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Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazili
Regional Level Types
Bagagem River valleyValley
Coromandel districtDistrict
Minas GeraisState
BrazilCountry

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Terrain quarried for alluvial diamonds with apparent dredging barge on water

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
View of the Bagagem diamond mining area, ca. 1930.

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
View of the Bagagem diamond mining area, ca. 1930.

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
View of the Bagagem diamond mining area, ca. 1930.

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Terrain quarried for alluvial diamonds with apparent dredging barge on water

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
View of the Bagagem diamond mining area, ca. 1930.

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
View of the Bagagem diamond mining area, ca. 1930.

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
View of the Bagagem diamond mining area, ca. 1930.

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Terrain quarried for alluvial diamonds with apparent dredging barge on water

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
View of the Bagagem diamond mining area, ca. 1930.

Bagagem River valley, Coromandel district, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
18° 42' 19'' South , 47° 41' 50'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Name(s) in local language(s):
Rio Bagagem


In 1853, a diamond discovered in alluvial deposits of the Bagagem River valley about 60 km SW of Coromandel became the first large Brazilian diamond whose history is fully authenticated. Named “Estrela do Sul” (Star of the South), it weighed 261.9 carats. It was found by a slave, who turned it in and was rewarded with her freedom and granted a lifetime pension. Additional notable stones discovered in the same area include one weighing 122.5 carats (found four years later, in 1857), and others: 118 carats (1929), 108 carats (1940), and 174.5 carats (1954).

A sprawling community grew in the area to provide services for participants in the ensuing diamond rush. First named “Bagagem” (“baggage” in English), it was later renamed after the famous stone, the Estrela do Sul. Just downstream (NW) from Estrela do Sul is the village of São Rita da Estrela that borders several quarries (called “garimpos” in Brazil), and the major digs are readily visible in satellite photos further down the river (generally NNW), all the way to the flooded portion associated with Emborcação Reservoir on the Paranaíba River. Diamond production data are not available for any of those quarries, and one or more of them may be where some of the large stones mentioned above were discovered. The town of Estrela do Sul is close to the main area of alluvial diamond mining, so its geographic coordinates are used for the locality. In fact, Estrela do Sul is where that 261.9 carat stone was discovered. Romaria is a larger town and municipality, but few major quarries were established that far upriver.

Several publications list Romaria as the name of a diamond district, but Romaria and Bagagem River valley both lie within the area that has long been included in the Coromandel diamond district (e.g., see Fig. 1 in Karfunkel et al., 1994), so this area is included in the Coromandel district here, with Romaria mine as a sublocality. The diamond occurrence at the Romaria mine is apparently in a debris flow conglomerate that is lithified, rather than in alluvium, and details on its geology are presented in the Romaria locality description. Fleischer (1998) mentioned that the conglomerate at Romaria extends to Iraí de Minas, which is also considered to be a sublocality of Bagagem River valley.

The discussion of geological circumstances of alluvial diamond occurrences in the locality description for Coromandel district applies to Bagagem River valley.

Geographic coordinates for significant quarries and clusters of quarries along Bagagem River, from Google Earth:

1) several quarries from 18° 51' 28", 47° 37' 51" to 18° 51' 8", 47° 39' 2"

2) 18° 42' 19", 47° 41' 51"

3) large area near Emborcação Reservoir in 18° 41' 14", 47° 41' 49".

Regions containing this locality

South America PlateTectonic Plate
South AmericaContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

19 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Diamond
Formula: C
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Gorceixite
Formula: BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Description: Occurs abundantly as pebbles (favas) in the river.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 833.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Monazite'
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Pyrope
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Chaves, M. L. S. C., and Svisero, D. P., 1993, Características geológicas e origem conglomerados diamantíferos das regiões de Diamantina (Mesoproterozóico) e de Romaria (Cretáceo Superior), Minas Gerais: Boletim Instituto Geociências, Univ.São Paulo, Séries Cient., v. 24, p. 49-57.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Diamond1.CB.10aC
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Gorceixite8.BL.10BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Pyrope9.AD.25Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Monazite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Diamond1.3.6.1C
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Perovskite4.3.3.1CaTiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Gorceixite42.7.3.2BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Pyrope51.4.3a.1Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Monazite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C DiamondC
OOxygen
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O PerovskiteCaTiO3
O PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
O RutileTiO2
O GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AnataseTiO2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O HematiteFe2O3
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O QuartzSiO2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
AlAluminium
Al PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Al GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti AnataseTiO2
FeIron
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
BaBarium
Ba GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Sauer, Jules Roger (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 18, as "the Estrela do Sul region").
Fleischer, R. (1998) A rift model for the sedimentary diamond deposits of Brazil. Mineralium Deposita, 33, 238-254.

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