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Frongoch Mine (Bron-y-Goch Mine; Llawynwnwch Mine), Pontrhydygroes, Upper Llanfihangell-y-Creuddyn, Ceredigion, Wales, UK

This page kindly sponsored by Steve Rust
Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 52° 21' 7'' North , 3° 52' 35'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 52.35222,-3.87639
GeoHash:G#: gcm1zf3mc
UK National Grid Reference:SN722744
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Other/historical names associated with this locality:Dyfed; Cardiganshire


Frongoch is located 15 km ESE of Aberystwyth. And was a major lead & zinc producer by nineteenth century standards. First mentioned in the late 1750's, and worked almost continuously to 1903. In the early working of Frongoch galena was the ore mineral, while sphalerite was either left standing in the mine or thrown on the dumps, with poor grade lead ore. When zinc ore could be sold for a profit the old lead stopes were stripped back for the sphalerite. This was mostly from the 1840's to end of the underground mines life in 1903. From 1924 to 1930 the dumps were reworked on a substantial scale. And up to the mid-1950's, a small dressing plant was used to reclaim lead and zinc ore from the dumps. The output from these later sporadic small scale dump workings is not recorded. Over the years the dump material has also been used for hardcore. In the mid to late 1990's this had greatly increased, but because of "environmental" concerns, it has stopped. Over recent years the concern of heavy metal out flow from the dumps has prompted the local council to attempt containment of the water in a holding lagoon. For some years there has been a wood-mill on the north east of the site. The wood shavings from the mill have covered large areas of the dumps in this area. As a result of this encroachment on the dumps, in 2003 a few hundred tons of the dump material were moved 200m further south on the mine site. The Sawmill has now stopped working as of 2012 and there is no further encroachment on the dumps.

Frongoch is one of the few mines in mid-Wales to use steam for working. In 1841 a 40-inch steam engine was working on the site. Not only was it used for pumping, but the water was reused to work some of the waterwheels. In the 1870's a 60-inch Cornish Beam engine was installed, pumping from a depth of 117 fathoms. The mine also used a 25-inch steam engine for winding and crushing.

Frongoch has a total estimated production of 61,000 tons of lead ore, and 50,000 tons of zinc ore. There are incomplete statistics for silver extracted from lead ore of 24,000 oz.

Geology:
The fault vein at Frongoch has been traced for about 3km but has been said to extend a further 2km WSW-ENE. A typical trend for veins in mid-Wales. Also quite usual for fault systems in this area is their discontinuous nature, commonly splitting up into many thin strings, and reuniting. Where the veinlets coalesced there was sometimes an improvement in ore quality. The fault cuts through Silurian mudstones/shales, arenites of the Devils Bridge Formation, of Llandovery age. In Frongoch mine the ore appears to have occurred were the veinlets came together. There also appears to have been two discontinuous ore shoots worked. One on the south, the other on the north side of the fault system. The main ore minerals were galena and sphalerite, which was found throughout the developed area. Although there was an increase in sphalerite in depth, with a decrease in galena.


As of September 2018 a great deal of the 'lagoon' area has been landscaped with new ponds and only a small amount of the original site left. An information board installed about this work. The sawmill has been replaced by a business that appears to rebuild Land Rovers, it is a scrap yard in effect and several large excavators have been at work burying most of the tips etc. The notices on the gates make it very clear that whilst there is nothing they can do about the public footpaths across the site, you are not at all welcome.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


