProvince
DR CongoCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
1° 31' 19'' South , 29° 14' 58'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Goma144,124 (2012)17.1km
Gisenyi83,623 (2010)20.1km
Sake17,151 (2012)23.6km
Musanze86,685 (2016)42.9km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Zaïre


Located north of Goma City near Lake Kivu. An active volcano.

Melilite and leucite nephelinite lava.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

35 valid minerals. 6 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Åkermanite
Formula: Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Andrémeyerite (TL)
Formula: BaFe2+2(Si2O7)
Type Locality:
Reference: Sahama, T.G., Siivola, J. and P. Rehtijärvi, P. (1973): Andremeyerite, a new barium iron silicate from Nyiragongo, Zaire. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland, 45, 1-8.; Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171.; Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.; Sahama, T.G., Siivola, J. and P. Rehtijärvi, P. (1973): Andremeyerite, a new barium iron silicate from Nyiragongo, Zaire. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland, 45, 1-8. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Reference: Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.; Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
Chlorbartonite ?
Formula: K6Fe24S26(Cl,S)
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
Combeite (TL)
Formula: Na4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 31 (1957) 698-699; Fischer, R.X. Tillmanns, E. (1983): Die Kristallstrukturen von natürlichem Na2Ca2Si3O9 vom Mt. Shaheru (Zaire) und aus dem Mayener Feld (Eifel), N. Jb. Mineral. Mh. 49-59.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.
Cuspidine
Formula: Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Delhayelite (TL)
Formula: (Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1959) 32, 6-9
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Elpasolite
Formula: K2NaAlF6
Reference: Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Fresnoite
Formula: Ba2Ti(Si2O7)O
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
'Glass'
Description: Green glass.
Reference: Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, p. 497.; Herzog, G. F., Moynier, F., Albarède, F., & Berezhnoy, A. A. (2009). Isotopic and elemental abundances of copper and zinc in lunar samples, Zagami, Pele’s hairs, and a terrestrial basalt. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(19), 5884-5904.
Götzenite (TL)
Formula: NaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Reference: Sahama, T. G. & Hytönen, K. (1957) Götzenite and combeite, two new silicates from the Belgian Congo. Mineralogical Magazine 31: 503-510; NJMM (2000), 496; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Hieratite
Formula: K2[SiF6]
Reference: Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
'Hornblende'
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
Kalsilite
Formula: KAlSiO4
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
Kirschsteinite (TL)
Formula: CaFe2+SiO4
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
Leucite
Formula: K(AlSi2O6)
Reference: Strübel, Zimmer: "Lexikon der Minerale", 2nd Ed., 1991; Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.; Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Sahama, T.G., Siivola, J. and P. Rehtijärvi, P. (1973): Andremeyerite, a new barium iron silicate from Nyiragongo, Zaire. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland, 45, 1-8. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
Magnetite var. Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
'Melilite Group'
Formula: Ca2M(XSiO7)
Reference: Strübel, Zimmer: "Lexikon der Minerale", 2nd Ed., 1991; Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.; Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Reference: Strübel, Zimmer: "Lexikon der Minerale", 2nd Ed., 1991; Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.; Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536 Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728 Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72. Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234. GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233 Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ. Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy. Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146 Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33 Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81. Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85. Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London. Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles. Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.
Sodalite
Formula: Na4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Reference: Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
'Thénardite'
Formula: Na2SO4
Reference: Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
Trikalsilite (TL)
Formula: K2NaAl3(SiO4)3
Type Locality:
Reference: Sahama T G, Smith J V (1957) Notes and news: Tri-kalsilite, a new mineral. American Mineralogist 42, 286-286
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Reference: Sahama, T.G., Siivola, J. and P. Rehtijärvi, P. (1973): Andremeyerite, a new barium iron silicate from Nyiragongo, Zaire. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland, 45, 1-8.
Umbrianite
Formula: K7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2
Reference: Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chlorbartonite ?2.FC.10K6Fe24S26(Cl,S)
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe1-xS
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Group 3 - Halides
Elpasolite3.CB.15K2NaAlF6
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Hieratite3.CH.15K2[SiF6]
Sylvite3.AA.20KCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var. Titaniferous Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Aphthitalite7.AC.35(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Thénardite'7.AC.25Na2SO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Andrémeyerite (TL)9.BB.20BaFe2+2(Si2O7)
