SUPPORT US. If mindat.org is important to you, click here to donate to our Fall 2019 fundraiser!
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe ElementsBooks & Magazines
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsUsersMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day GalleryMineral Photography

Kumtor Gold Mine, Issyk-Kul Oblast (Ysyk-Köl Oblast), Kyrgyzstani
Regional Level Types
Kumtor Gold MineMine
Issyk-Kul Oblast (Ysyk-Köl Oblast)Oblast
KyrgyzstanCountry

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 51' 35'' North , 78° 11' 43'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Age:
288 to 284 Ma
Geologic Time:
Köppen climate type:
Name(s) in local language(s):
, Иссык-Кульская область (Ысык-Көл облусу; Issyk-Kul'skaja oblast'; Isıq-Köl oblusu), Кыргызстан (Киргизия; Кыргыз Республикасы; Киргизская Республика)


One of the 10 largest mines in the world and the largest gold mine operated in Central Asia by a Western-based company.

Situated along the northwestern slope of the Ak Shirak ridge in the Tian Shan range adjacent to China (80 km south of Lake Issyk-Kul near the border with China). The mine site is located about 350 kilometres southeast of the capital Bishkek and about 60 kilometres north of the border with the People's Republic of China. The mine is at more than 4,000 m above sea level.

Gold mineralization is related to intensive veining, stockworks and hydrothermal breccias. The deposit is located in the southern Tian Shan Metallogenic Belt.

Started in 1997, owned by Centerra Gold Inc.


Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
AsiaContinent
Soviet Union (1922-1991)Country (Former)
TurkestanArea (Historical)

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


26 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Melonite
Formula: NiTe2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Petzite
Formula: Ag3AuTe2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Sylvanite
Formula: (Au,Ag)2Te4
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Reference: http://homepage.usask.ca/~smi454/project/articles/gold2000_ext_abs.htm; Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Altaite2.CD.10PbTe
Calaverite2.EA.10AuTe2
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Melonite2.EA.20NiTe2
Petzite2.BA.75Ag3AuTe2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Sylvanite2.EA.05(Au,Ag)2Te4
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Ferberite4.DB.30FeWO4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Petzite2.4.3.3Ag3AuTe2
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Altaite2.8.1.3PbTe
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Calaverite2.12.13.2AuTe2
Melonite2.12.14.1NiTe2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Sylvanite2.12.13.3(Au,Ag)2Te4
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Ferberite48.1.1.2FeWO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
OOxygen
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O HematiteFe2O3
O BaryteBaSO4
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O FerberiteFeWO4
O RutileTiO2
O CassiteriteSnO2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe FerberiteFeWO4
Fe TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
NiNickel
Ni MeloniteNiTe2
CuCopper
Cu TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
SrStrontium
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
AgSilver
Ag PetziteAg3AuTe2
Ag Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
TeTellurium
Te CalaveriteAuTe2
Te PetziteAg3AuTe2
Te Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
Te AltaitePbTe
Te MeloniteNiTe2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W FerberiteFeWO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au CalaveriteAuTe2
Au PetziteAg3AuTe2
Au Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb AltaitePbTe

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Mao, J., Konopelko, D., Seltmann, R., Lehmann, B., Chen, W., Wang, Y., ... & Usubaliev, T. (2004). Postcollisional age of the Kumtor gold deposit and timing of Hercynian events in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Economic Geology, 99(8), 1771-1780.

External Links



This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: October 21, 2019 08:54:13 Page generated: June 24, 2019 15:55:02
Go to top of page