50 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Habit: Prismatic, bladed, blocky
Colour: Colourless, tinted yellow
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Habit: Crusts of lath-like crystals
Colour: Whiteish to light blue green
Fluorescence: none
Description: Xls to 0.3mm and masses to 1cm with malachite. Note some very pale blue to white masses of intergrown lath crystals of surposed aurichalcite from this mine have been tested (xrd), and found not to be this species, although near to it.
Reference: UKJMM 17
Bechererite
Formula: Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Habit: Prismatic inverted cone-like
Colour: Colourless to pale green, and blue
Fluorescence: None
Description: Colourless to pale blue green cone-like xls to 0.8mm in druse crusts to 2cms (XRD).Associated with caledonite, susannite, cerussite, hydrocerussite, hemimorphite. Examples from this mine are probably the best in the world.
Reference: UKJMM 17
Bianchite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
Description: Noted to have occurred as an effervescence in the summer of 2006 on mine wast. The paper dose not state which method was use to confirm the mineral.
Reference: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/6966/1/Palumbo_etal_16May.pdf
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Habit: Massive, powdery
Colour: Shades of yellow
Fluorescence: None
Description: pale yellow crusts to several cms (XRD), commonly associated with cerussite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Brianyoungite
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Colour: White
Reference: Journal of the Russell Society No 8.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: Drusey crystals
Colour: Emerald green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Crusts of minute emerald green xls (XRD), associated with linarite, langite, wroewolfeite, lautenthalite.
Reference: UKJMM 17
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Habit: Acicular prismatic
Colour: Pale sky blue to blue green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Light blue to pale green xls to 2mm (very good for Wales)(XRD). Associated mostly with susannite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Habit: Various habits
Colour: Colourless, white, tinted blue.
Description: Colourless to creamy xls to 2cm, reticulated masses to 5cms (XRD)
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Cesàrolite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Reference: Cotterell, T.F. (2007) Cesàrolite from Frongoch Mine, Devil's Bridge, Ceredigion, Wales. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 10, 55-56.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28. (referring to Cotterell 2007).
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Description: Replacement of chalcopyrite
Reference: BMS Database
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: Massive, sphenoidal crystals
Colour: Dull brassy
Fluorescence: None
Description: Veinlets to 5mm wide, very rare part formed crystals to 2mm.
Reference: S Rust collection
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Habit: Crusts
Colour: Dull blue green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Thin pale blue green crusts & pseudomorphs after cuprite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Copper
Formula: Cu
Habit: Prismatic, bladed
Colour: Dull copper
Fluorescence: None
Description: Spear like xls to 1mm
Reference: UKJMM 17
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: National Museum of Wales database; Cotterell, T. F. & Todhunter, P. K. (2007): Corkite and hinsdalite from Frongoch mine, Devil's Bridge, Ceredigion, Wales, including evidence to suggest that orpheite is a variety of hinsdalite. Journal of the Russell Society, 10, 57-64.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Habit: Thin platy
Colour: Dark metallic blue
Description: Replacement of galena & chalcopyrite
Reference: UKJMM 17
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Habit: Massive, and octahedral crystals
Colour: Bright to dull maroon
Fluorescence: None
Description: Maroon xls to 0.3mm, associated with cerussite, chrysocolla, and malachite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Elyite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Habit: Intergrown lath-like
Colour: Pale purple
Fluorescence: None
Description: Minute pale purple xls on hydrocrussite (EPMA)
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Galena
Formula: PbS
Habit: Massive, Cubic
Colour: Lead Grey
Fluorescence: None
Description: Major ore mineral, very rare cubic xls to 3mm.
Reference: No reference listed
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Habit: Crusts
Colour: Verious shades of red-brown
Fluorescence: None
Reference: UKJMM 17
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Habit: Very thin crusts
Colour: Bright yellow
Fluorescence: None
Description: Yellow smears on sphalerite
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: Prismatic
Colour: Colourless-white
Description: Xls to 1mm
Reference: UKJMM 17
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Habit: Drusey crusts, bladed crystals
Colour: Colourless-white
Fluorescence: None
Description: Colourless to white xl druses to several cms, and as divergent xl groups to 4mm (XRD). Associated with goethite, rosasite, aurichalcite, hydrozincite.
Reference: UKJMM 17
Hinsdalite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Cotterell, T. F. & Todhunter, P. K. (2007): Corkite and hinsdalite from Frongoch mine, Devil's Bridge, Ceredigion, Wales, including evidence to suggest that orpheite is a variety of hinsdalite. Journal of the Russell Society, 10, 57-64.
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Habit: Foileated, acicular prismatic, hexagonal platy.
Colour: Colourless-white, creamy.
Description: Colourless to white platy & prismatic xls to 0.7mm (XRD). Associated with cerussite, susannite, caledonite, elyite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Habit: Crusts, and balls.
Colour: White
Fluorescence: Pale white-blue
Description: White tiny lath xls in crusts to afew cms, associated with hemimorphite, cerussite. Some unconfirmed "hydrozincite" could turn out to be brianyoungite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Habit: Bladed
Colour: Off white
Description: Slightly tinted yellowish to colourless xl sprays to 5mm (XRD), on galena with susannite.
