ALMOST THERE!. Help us with a final push needed to keep running. Click here to help.
Catawiki are hosting a benefit auction. All proceeds to! BID NOW
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Camp Verde Salt Mine (Wingfield Gypsum; Sodium Products Corp. Mine; Graham Wingfield Sulphate Mine; Graham-Wingfield Sulfate Ground), Camp Verde, Camp Verde District, Yavapai Co., Arizona, USA

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 34° 32' 42'' North , 111° 52' 26'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 34.54500,-111.87389
GeoHash:G#: 9w0kw0xzj
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate

A former surface and underground salt-clay-gypsum mine located about 2 miles West of Camp Verde, SE of Clarkdale, on the West side of the Verde River. This mine produced in Pre-Columbian times (was working in 1492) and worked again in the 1920's to 1933.

NOTE: Alternate coordinates provided: 34.5833N, 111.8944W.

Mineralization is hosted in the Verde Formation. Local structures include the Verde Fault Zone.

The Camp Verde Salt Mine is one of the oldest known mines in the United States and some experts note that the area was likely worked for salt as long as 2000 years ago. Rare artifacts have shown that the mine was worked for salt at least before the arrival of Columbus (pre-Columbian) in the 14th and 15th centuries. The mummified body of an Indian miner was found in the underground workings during the most active mining period in the early 20th century. The establishment of Ft. Verde in 1871 brought new attention to the salt deposit and some of this was used for human consumption but the majority was used as stock salt. In the 1920's, the Western Chemical Company operated an open pit on the property. The ore was used in the processing of paper pulp. Later efforts in the early 1930's by the Arizona Chemical Company employed underground mining techniques and 14 tunnels were driven in horizontal strata for several hundred feet and followed rich layers of salt. At the time, about 75 men were employed (about half were Apache Indians) and the mine produced nearly 100 tons of "salt cake" daily, making the Camp Verde Salt mine the most productive in the country. This success was short-lived and duty-free and purer German ore entered the market in 1933 and essentially forced the closure of the mine. Attempts were made as late as the 1960's to market the deposit but current market needs demand 99% purity and the Camp Verde salt deposit is limited to 92% purity. Additionally, much larger deposits in the US and Canada exist and the mine has been dormant ever since.

Geology: The origin of the Camp Verde salt deposit can be traced back to massive volcanic events some 13 million years ago in the Hackberry Mountain and Thirteen-mile Rock volcanic center about 12 miles southeast of present-day Camp Verde. During this time of massive geologic upheaval, much of central Arizona was faulted into deep basins and high ranges. The deep basins captured eroded materials from the neighboring mountains and the southern limit of the Verde Valley was blocked by a massive volcanic flow and continued volcanic eruptions added more material to this natural dam.This basin captured materials and water and held it like a huge lake. Seasonal periods of acute dryness led to the evaporation of the super-saline waters and essentially left behind the salt and gypsum as layers within the Verde Valley sediments. The volcanic dam that blocked the southern end of the Verde Valley eventually eroded and normal drainage was achieved.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Camp Verde Salt Mine

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.

Mineral List

6 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: CaCO3
Habit: Pseudo-hexagonal twinned crystals aggregated into ball-like clusters.
Description: Ball-like aggregates of pseudo-hexagonal crystals & as pseudomorphs after glauberite.
Reference: Thompson, J.R. (1983), Camp Verde evaporites, Min.Rec.: 14: 85-90.; Anthony, J.W. et al. (1995) Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 118.;
Formula: CaCO3
Colour: buff to white
Description: as pseudomorphs after glauberite
Reference: Thompson, J.R. (1983) Camp Verde Evaporites. Mineralogical Record 14 (2): 85-90.;
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID #10062403, MRDS ID #TC35800.
Formula: Na2Ca(SO4)2
Reference: Tenny, J.B. (1928) The Mineral Industries of Arizona. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 125: 115.;
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Tenny, J.B. (1928) The Mineral Industries of Arizona. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 125: 115.;
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Tenny, J.B. (1928) The Mineral Industries of Arizona. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 125: 115.;
Formula: Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID #10062403, MRDS ID #TC35800.
Reference: From USGS MRDS database
Formula: Na2SO4
Reference: Tenny, J.B. (1928) The Mineral Industries of Arizona. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 125: 115.;

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Mirabilite'7.CD.10Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Mirabilite29.2.2.1Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.

