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Needles, Custer Co., South Dakota, USAi
Regional Level Types
Needles- not defined -
Custer Co.County
South DakotaState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
43° 50' 12'' North , 103° 32' 57'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Custer1,952 (2017)8.8km
Hill City995 (2017)10.8km
Keystone343 (2017)12.4km
Pringle109 (2017)25.6km
Colonial Pine Hills2,493 (2017)26.7km


The Needles are the eroded spires of the granite core of the black Hills. They are located east of Sylvan Lake on the Needles Highway No. 87. The complete length of the Needles Highway is contained in a northwest extension of Custer State Park and is listed as a scenic drive.

“The Cathedral Spires and Limber Pine Natural Area, a 637-acre portion of the Needles containing six ridges of pillars as well as a disjunct stand of limber pine, was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1976.” Reference, Wikipedia.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

29 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Heterosite
Formula: (Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Hureaulite
Formula: (Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Leucophosphite
Formula: KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Quartz var: Rose Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Tavorite
Formula: LiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Zoisite ?
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Reference: R&M 75:3 pp 156-169

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Arsenolite4.CB.50As2O3
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rose Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Autunite8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Heterosite8.AB.10(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Hureaulite8.CB.10(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Leucophosphite8.DH.10KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Tavorite8.BB.05LiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Zoisite ?9.BG.10Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Arsenolite4.3.9.1As2O3
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Heterosite38.4.1.1(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Group 39 - HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5[HXO4]2[XO4]2.xH2O
Hureaulite39.2.1.1(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Tavorite41.5.9.1LiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Leucophosphite42.11.6.1KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Zoisite ?58.2.1b.1Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Quartz
var: Rose Quartz
-SiO2
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
H LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
LiLithium
Li TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O ArsenoliteAs2O3
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
O Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
O LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O QuartzSiO2
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
O UraniniteUO2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O Quartz (var: Rose Quartz)SiO2
O ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Quartz (var: Rose Quartz)SiO2
Si ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
PPhosphorus
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
P Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
P LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
P TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Mn Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Fe LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
NiNickel
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
AsArsenic
As ArsenoliteAs2O3
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
UUranium
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
U UraniniteUO2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 2471503
Harney Peak Granite

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Harney Peak Granite

Description: Layered granite, pegmatitic granite, and pegmatite. Leucocratic, peraluminous, plagioclase-microcline-quartz-muscovite S-type granite. Tourmaline and biotite common, but biotite mainly in inner part of central mass. Central mass consists of hundreds of intrusions. More than 24,000 separate bodies of pegmatite and granite are known between the central mass and the line defining the outer limit of pegmatite and granite bodies. Several hundred zoned pegmatites in a peripheral zone contain deposits of feldspar, mica, beryl, and other rare-element minerals. Emplacement age of 1,715 ± 3 Ma for the main granite based on concordant U-Pb date for monazite (Redden and others, 1990), but the emplacement of some pegmatite bodies may have continued for ~10 million years.

Reference: Redden, J.A., E. DeWitt. Maps Showing Geology, Structure, and Geophysics of the Central Black Hills, South Dakota. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2777. [73]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3028580
Harney Peak Granite

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Harney Peak Granite

Description: Pink to tan, finely crystalline to pegmaticic, peraluminous, muscovite granite and pegmatite containing accessory biotite, garnet, apatite, and tourmaline. Batholith body is dome-shaped with numerous smaller dikes and sills.

Comments: Original map source: Martin, J.E., Sawyer, J.F., Fahrenbach, M.D., Tomhave, D.W., and Schulz, L.D., 2004, Geologic Map of South Dakota: South Dakota Geological Survey, GM 10, scale 1:500,000.

Lithology: Major:{granite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3191707
Paleoproterozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region
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