Reference: UKJMM 17
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Habit: Blocky
Colour: Deep blue green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Psuedohexagonal deep blue green xls to 0.5mm (XRD). Associated with malachite, schulenbergite, cuprite, copper, lautenthalite, brochantite, cerussite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Lautenthalite
Formula: PbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Habit: Bladed
Colour: Light emerald green
Description: Xls to 0.7mm with wroewolfeite, linarite, brochantite,cerussite (EPMA)
Reference: UKJMM 17
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Description: A single specimen of Leadhillite was confirmed by xrd as a replacement of a preexisting lath-like mineral.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: Bladed
Colour: Azure blue
Fluorescence: None
Description: Bladed xls to 2mm+ some with substantial Se (EPMA). Associated with brochantite, caledonite, lautenthalite, cerussite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Litharge
Formula: PbO
Habit: Pseudomorphs after ?
Colour: Scarlet
Fluorescence: None
Description: Scarlet xls to 0.5mm on cerussite (XRD), with cerussite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: Lath-like, and botryoidal.
Colour: Green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Thin botryoidal crust to 2cms, and balls to 1mm. Associated hemimorphite, cerussite, brochantite, langite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Mattheddleite
Formula: Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Habit: Prismatic
Colour: Colourless
Description: Colourless prismatic xls to 0.25mm with susannite, caledonite (XRD)
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Namuwite
Formula: Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Habit: Platy pseudohexagonal
Colour: Pale blue green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Very pale blue green xls to 0.5mm + (XRD), with langite, wroewolfeite, susannite, hydrocerussite
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: Prismatic, and blocky
Colour: Colourless-white, shades of light brown, slightly purple.
Fluorescence: None
Description: Brown xls to 2.5cms (XRD)with cerussite. Rare green micro xls.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Major vein mineral, cavitys lined with pyramiddle xls to 8mm.
Reference: No reference listed
Ramsbeckite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Habit: Blocky
Colour: Emerald green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Deep emerald green rounded xls to 0.7mm with schulenbergite (EPMA).
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Redgillite
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Habit: Lath-like, prismatic
Colour: Emerald Green to nickle green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Micro crystal (to 0.25mm)drusey coverings in areas to 1cm.Some redgillite from Frongoch mine has a high Zn content, along with most othere redgillite from mid-Wales.
Reference: UKJMM 17 unknown F2; Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: Botryoidal
Colour: Light Blue-green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Pale blue green balls to 1.5mm on hemimorphite (XRD), with aurichalcite.
Reference: UKJMM 17
Schmiederite ?
Formula: Pb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
Habit: Aggregates of finely lath-like crystals
Colour: Pale blue-white.
Description: Some specimens of Linarite were found to contain a substantial Selenium component.
Reference: S.Rust collection
Schulenbergite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Habit: Rossets, petal-like.
Colour: Light blue-green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Light blue green thin platy xls to 0.7mm (XRD), with ramsbeckite, susannite, caledonite, langite, wroewolfeite, cuprite, cerussite.
Reference: UKJMM 17
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Habit: Lath-like
Colour: Pale sky blue
Fluorescence: None
Description: Very light blue lath-like xls to 0.7mm (XRD), associated with cerussite, hemimorphite, langite.
Reference: UKJMM 17
Silver
Formula: Ag
Habit: Dendritic
Description: Single xl spray on cerussite The only specimen found at Frongoch has now been completely replaced by acanthite
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Habit: Massive
Colour: Dark Brown
Fluorescence: None
Description: Major ore mineral
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Steverustite (TL)
Formula: Pb2+5(OH)5[Cu+(S6+O3S2-)3](H2O)2
Habit: Lath-like crystals
Colour: Colourless to White
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine73,227-234(2009)
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Habit: Rounded crystals
Colour: Pale yellow
Fluorescence: None
Description: Pale yellow xls to 3mm (EPMA) in masses to 4cms on altered galena
Reference: UKJMM 17
Susannite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: Platy-tabular pseudohexagonal, prismatic.
Colour: Colourless to yellow-brown, tinted blue and green
Description: Colourless to white also tinted blue or green and brown xls to 2mm (very good for Wales)XRD. Associated mostly with cerussite and caledonite.
Reference: UKJMM 17
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
Habit: Cubes
Colour: Light metallic grey
Fluorescence: None
Description: Xls to 3mm embedded in quartz
Reference: UKJMM 17
'Unnamed (Pb Silicate) ?'
Formula: Pb, Si, O, H (?)
Habit: Lath-like
Colour: White
Description: Althogh the crystals from this mine have been confirmed as an unknown species. It is belived by S.Rust that it may turn out to be Steverustite. The original element analysis may have been incorrect. Although having said that the specimen submited for the steverustite paper did have minute crystals of a Pb silicate on it, but far to small to do any descriptive work.
Reference: UKJMM 17 unknown F1
Wroewolfeite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Habit: Prismatic, tabular
Colour: Light blue green
Fluorescence: None
Description: Tabular deep to light blue green xls to 0.5mm (XRD). Associated with hemimorphite brochantite, linarite, lautenthalite.
Reference: BMS Database, UKJMM 17
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Habit: Bipyramiddle
Colour: Orange
Fluorescence: None
Description: Pale orange xls to 0.75mm with green pyromorphite.
Reference: UKJMM 17

