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Lousal Mine, Azinheira dos Barros e São Mamede do Sádão, Grândola, Setúbal District, Portugal

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 38° 4' North , 8° 28' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 38.06694,-8.46694
GeoHash:G#: eycbx3fs1
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Mina do Lousal (ou Louzal), Azinheira dos Barros e S. Mamede do Sádão, Grândola, Distrito de Setúbal, Portugal


Pyrite mine. Closed in 1988.
Since about 200x, the mine is in rehabilitation to acid mine drainage control (Ferreira da Silva et al., 2009).

Registered mining concessions (up to 1962):
No. 1084 Louzal no. 2 (Cu), registered on 26-01-1922
No. 1085 Louzal no. 3 (Cu), registered on 26-01-1922
No. 368 Louzal Novo (Cu), registered on 09-01-1904
No. 312 Louzal (Cu), registered on 03-01-1900

LOUSAL - mining concessions and concession agreements:

1885-1899 - concessão A. Manuel e mais tarde Alfredo Masson.
1900 - Louzal (conc. no. 312) – Guilherme Ferreira Pinto Basto e Waldemar d'Orey.
1904 - Louzal Novo (conc. no. 368).
1910 – Empress Mina dos Barros.
1915 – Henrique Burnay & Companhia.
1922 – Louzal no. 2 (conc. no. 1084), Louzal no. 3 (conc. no. 1085). Outras concessões da mesma empresa situadas na região E e NE do Lousal: Sítio do Montado (conc. no. 1086) e Cerro dos Arneirões (conc. no. 1107).
1934 – Société Anonyme Belge des Mines d'Aljustrel.
1936-1988 – Mines et Industries S.A., Grupo SAPEC.

in: Matos, J.X.; Oliveira, V. (2003) - Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica) - Percurso geológico e mineiro pelas cortas e galerias da antiga mina. IGME, Pub. Museo Geominero, no.2, Espanha, pp. 117-128.




From 1900 to 1988, copper pyrites were extracted from Lousal mines, located between Canal Caveira and Ermidas do Sado. After the mines were closed, Frederic Velge Foundation was created, as a result of a partnership of the company that owns the mine and Grândola City Hall. The Foundation has a cultural, scientific and pedagogical project. Mining Museum intends to preserve the memory and the knowledge of generations of workers who excavated Lousal mines, converted nowadays in a sort of archaeological site. In the Mining Museum you can watch and learn how a mine works through the testimonies of the work, which was carried out here for decades. This museum is housed in the ancient mining facilities, actually the first one of this sort in Portugal. It was officially opened on may 20th 2001. You should especially draw your close attention to the work structures that were totally restored to welcome visitors: facilities, excavations, mine galleries and even the engines of the electric power station that used to supply not only the mine, but also local inhabitants.

Regions containing this locality

Iberian Peninsula

Peninsula - 1,540 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


21 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: IST Lisbon mineral collection
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Reference: LNEG Museu de Jazigos Minerais Portugueses collection; Matos, J.X.; Relvas, J.M.R.S. (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Cong. Nac. Geologia, Estremoz, Un. Évora, Portugal, pp. 23-25.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Description: Matos, J.X.; Relvas, J.M.R.S. (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Cong. Nac. Geologia, Estremoz, Un. Évora, Portugal, pp. 23-25.
Reference: Matos, J.X.; Relvas, J.M.R.S. (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Cong. Nac. Geologia, Estremoz, Un. Évora, Portugal, pp. 23-25.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Ko Jansen's mineral collection.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Ko Jansen's mineral collection.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Matos, J.X.; Relvas, J.M.R.S. (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Cong. Nac. Geologia, Estremoz, Un. Évora, Portugal, pp. 23-25.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Martins da Pedra collection
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Matos, J.X.; Relvas, J.M.R.S. (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Cong. Nac. Geologia, Estremoz, Un. Évora, Portugal, pp. 23-25.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: MUHNAC, Lisbon (António Bello mineral collection) former Harvard
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Matos, J.X.; Relvas, J.M.R.S. (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Cong. Nac. Geologia, Estremoz, Un. Évora, Portugal, pp. 23-25.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Rui Nunes January 2007
'Psilomelane'
Reference: LNEG Museu de Jazigos Minerais Portugueses collection
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Bello, A. de Oliveira, 1910, Minéraux Portugais - Bulletin de la Société Portugaise des Sciences Naturelles, Vol IV, fasc. 2, Livraria Ferin, Lisboa
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Matos, J.X.; Relvas, J.M.R.S. (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Cong. Nac. Geologia, Estremoz, Un. Évora, Portugal, pp. 23-25.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Safflorite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Reference: Matos, J.X.; Relvas, J.M.R.S. (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Cong. Nac. Geologia, Estremoz, Un. Évora, Portugal, pp. 23-25.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Bello, A. de Oliveira, 1910, Minéraux Portugais - Bulletin de la Société Portugaise des Sciences Naturelles, Vol IV, fasc. 2, Livraria Ferin, Lisboa
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Matos, J.X.; Relvas, J.M.R.S. (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Cong. Nac. Geologia, Estremoz, Un. Évora, Portugal, pp. 23-25.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Copper'1.AA.05Cu
'Gold'1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Bournonite'2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Cobaltite'2.EB.25CoAsS
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Marcasite'2.EB.10aFeS2
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Pyrrhotite'2.CC.10Fe7S8
'Safflorite'2.EB.15a(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
'Siderite'5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Melanterite'7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Pyromorphite'8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Psilomelane'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Cobaltite2.12.3.1CoAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Safflorite2.12.2.11(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Psilomelane'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O BaryteBaSO4
O CupriteCu2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
CoCobalt
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
Co Safflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
CuCopper
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As CobaltiteCoAsS
As Safflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
SbAntimony
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Miocene
5.333 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185813
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Miocene (5.333 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Carboniferous - Late Devonian
323.2 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 3141275
Late Devonian meta-rhyolite

