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Corkscrew Canyon Mine (Corkscrew Mine), Ryan, Furnace Creek Mining District (Furnace Creek Borate Mining District), Inyo Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Corkscrew Canyon Mine (Corkscrew Mine)Mine
Ryan- not defined -
Furnace Creek Mining District (Furnace Creek Borate Mining District)Mining District
Inyo Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
36° 22' 40'' North , 116° 45' 36'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:


A former borate mine located in the center N½ sec. 21, T26N, R2E, SBM, 10.1 km (6.3 miles) NW of Ryan, in Furnace Creek Wash at the mouth of Corkscrew Canyon, E flank of the Black Mountains, on National Park Service wilderness land (Death Valley National Park/Death Valley Wilderness). Owned by the U.S. Borax and Chemical Co. (1976). MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 1,000 meters.

The entrance to this site is through a locked gate east on Route 190 about 1-1/4 miles beyond the exit road from Twenty-Mule-Team Canyon. Mine workings found here alongside a wash consisted of several adits, a huge wooden four-chute ore bin, and an adjacent platform loading area. Activity here was all underground.Greene, 1981

Mineralization is a Miocene borate deposit (Mineral occurrence model information: Model code: 260; USGS model code 35b.3; Deposit model name: lacustrine borates), hosted in rocks of the Furnace Creek Formation (mudstone, shale, sandstone, limestone). The ore body is 548.64 meters long and has a depth-to-top of 0.0 meters. The borate-bearing zone is about 1,800 feet long. The colemanite is massive and cavernous. Basalt occurs in the footwall; tuffaceous mudstone and sandstone occur in the hanging wall. Local rocks include Tertiary nonmarine rocks, undivided.

Workings include unspecified underground workings.

Reserve-Resource data are found in: Evans, James R., G.C. Taylor, and J.S. Rapp (1976).

Reserves and resources data: Type: in-situ: Estimate year: 1976; total resources: 172,000 metric tons of ore.

Assay results: B2O3: 31 weight per cent B (1976). 50% of these reserves were considered to be recoverable.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada, USANational Park

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


11 valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Detailed Mineral List:

Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1903 13 : 353-355.
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Colemanite
Formula: Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Description: The color of brown to coal black colemanite is due to the inclusions of todorokite. Large pseudomorphs after inoyite has been found (Müehle 1974)
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1916b), Inyoite and meyerhofferite, two new calcium borates: USGS Bulletin 610: 35; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & A.C. Vlisidis (1961), Nobleite, another new hydrous calcium borate from the Death Valley region, California: American Mineralogist: 46: 560-571; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 228; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: www.mineralsocal.org; Mineralogical Magazine 1903 13 : 353-355.
Datolite var: Bakerite (FRL)
Formula: Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
Type Locality:
Reference: www.mineralsocal.org; Mineralogical Magazine 1903 13 : 353-355.
Gowerite
Formula: Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Reference: Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & H. Almond (1959), Gowerite, a new hydrous calcium borate from Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 44: 912; Christ, C.L. & J.R. Clark (1960), X-ray crystallography and crystal chemistry of gowerite, CaO-3B2O3-5H2O: American Mineralogist: 45: 230-234; Konnert, J.A., Clark, J.R., and Christ, C.L. (1972) Gowerite, CaB5O8(OH) •B(OH)3•3H2O: crystal structure and comparison with related borates. American Mineralogist: 57: 381-396; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 252.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Inyoite
Formula: Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1916b), Inyoite and meyerhofferite, two new calcium borates: USGS Bulletin 610: 35; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 228.
Meyerhofferite
Formula: Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Description: Occurs as an alteration product of inyoite.
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1916b), Inyoite and meyerhofferite, two new calcium borates: USGS Bulletin 610: 35; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 228.
Nobleite
Formula: CaB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Habit: Finest crystals.
Colour: Colorless
Description: Finest crystals to 3 mm in size. Occurs in geode-like cavities in colemanite.
Reference: Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & A.C. Vlisidis (1961), Nobleite, another new hydrous calcium borate from the Death Valley region, California: American Mineralogist: 46: 560-571; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 280; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO • 12B2O3 • 30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 350; McAllister, James Franklin (1970) Geology of the Furnace Creek borate area, Death Valley, Inyo County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 14, 9 pp.: 9; Konnert, J.A., Clark, J.R., and Christ, C.L. (1972) Gowerite, CaB5O8(OH) •B(OH)3•3H2O: crystal structure and comparison with related borates. American Mineralogist: 57: 381-396.
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ulexite
Formula: NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Reference: www.mineralsocal.org; American Mineralogist (1961): 46: 560-571.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Colemanite6.CB.10Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Gowerite6.EC.10Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Inyoite6.CA.35Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Meyerhofferite6.CA.30Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Nobleite6.FC.05CaB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Ulexite6.EA.25NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
var: Bakerite (TL)9.AJ.20Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Triborates
Colemanite26.3.5.1Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Inyoite26.3.1.1Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Meyerhofferite26.3.2.1Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Pentaborates
Gowerite26.5.8.1Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Ulexite26.5.11.1NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Hexaborates
Nobleite26.6.6.1CaB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
var: Bakerite (FRL)54.2.1b.1Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Datolite (var: Bakerite)Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
H NobleiteCaB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
H GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
H ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
H UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
H MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
BBoron
B Datolite (var: Bakerite)Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
B NobleiteCaB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
B GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
B ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
B UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
B InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
B MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Datolite (var: Bakerite)Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
O NobleiteCaB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
O GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
O ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
O UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
O CelestineSrSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
NaSodium
Na UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
AlAluminium
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
SiSilicon
Si Datolite (var: Bakerite)Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
SSulfur
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S CelestineSrSO4
KPotassium
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CaCalcium
Ca Datolite (var: Bakerite)Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
Ca NobleiteCaB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Ca GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Ca ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Ca UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
MnManganese
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
SrStrontium
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Sr CelestineSrSO4
BaBarium
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1916b), Inyoite and meyerhofferite, two new calcium borates: USGS Bulletin 610: 35.
Christ, C.L. & J.R. Clark (1960), X-ray crystallography and crystal chemistry of gowerite, CaO-3B2O3-5H2O: American Mineralogist: 45: 230-234.
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & A.C. Vlisidis (1961), Nobleite, another new hydrous calcium borate from the Death Valley region, California: American Mineralogist: 46: 560-571.
McAllister, James Franklin (1961), Sborgite in the Furnace Creek area, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 129: B299-B301.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 228, 280.
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO •12B2O3 •30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 350.
McAllister, James Franklin (1970) Geology of the Furnace Creek borate area, Death Valley, Inyo County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 14, 9 pp.: 9.
Konnert, J.A., Clark, J.R., and Christ, C.L. (1972) Gowerite, CaB5O8(OH) •B(OH)3•3H2O: crystal structure and comparison with related borates. American Mineralogist: 57: 381-396.
Muehle, G. (1974): Colemanite pseudomorphs from the Corkscrew mine, Death Valley, California. Mineralogical Record 5, 174-177.
Evans, James R., G.C. Taylor, and J.S. Rapp (1976) Mines and mineral deposits in Death Valley National Monument. California Division Mines and Geology Special Report 125: 1-61: 28.
Greene, Linda I. (1981), U.S. National Park Service, Historic Preservation Branch, Pacific Northwest/Western Team, Denver Service Center, Death Valley – Historic Resource Study – A History of Mining, Volume I (Parts 1 and 2): part 2: III. E.2.b)(23).
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 238, 246, 252.
Orris, G. (1990) estimate of ore reserves based on published data in 1990.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10023434 & 10212511.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060271264.

USGS MRDS Record:10023434

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