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Copper'1.AA.05Cu
'Silver'1.AA.05Ag
'Sulphur'1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcocite'2.BA.05Cu2S
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Covellite'2.CA.05aCuS
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Greenockite'2.CB.45CdS
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
'Ullmannite'2.EB.25NiSbS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bindheimite'4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
'Cesàrolite'4.FG.10Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Litharge'4.AC.20PbO
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aurichalcite'5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Brianyoungite'5.BF.30Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
'Cerussite'5.AB.15PbCO3
'Hydrocerussite'5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Hydrozincite'5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Leadhillite'5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
'Rosasite'5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
'Susannite'5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anglesite'7.AD.35PbSO4
'Bechererite'7.DD.55Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
'Bianchite'7.CB.25(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
'Brochantite'7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
'Caledonite'7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
'Elyite'7.DF.65Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Lanarkite'7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
'Langite'7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
'Lautenthalite'7.DE.70PbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
'Linarite'7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
'Namuwite'7.DD.50Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
'Ramsbeckite'7.DD.60(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
'Redgillite'7.DD.70Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
'Schmiederite' ?7.BC.65Pb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
'Schulenbergite'7.DD.80(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
'Serpierite'7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
'Steverustite' (TL)7.JA.10Pb2+5(OH)5[Cu+(S6+O3S2-)3](H2O)2
'Wroewolfeite'7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
'Wulfenite'7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Corkite'8.BL.05PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
'Hinsdalite'8.BL.05PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
'Pyromorphite'8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
'Chrysocolla'9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
'Hemimorphite'9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
'Mattheddleite'9.AH.25Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Unnamed (Pb Silicate) ?'-Pb, Si, O, H (?)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Ullmannite2.12.3.3NiSbS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Litharge4.2.4.1PbO
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)5X8
Cesàrolite7.6.1.1Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrocerussite16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Susannite17.1.3.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Bianchite29.6.8.2(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Elyite30.1.2.1Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Miscellaneous
Steverustite (TL)30.4.4.Pb2+5(OH)5[Cu+(S6+O3S2-)3](H2O)2
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Schulenbergite31.1.6.1(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Namuwite31.4.7.1Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Ramsbeckite31.4.9.1(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Wroewolfeite31.4.2.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Lautenthalite31.6.1.2PbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Serpierite31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 33 - SELENATES AND TELLURATES
(AB)m(XO4)pZq
Schmiederite ?33.1.1.1Pb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Corkite43.4.1.2PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hinsdalite43.4.1.5PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Mattheddleite52.4.9.6Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Bechererite-Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Brianyoungite-Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Redgillite-Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
'Unnamed (Pb Silicate) ?'-Pb, Si, O, H (?)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
H Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
H BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H LautenthalitePbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
H NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
H Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
H RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
H Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H SteverustitePb52+(OH)5[Cu+(S6+O3S2-)3](H2O)2
H SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H Unnamed (Pb Silicate) ?Pb, Si, O, H (?)
H WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
O Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O CerussitePbCO3
O CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O CupriteCu2O
O ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O LautenthalitePbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O LithargePbO
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
O NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
O RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
O Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O SteverustitePb52+(OH)5[Cu+(S6+O3S2-)3](H2O)2
O SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O Unnamed (Pb Silicate) ?Pb, Si, O, H (?)
O WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Unnamed (Pb Silicate) ?Pb, Si, O, H (?)
PPhosphorus
P CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
P HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
S Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
S BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S CovelliteCuS
S ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
S GalenaPbS
S GreenockiteCdS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S LautenthalitePbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
S NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
S Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
S RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
S Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S SteverustitePb52+(OH)5[Cu+(S6+O3S2-)3](H2O)2
S SulphurS8
S SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S UllmanniteNiSbS
S WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
MnManganese
Mn CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
NiNickel
Ni UllmanniteNiSbS
CuCopper
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu LautenthalitePbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Cu RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
Cu Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu SteverustitePb52+(OH)5[Cu+(S6+O3S2-)3](H2O)2
Cu WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Zn Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
Zn BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SeSelenium
Se SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
SbAntimony
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Sb UllmanniteNiSbS
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Pb CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
Pb LautenthalitePbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb LithargePbO
Pb MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
Pb SteverustitePb52+(OH)5[Cu+(S6+O3S2-)3](H2O)2
Pb SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb Unnamed (Pb Silicate) ?Pb, Si, O, H (?)
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Silurian
419.2 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 3185808
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Silurian (419.2 - 443.8 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Silurian
419.2 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 3160805
Silurian claystone