Age: Paleozoic (323.2 - 382.7 Ma)

Description: low grade metamorphic

Lithology: Major:{meta-rhyolite}, Minor{meta-basalt group,shale/slate,quartzite}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
(Alphabetically)
- de Oliveira DPS, Matos JX, Rosa CJP, Rosa DRN, Figueiredo MO, Silva TP, Guimarães F, Carvalho J, Pinto A, Relvas J, Reiser F. (in press) The Lagoa Salgada orebody, Iberian Pyrite Belt,Portugal. Econ Geol
- Daniel P. S. de Oliveira et al. (2011): in the Lousal Mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal. 11th SGA Biennial "Meeting Let’s Talk Ore Deposits", 26-29th September 2011, Antofagasta, Chile, http://repositorio.lneg.pt/bitstream/10400.9/2223/1/35012.pdf
- Daniel P. S. de Oliveira, Carlos J. P. Rosa, Fernanda M. G. Guimarães, João X. Matos, Diogo R. N. Rosa, Pereira, Z., VCS Frias, J. M. Castelo Branco (2013): Late-stage Gold (Electrum) in the Lousal Mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal. 12th SGA Biennial Meeting, Uppsala, Sweden, 12-15 August 2013, http://repositorio.lneg.pt/bitstream/10400.9/2175/1/35968.pdf
- Ferreira da Silva EA, Bobos I, Matos JX, Patinha C, Reis AP and Fonseca EC (2009) Mineralogy and geochemistry of trace metals and REE in volcanic massive sulfide host rocks, stream sediments, stream waters and acid mine drainage from the Lousal mine area (Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal). Appl Geochem 24:383-401
- Leistel JM, Marcoux E, Deschamps Y, Joubert M (1998) Antithetic behaviour of gold in the volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Miner Deposita 33:82-97
- Matos JX, Oliveira V (2003) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica) - Percurso geológico e mineiro pelas cortas e galerias da antiga mina. IGME, Pub. Museo Geominero, nº 2, Madrid, pp 117-128
- Matos JX, Relvas JMRS (2006) Mina do Lousal (Faixa Piritosa Ibérica). Livro Guia Excursão C.4.1, VII Congresso Nacional de Geologia, Estremoz, Univ. Évora, Portugal, pp 23-25
- Matos JX, Rosa CJP, Pereira Z, de Oliveira D, Rosa DRN, Sofia A, Relvas JMS, Oliveira, JT (in prep) Geology and Genesis of the Lousal Volcanic-Sediment-Hosted Massive Sulfide Deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal
- Oliveira JT, Pereira Z, Rosa CJ, Rosa D, Matos JX (2005) Recent advances in the study of the stratigraphy and the magmatism of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal. In: Carosi R, Dias R, Iacopini D, Rosenbaum G (eds) The southern Variscan belt. Journal of the Virtual Explorer, Electronic Edition 19/9, 1441-8142
- Reiser FKM, Rosa DRN, Pinto AMM, Carvalho JRS, Matos JX, Guimarães FMG, Alves LC, de Oliveira DPS (in press) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Tin- and Germanium bearing Copper Ore from the Barrigão Remobilised Vein Deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal. Int Geol Rev DOI: 10.1080/00206811003683168
- Rosa C, Rosa D, Matos J, Relvas J (2010) The volcanicsedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal). Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly, 12, EGU2010- 11000.
- Strauss G (1970) Sobre la geologia de la provincia piritífera del SW de la Península Ibérica y de sus yacimientos, en especial sobre la mina de pirita de Lousal (Portugal). Mem ITGE T. 77, 266 p
- Strauss, GK, Beck, JS (1990) Gold mineralisations in the SW Iberian Pyrite Belt. Miner Deposita 25:237-245
- Strauss, G.K., Madel, J. (1974): Geology of massive sulphide deposits in the Spanish Portuguese Pyrite Belt. Geologische Rundschau 63, 191-211.
---
Bello, A. de Oliveira, 1910, Minéraux Portugais - Bulletin de la Société Portugaise des Sciences Naturelles, Vol IV, fasc. 2, Livraria Ferin, Lisboa


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