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Sulphur Hole (Sulfur Hole; Sulphur pit), Calico, Calico District (Daggett District; Calico-Daggett area), Calico Mts (Calico Hills), San Bernardino Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Sulphur Hole (Sulfur Hole; Sulphur pit)- not defined -
Calico- not defined -
Calico District (Daggett District; Calico-Daggett area)Mining District
Calico Mts (Calico Hills)Mountain Range
San Bernardino Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
34° 57' North , 116° 49' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Barstow23,692 (2017)19.6km
Barstow Heights24,202 (2006)23.6km
Lenwood3,543 (2011)27.4km
Fort Irwin8,845 (2011)36.8km


A solfataric deposit located in the SE¼SE¼ sec. 18, T10N, R2E, SBM, 4.3 km (2.7 miles) E of the Calico and 5.0 km (3.1 miles) N of Yermo, along the S wall of Mule Canyon, below the borax mines.

NOTE: This locality is not listed in the USGS MRDS database.

Mineralization is a columnar pipe that formed by ascending iron-bearing acidic hot fluids acting on the underlying volcanic rocks.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


20 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alum-(K)
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: California State University, Desert Studies Consortium (2000), Between the Basins: Exploring the Western Mojave & Southern Basin, Range Province (April 2000). ; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 12; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 265.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14-15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 287; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California.
Botryogen
Formula: MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Colour: Brick-red
Description: Occurs as botryoidal groups.
Reference: Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14-15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 275; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Calciocopiapite ?
Formula: CaFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 10H2O
Reference: Excalibur Mineral Co.
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Colour: Pale yellow
Description: Occurs as scaly masses with other unspecified sulphates.
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 13; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 274; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California.
Coquimbite
Formula: Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 13; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 273; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Fibroferrite
Formula: Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 13; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 273.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14-15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 287; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 264; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: platelets, pyramids, pseudocubic crystals
Colour: yellow, honey yellow, orange, dark brown
Description: collected in 2019 from the side of the side wall of the hydrothermal chimney directly above the hole chimney
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14-15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 277.
Krausite (TL)
Formula: KFe(SO4)2 · H2O
Type Locality:
Colour: Yellow
Description: Occurs as grains and crystals associated with other sulphates.
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 14-15; part 2, No. 4: 12, 13; Graeber, E.J. and Rosenzweig, A. (1965) The unit cell of krausite. American Mineralogist: 50: 504-507; Graeber, E.J., Morosin, B., and Rosenzweig, A. (1965) The crystal structure of krausite, KFe(SO4)2 •H2O. American Mineralogist: 50: 1929-1936; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 265, 273, 278; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Colour: Apple-green to yellowish white
Reference: Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 272; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California.
Metavoltine
Formula: Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, No. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 12-15; Scordari, F., Vurro, F., and Menchetti, S. (1975) The metavoltine problem: relationships between metavoltine and Maus’ salt. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 22: 88-97; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 278; The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 620; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Quenstedtite
Formula: Fe2(SO4)3 · 11H2O
Habit: Thin tabular, to 1 mm.
Colour: Pale lilac to colorless
Reference: Weber, D. (1975): Quenstedtite from California. Mineralogical Record 6(3), 106; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 13; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 273; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Römerite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Reference: American Mineralogist (1931), 16: 352-360.; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14-15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 275; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Habit: massive earthy layers
Colour: grayish-blue
Description: first arsenate mineral reported from locality
Reference: Housley R. (2019) pers. communication, Raman verified. MarekC (2019) pers. collection, Raman verified. MarekC (2019) MSSC Fieldtrip Report. Borate area, Calico Mts, Apr 13, 2019. http://www.mineralsocal.org/fieldtrip-information-reports/borate-area-calico-mts-apr-13-2019
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Habit: complex euhedral crystals, flowy subhedral crystals up to 1 mm in size, microscopic dark red flat platelets
Colour: bright light yellow, dark red
Description: Occurs as lenticular masses of mixed sulfates. Also occurs as subhedral and euhedral crystals in crumbly matric in the hydrothermal chimney directly above the hole.
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 12-15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 53; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
Voltaite
Formula: K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Description: Occurs in lenticular masses.
Reference: Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14-15; Scordari, F., Vurro, F., and Menchetti, S. (1975) The metavoltine problem: relationships between metavoltine and Maus’ salt. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 22: 88-97; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 278; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alum-(K)7.CC.20KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Botryogen7.DC.25MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Calciocopiapite ?7.DB.35CaFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 10H2O
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Coquimbite7.CB.55Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Fibroferrite7.DC.15Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Krausite (TL)7.CC.05KFe(SO4)2 · H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Metavoltine7.DF.35Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Quenstedtite7.CB.65Fe2(SO4)3 · 11H2O
Römerite7.CB.75Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Voltaite7.CC.25K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
Metavoltine29.4.6.1Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Alum-(K)29.5.5.1KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Krausite (TL)29.5.1.1KFe(SO4)2 · H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Römerite29.7.2.1Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Coquimbite29.8.3.1Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Quenstedtite29.8.5.1Fe2(SO4)3 · 11H2O
Miscellaneous
Voltaite29.9.1.1K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Botryogen31.9.6.1MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Fibroferrite31.9.12.1Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Miscellaneous
Calciocopiapite ?31.10.5.5CaFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 10H2O
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
H BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
H RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
H VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
H QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2O
H Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H CalciocopiapiteCaFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 10H2O
OOxygen
O KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
O RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
O VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
O QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2O
O Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O CalciocopiapiteCaFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 10H2O
NaSodium
Na MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
AlAluminium
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Al Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
SSulfur
S KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
S RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
S SulphurS8
S VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
S QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2O
S Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
S CalciocopiapiteCaFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 10H2O
KPotassium
K KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
K MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
K VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
K Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca CalciocopiapiteCaFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 10H2O
FeIron
Fe KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
Fe BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Fe RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Fe VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Fe QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2O
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe CalciocopiapiteCaFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 10H2O
AsArsenic
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 620.
Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 12-15.
Graeber, E.J. and Rosenzweig, A. (1965) The unit cell of krausite. American Mineralogist: 50: 504-507.
Graeber, E.J., Morosin, B., and Rosenzweig, A. (1965) The crystal structure of krausite, KFe(SO4)2 •H2O. American Mineralogist: 50: 1929-1936.
Scordari, F., Vurro, F., and Menchetti, S. (1975) The metavoltine problem: relationships between metavoltine and Maus’ salt. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 22: 88-97.
Weber, D. and Gaal, R.A. (1975) Quenstedtite from California. Mineralogical Record: 6: 106.
Desert Studies Consortium, California State University (2000), Between the Basins: Exploring the Western Mojave & Southern Basin, Range Province (April 2000).
Cooper, Joseph F., Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001): The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California. The Axis 1(5): 1-18.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 62, 213, 233, 236, 264, 356.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 53, 264, 265, 272, 273, 274, 275, 277, 278, 287.

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