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Mushgai Khudag carbonatite complex (Mushgai Hudag; Mushugai Khuduk; Mushugay Khuduk), Shara Hulasa Hiid, Ömnögovi Aimag, Mongoliai
Regional Level Types
Mushgai Khudag carbonatite complex (Mushgai Hudag; Mushugai Khuduk; Mushugay Khuduk)Complex
Shara Hulasa Hiid- not defined -
Ömnögovi Aimag- not defined -
MongoliaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 44° 24' 3'' North , 104° 3' 5'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 44.40083,104.05139
GeoHash:G#: wrcuxdzvt
Locality type:Complex
Köppen climate type:BWk : Cold desert climate


REE deposit.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


32 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Andreeva, I.A., Kovalenko, V.I., and Naumov, V.B. (2007): Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(19, 73-82.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data; U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
'Apatite'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data; U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Reference: Ripp, G. S.; Karmanov, N. S.; Kanakin, S. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Andreev, G. V. (2005): Cerium britholite from the Mushugai ore deposit (Mongolia). Zapiski Rossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 134, 90-103. (in Russian) ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Andreeva, I.A., Kovalenko, V.I., and Naumov, V.B. (2007): Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(19, 73-82.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Andreeva, I.A., Kovalenko, V.I., and Naumov, V.B. (2007): Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(19, 73-82.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252; Jindřich Kynický et al (2009) Fluorite Deposits in Mongolia. Geoscience Research Reports for 2008 • Czech Geological Survey, Prague, 2009 pp225-228; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data; U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Andreeva, I.A., Kovalenko, V.I., and Naumov, V.B. (2007): Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(19, 73-82.; U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252
Maghemite
Formula: Fe3+2O3
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252
Perrierite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce4MgFe3+2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Andreeva, I.A., Kovalenko, V.I., and Naumov, V.B. (2007): Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(19, 73-82.; U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1252; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Ripp, G. S.; Karmanov, N. S.; Kanakin, S. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Andreev, G. V. (2005): Cerium britholite from the Mushugai ore deposit (Mongolia). Zapiski Rossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 134, 90-103. (in Russian)
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
'Rhabdophane'
Reference: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
Schorlomite
Formula: Ca3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data
Thorianite
Formula: ThO2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Andreeva, I.A., Kovalenko, V.I., and Naumov, V.B. (2007): Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(19, 73-82.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: Andreeva, I.A., Kovalenko, V.I., and Naumov, V.B. (2007): Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(19, 73-82.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Maghemite4.BB.15Fe3+2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Thorianite4.DL.05ThO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Bastnäsite-(Ce)5.BD.20aCe(CO3)F
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Britholite-(Ce)9.AH.25(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Nepheline9.FA.05Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Perrierite-(Ce)9.BE.70Ce4MgFe3+2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorlomite9.AD.25Ca3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Rhabdophane'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Maghemite4.3.7.1Fe3+2O3
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Thorianite5.1.1.2ThO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bastnäsite-(Ce)16a.1.1.1Ce(CO3)F
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Schorlomite51.4.3c.1Ca3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Britholite-(Ce)52.4.9.1(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Perrierite-(Ce)56.2.8.3Ce4MgFe3+2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Nepheline76.2.1.2Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Rhabdophane'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O CelestineSrSO4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O QuartzSiO2
O MaghemiteFe23+O3
O Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
O CerussitePbCO3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O ThorianiteThO2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
O HematiteFe2O3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
MgMagnesium
Mg Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Si Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Si SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
SSulfur
S CelestineSrSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Ca SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Ti SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MaghemiteFe23+O3
Fe Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Fe SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Ce Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
Ce Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS
ThThorium
Th ThorianiteThO2

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Ripp, G. S.; Karmanov, N. S.; Kanakin, S. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Andreev, G. V. (2005): Cerium britholite from the Mushugai ore deposit (Mongolia). Zapiski Rossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 134, 90-103. (in Russian)
Andreeva, I.A., Kovalenko, V.I., and Naumov, V.B. (2007): Silicate-salt(sulfate) liquid immiscibility: a study of melt inclusions in minerals of the Mushugai-Khuduk carbonatite-bearing complex (southern Mongolia). Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(19, 73-82 (in Chinese).
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): Carbonatites of the World. Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models. USGS Open-File Report 09-1139.
Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.


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