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Borralha Mines, Salto, Montalegre, Vila Real District, Portugal

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Name(s) in local language(s):Mina da Borralha, Salto, Montalegre, Distrito de Vila Real, Portugal
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 41° 39' 17'' North , 7° 58' 43'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 41.65495,-7.97872
GeoHash:G#: ez6kfrn1d
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csb : Warm-summer Mediterranean climate


Tungsten mine (1903-1985), closed in 1986.

At the contact zone between Silurian metasediments and syntectonic Infra-Westphalian granite.

Vertical and subhorizontal quartz veins, associated with two later conical collapse breccias, cemented by quartz.

Three mineralization episodes (330-290°C / Pmax = 1000-650 bars):
1) Tungstates precipitation (10 % eq NaCl, with HCO3-)
2) Main sulfide precipitation (molybdenite, arsenopyrite, bismuthinite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, etc.)
3) Hydrothermal alteration: Pyrrhotite pyrite/marcasite ; precipitation of bismuth, galena and various sulfosalts : Cu-Bi-Pb, Pb-Bi-Ag, Ag-Bi, Cu-Bi

Regions containing this locality

Iberian Peninsula

Peninsula - 1,601 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


32 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Mineralium Deposita, Issue: Volume 35, Number 6, August 2000, Pages: 551 - 569
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Description: With phase 2 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
'Apatite'
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
'Chlorite Group'
Description: Associated with phase 2 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Description: Vermicular, associated with phase 3 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Clinochlore var: Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Description: Vermicular, associated with phase 3 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: With phase 2 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Description: With phase 3 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Description: With phase 3 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Hydrokenoelsmoreite
Formula: 2W2O6(H2O)
Reference: Bernard & Hyrsl (2004) Minerals and their Localities. (Granit, Prague)
Hydrokenoelsmoreite var: Ferritungstite
Reference: Bernard & Hyrsl (2004) Minerals and their Localities. (Granit, Prague) Sahama, T.G. (1981) The secondary tungsten minerals, a review. Mineral. Record, 12, 81–87
'K Feldspar'
Description: Associated with both chlorite generations.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Description: Coats K-feldspar.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Description: With phase 3 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Meymacite
Formula: WO3 · 2H2O
Reference: Exemplares no Museu Alfredo Bensaude, IST lisboa
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Early phase, associated with quartz (vein walls).
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Description: With phase 3 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Description: With phase 2 sulfides.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
Tungstite
Formula: WO3 · H2O
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Zinkenite
Formula: Pb9Sb22S42

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Arsenopyrite'2.EB.20FeAsS
'Bismuthinite'2.DB.05Bi2S3
'Bornite'2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
'Chalcocite'2.BA.05Cu2S
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Covellite'2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Zinkenite2.JB.35aPb9Sb22S42
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Anatase'4.DD.05TiO2
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hydrokenoelsmoreite4.DH.152W2O6(H2O)
var: Ferritungstite4.DH.152W2O6(H2O)
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Meymacite4.FJ.05WO3 · 2H2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Tungstite4.FJ.10WO3 · H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Bismutite'5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
'Clinochlore'9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
var: Ripidolite9.EC.55(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
K Feldspar-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Wolframite-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
1 < ø < 2
Zinkenite3.8.1.1Pb9Sb22S42
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
AX3
Meymacite4.5.3.1WO3 · 2H2O
Tungstite4.5.2.1WO3 · H2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Apatite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Clinochlore
var: Ripidolite
-(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Hydrokenoelsmoreite-2W2O6(H2O)
var: Ferritungstite-2W2O6(H2O)
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Hydrokenoelsmoreite2W2O6(H2O)
H MeymaciteWO3 · 2H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Clinochlore (var: Ripidolite)(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
H TungstiteWO3 · H2O
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AnataseTiO2
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O CupriteCu2O
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O Hydrokenoelsmoreite2W2O6(H2O)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MeymaciteWO3 · 2H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Clinochlore (var: Ripidolite)(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O SideriteFeCO3
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O TungstiteWO3 · H2O
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Clinochlore (var: Ripidolite)(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Clinochlore (var: Ripidolite)(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Clinochlore (var: Ripidolite)(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CovelliteCuS
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
MnManganese
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Clinochlore (var: Ripidolite)(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
CuCopper
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
SnTin
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
SbAntimony
Sb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
WTungsten
W Hydrokenoelsmoreite2W2O6(H2O)
W MeymaciteWO3 · 2H2O
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W TungstiteWO3 · H2O
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Devonian - Silurian
393.3 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 3147566
Silurian phyllite

Age: Paleozoic (393.3 - 443.8 Ma)

Description: undifferentiated metamorphic

Lithology: Major:{phyllite}, Minor{quartzite,greenschist,meta-sediment group}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3185519
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Comments: Cantabrian Orogen

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 273-284.
- Alguns aspectos da indústria extractiva de cobre em Portugal, Costa, L.R. e Goinhas, J.A.C.; Boletim de Minas, Lisboa 25 (2) Abr/Jun 1988, p. 167-175.
- Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): International Strategic Mineral Issues Summary Report - Tungsten. US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
- Sahama, T.G. (1981) The secondary tungsten minerals, a review. Mineral. Record, 12, 81–87


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