Combeite (TL)9.CJ.15aNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Cuspidine9.BE.17Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Delhayelite (TL)9.EB.10(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Fresnoite9.BE.15Ba2Ti(Si2O7)O
Götzenite (TL)9.BE.22NaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Hedenbergite9.DA.15CaFe2+Si2O6
Kalsilite9.FA.05KAlSiO4
Kirschsteinite (TL)9.AC.05CaFe2+SiO4
Leucite9.GB.05K(AlSi2O6)
Nepheline9.FA.05Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sanidine9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Sodalite9.FB.10Na4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Trikalsilite (TL)9.FA.05K2NaAl3(SiO4)3
Åkermanite9.BB.10Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Glass'-
'Hornblende'-
'Melilite Group'-Ca2M(XSiO7)
'Pyroxene Group'-
Umbrianite-K7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe1-xS
Troilite2.8.9.1FeS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Perovskite4.3.3.1CaTiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Sylvite9.1.1.2KCl
Group 11 - HALIDE COMPLEXES
AmBX6
Hieratite11.5.1.1K2[SiF6]
Aluminofluorides - Isolated Octahedra
Elpasolite11.6.2.1K2NaAlF6
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
Aphthitalite28.2.2.1(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
'Thénardite'28.2.3.1Na2SO4
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Kirschsteinite (TL)51.3.2.2CaFe2+SiO4
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Group 55 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination
Fresnoite55.4.2.1Ba2Ti(Si2O7)O
Åkermanite55.4.1.1Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Andrémeyerite (TL)56.2.6c.6BaFe2+2(Si2O7)
Cuspidine56.2.4.3Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Götzenite (TL)56.2.5.4NaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Combeite (TL)61.1.2a.5Na4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Hedenbergite65.1.3a.2CaFe2+Si2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with corrugated and complex layers
Delhayelite (TL)72.5.1.4(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Sanidine76.1.1.2K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Kalsilite76.2.1.1KAlSiO4
Leucite76.2.2.1K(AlSi2O6)
Nepheline76.2.1.2Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Sodalite76.2.3.1Na4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Trikalsilite (TL)76.2.1.3K2NaAl3(SiO4)3
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
Chlorbartonite ?-K6Fe24S26(Cl,S)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Glass'-
'Hornblende'-
Magnetite
var. Titaniferous Magnetite
-Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
'Melilite Group'-Ca2M(XSiO7)
'Pyroxene Group'-
Umbrianite-K7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
H CombeiteNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O AndrémeyeriteBaFe22+(Si2O7)
O Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
O CombeiteNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
O GötzeniteNaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
O KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
O TrikalsiliteK2NaAl3(SiO4)3
O Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
O LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)
O NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O KalsiliteKAlSiO4
O SodaliteNa4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
O PerovskiteCaTiO3
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
O Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O ThénarditeNa2SO4
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
O CalciteCaCO3
O Magnetite var. Titaniferous MagnetiteFe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
O UmbrianiteK7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2
O CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O BaryteBaSO4
O FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)O
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
O ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
FFluorine
F Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
F GötzeniteNaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
F ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6
F HieratiteK2[SiF6]
F UmbrianiteK7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2
F CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
NaSodium
Na Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
Na CombeiteNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
Na GötzeniteNaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Na TrikalsiliteK2NaAl3(SiO4)3
Na NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Na SodaliteNa4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Na Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Na ThénarditeNa2SO4
Na ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6
Na HaliteNaCl
Na UmbrianiteK7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2
MgMagnesium
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
AlAluminium
Al Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
Al TrikalsiliteK2NaAl3(SiO4)3
Al LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)
Al NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Al KalsiliteKAlSiO4
Al SodaliteNa4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
Al ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Al UmbrianiteK7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si AndrémeyeriteBaFe22+(Si2O7)
Si Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
Si CombeiteNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
Si GötzeniteNaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Si KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
Si TrikalsiliteK2NaAl3(SiO4)3
Si Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
Si LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)
Si NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Si KalsiliteKAlSiO4
Si SodaliteNa4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
Si HieratiteK2[SiF6]
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Si UmbrianiteK7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2