List of minerals for each chemical element

H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
O ThénarditeNa2SO4
Na GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
Na HaliteNaCl
Na MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
Na ThénarditeNa2SO4
S GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
S ThénarditeNa2SO4
Cl HaliteNaCl
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Gelasian - Burdigalian
1.806 - 20.44 Ma

ID: 2845209
Pliocene to middle Miocene deposits

Age: Cenozoic (1.806 - 20.44 Ma)

Description: Moderately to strongly consolidated conglomerate and sandstone deposited in basins during and after late Tertiary faulting. Includes lesser amounts of mudstone, siltstone, limestone, and gypsum. These deposits are generally light gray or tan. They commonly form high rounded hills and ridges in modern basins, and locally form prominent bluffs. Deposits of this unit are widely exposed in the dissected basins of southeastern and central Arizona. (2-16 Ma)

Comments: In dissected basins of southeast and central Arizona

Lithology: Major:{conglomerate,sandstone}, Minor:{mudstone,siltstone,limestone,gypsum}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

2.588 - 5.333 Ma

ID: 3191095
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Pliocene (2.588 - 5.333 Ma)

Lithology: Volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

5.333 - 23.03 Ma

ID: 2643257
Evaporite beds of Verde Formation

Age: Miocene (5.333 - 23.03 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Verde Formation

Description: Sulfate-rich strata interbedded with minor limestone and siltstone (Thompson, 1983). Sulfate minerals include glauberite, gypsum, mirabillite, and thernardite. Thickness about 10–35 m

Reference: DeWitt, E., V. Langenheim, E. Force, R.K. Vance, P.A. Lindberg, R.L. Driscoll. Geologic map of the Prescott National Forest and the headwaters of the Verde River, Yavapai and Coconino Counties, Arizona. Scientific Investigations Map SIM-2996. [99]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Tenny, J.B. (1928) The Mineral Industries of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 125: 115.
Wilson, E.D. and Roseveare, G.H. (1949) Arizona Nonmetallics, A Summary of Past Production and Present Operations, 2nd. Edition (revised). Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 155: 43.
USGS & Arizona Bureau of Mines, and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1969) Mineral and Water Resources of Arizona. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 180 (USGS Bulletin 871): 378, 422.
Thompson, J.R. (1983) Camp Verde Evaporites. Mineralogical Record 14 (2): 85-90.
Eyde, T., Wilkinson, P.A.K., and Weiland, E.F. (1986) Field Trip to Selected Industrial Mineral Deposits of Arizona, in Beatty, B., and Wilkinson, P.A.K., editors, Frontiers in Geology and Ore Deposits of Arizona and the Southwest. Arizona Geological Society Digest vol. XVI: 312-318.
Phillips, K.A. (1987) Arizona Industrial Minerals, 2nd. Edition. Arizona Department of Mines & Minerals Mineral Report 4, 185 pp.
Anthony, J.W. et al. (1995) Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 118.
Arizona Department of Mineral Resources Graham-Wingfield Sulfate Ground file.
USGS Camp Verde Quadrangle map.
USGS Middle Verde Quadrangle map.
MRDS database Dep. ID #10062403, MRDS ID #TC35800; and, Dep. ID #10186199, MAS ID #0040250843; and, Dep. ID #10186271, MRDS ID #TC10151, MAS ID #0040251610; and, Dep. ID #10283456, MAS ID #0040250397.
Slaughter, D.S. Collecting at Camp Verde, Arizona (unpublished paper).

External Links

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
Mineral and/or Locality is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2018, except where stated. relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: December 15, 2018 18:12:27 Page generated: August 10, 2018 16:54:30
Go to top of page