Age: Silurian (419.2 - 443.8 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{claystone}, Minor{sandstone,limestone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Llandovery
433.4 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 2034671
Llandovery Rocks (Undifferentiated)

Age: Llandovery (433.4 - 443.8 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Rocks & Minerals: 23: 25.
BMS Database.
Bick, D.E. et al. (1996) British Mining No. 30 Northern Mine Research Society [Extensive history].
Green, D.I., Rust, S.A., and Mason, J.S. (1996) Classic British mineral localities: Frongoch mine, Dyfed. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals 17, 29-39. [Extensive mineralogy].
Cotterell, T.F. (2007) Cesàrolite from Frongoch Mine, Devil's Bridge, Ceredigion, Wales. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 10, 55-56.
Cotterell, T.F. and Todhunter, P.K. (2007) Corkite and hinsdalite from Frongoch mine, Devil's Bridge, Ceredigion, Wales, including evidence to suggest that orpheite is a variety of hinsdalite. Journal of the Russell Society, 10, 57-64.
Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28. (referring to Cotterell 2007).
Cooper, M.A., Hawthorne, F.C., and Moffatt, E. (2009) Steverustite, Pb2+5(OH)5(Cu1+(S6+O3S2-)3)H2O)2, a new thiosulphate mineral from the Frongoch Mine Dump, Devils Bridge, Ceredigion, Wales: Description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 235-250.


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