Si CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)O
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Si ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
S TroiliteFeS
S Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S ThénarditeNa2SO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
S ChlorbartoniteK6Fe24S26(Cl,S)
ClChlorine
Cl Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl SodaliteNa4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl SylviteKCl
Cl UmbrianiteK7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2
Cl ChlorbartoniteK6Fe24S26(Cl,S)
KPotassium
K Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
K TrikalsiliteK2NaAl3(SiO4)3
K LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)
K NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
K KalsiliteKAlSiO4
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
K Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
K ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6
K SylviteKCl
K HieratiteK2[SiF6]
K SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
K UmbrianiteK7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K ChlorbartoniteK6Fe24S26(Cl,S)
CaCalcium
Ca Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
Ca CombeiteNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
Ca GötzeniteNaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Ca KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
Ca Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca UmbrianiteK7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2
Ca CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Ca ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
TiTitanium
Ti GötzeniteNaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Ti PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ti BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
Ti Magnetite var. Titaniferous MagnetiteFe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Ti FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)O
FeIron
Fe AndrémeyeriteBaFe22+(Si2O7)
Fe KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe TroiliteFeS
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Magnetite var. Titaniferous MagnetiteFe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Fe PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
Fe HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Fe ChlorbartoniteK6Fe24S26(Cl,S)
BaBarium
Ba AndrémeyeriteBaFe22+(Si2O7)
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Sahama, T.G., Siivola, J.P., Rehtijärvi, P. (1973) Andremeyerite, a new barium iron silicate from Nyiragongo, Zaire. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 45, 1-8.
Haapala, I. (2011) Th.G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41–55.
Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., Erambert, M. (2014) Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Woolley, A. R. (2001). Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. Part 3: Africa. Geological Society. Natural History Museum, London, p. 47.
Bell, K., & Powell, J. L. (1969). Strontium isotopic studies of alkalic rocks: the potassium-rich lavas of the Birunga and Toro—Ankole Regions, East and Central Equatorial Africa. Journal of Petrology, 10(3), 536-572. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/10.3.536
Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R. T., Kampunzu, A. B., & Durieux, J. (1994). Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56(1), 47-61. doi.org/10.1007/BF00279728
Denaeyer, M. E. (1972). LES LAVES DU FOSSE TECTONIQUE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE (KIVU, RWANDA, TORO-ANKOLE). I. SUPPLEMENT AU RECUEIL D'ANALYSES DE 1965. II. MAGMATOLOGIE. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques, 72.
Denaeyer, M. E., Schellinck, F., & Coppez, A. (1965). Recueil d'analyses des laves du fossé tectonique de l'Afrique centrale. Annales. Musée Roy. Afrique Centrale. Belgique, Ann. Ser. 8, Sci. Geol., 49, 1-234.
GEE, L. L., & Sack, R. O. (1988). Experimental petrology of melilite nephelinites. Journal of Petrology, 29(6), 1233-1255. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.6.1233
Hamaguchi, H. (1983). Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: geophysical aspects. Tohoku Univ.
Richard, J.J. & Padang, M.N. 1957. Active volcanoes of the world. Part 4 Africa and the Red Sea. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, Italy.
Sahama, T. G. (1960). Kalsilite in the lavas of mt. Nyiragongo (Belgian Congo). Journal of Petrology, 1(2), 146-171. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/1.2.146
Sahama, T. G. (1973). Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. Journal of Petrology, 14(1), 33-48. doi.org/10.1093/petrology/14.1.33
Sahama, T. G. (1978). The Nyiragongo main cone. Annales, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique. Serie In 8º, Sciences Geologiques 81.
Sahama, G., & Meyer, A. (1958). Study of the volcano Niragongo. A progress Report, Exploration du parc National Albert, mission d’études volcanologiques, Fasc 2, 1-85.
Tazieff, H. 1975. Nyiragongo: the forbidden volcano. Cassell, London.
Tazieff, H. (1984). Mt. Niragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 267-280. doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(84)90043-X
Thonnard, R. L. G., & Denaeyer, M. E. (1965). Carte volcanologique des Virunga, Feuille No. 1. 1:50000 and Introduction generale et Notice Explicative de la Feuille No. 1. Centre National de Volcanologie (Belgique), Bruxelles.
Vollmer, R., & Norry, M. J. (1983). Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal material: Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(3), 374-386. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(83)90097-3

Other Databases

Wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Nyiragongo
Wikidata ID:Q214696

External Links


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Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

Africa
African PlateTectonic Plate
DR Congo

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