SUPPORT US. If mindat.org is important to you, click here to donate to our Fall 2019 fundraiser!
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe ElementsBooks & Magazines
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsUsersMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day GalleryMineral Photography

El Refugio mine, Galena Mining District, Lawrence Co., South Dakota, USAi
Regional Level Types
El Refugio mineMine
Galena Mining DistrictMining District
Lawrence Co.County
South DakotaState
USACountry

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
44° 20' 17'' North , 104° 21' 0'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Deadwood1,258 (2017)8.4km
Lead2,999 (2017)10.2km
Central City130 (2017)11.1km
Sturgis6,688 (2017)13.0km
Whitewood919 (2017)13.7km


Composed of several openings in the "Upper Contact" and "Lower Contact" of the Deadwood Formation. The ore produced was 75% galena (60 ounces silver per ton and 65% lead) and 25% oxidized ore (30 ounces silver per ton and 30% lead).

Located in 1876. By 1877 a smelter was constructed across the creek from the mine. It's first run was on galena and carbonate ore from the mine. The smelter only recovered 67% to 75% of the silver content, deemed a failure and closed.

The smelter was repaired in 1880, but by 1881 the mine was shipping all ore to Omaha, Nebraska. The mine closed in 1883. Two brief attempts to operate it occurred in 1889 and 1904.

Wulfenite collecting is from the "Upper Contact" dumps near the top of Mineral Hill.
Deposit: Hard copy file contains file report plus maps.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


7 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Colour: colorless, greenish
Reference: South Dakota School of Mines collection, per Mr. Tom Loomis.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: "Mineralogy of the Black Hills", Bulletin 18, SDSM&T, Willard Lincoln Roberts and George Rapp, Jr., 1965 and WLR identifications, 1984 - 1987.; Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: "Mineralogy of the Black Hills", Bulletin 18, SDSM&T, Willard Lincoln Roberts and George Rapp, Jr., 1965 and WLR identifications, 1984 - 1987.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: "Mineralogy of the Black Hills", Bulletin 18, SDSM&T, Willard Lincoln Roberts and George Rapp, Jr., 1965 and WLR identifications, 1984 - 1987.; Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Adamite8.BB.30Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A2(XO4)Zq
Adamite41.6.6.3Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C CerussitePbCO3
OOxygen
O CerussitePbCO3
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
ClChlorine
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
ZnZinc
Zn AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
AsArsenic
As AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Waterland, Joel K. (1991), The Mines Around and Beyond: 132-133.
Mines and Technology (1970) 285 Pp
Rtiary Age of the Northern Black Hills South Dakota (1970) 110
Robert, W L and Cope J H (1969) Utilization of Mine Dumps in T
U S Bureau of Mines (1954) Black Hills Mineral Atlas South Dak
T I: Washing, D C U S Bureau of Mines Ic (7688) 123 Pp

USGS MRDS Record:10177402
This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: September 15, 2019 11:03:55 Page generated: July 21, 2019 14:12:44
Go to top of page