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Landsverk 3 Feldspar Quarry, Landsverk, Evje og Hornnes, Aust-Agder, Norwayi
Regional Level Types
Landsverk 3 Feldspar QuarryQuarry
LandsverkFarm
Evje og HornnesMunicipality
Aust-AgderCounty
NorwayCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
58° 35' 33'' North , 7° 51' 35'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Byglandsfjord332 (2014)8.6km
Birkeland2,254 (2010)36.3km
Vennesla10,931 (2014)36.6km
Tveit1,397 (2010)42.7km
Strai1,266 (2013)45.0km
Name(s) in local language(s):
Landsverk III gruve (Beryllbruddet; Hagebruddet)


In the summer of 1903 P. Schei found a mineral he could not identify in this quarry, and on the label he wrote "Epidote".

Years later, samples of an unknown mineral from the Ljosland 04 Quarry (Thortveititettgruva) in Iveland were shown to feldspar dealer Olaus Thortveit, who subsequently sent them in 1910 to Oslo.

This was then shown to be a completely new mineral, the first in the world with scandium as main cation.

It was described in 1911 by Schetelig and named after Olaus Thortveit.

Quarry owner and miner Theodor Gautestad found a bucket full of thortveitite in this quarry, and sold it to the DuPont company in the US for 170.000 norwegian Kroner, at that time a fortune.

The price of thortveitite was before WW2 not more than 1 kr/g, but from 1955 on prices went up, and at its highest the price was 19 kr/g, three times the price of gold.

Exactly what kind of expectations the Americans had, is not known. It has been said that there were expeptations to make ultra-strong lasers with scandium.

But being related to the REE it is obvious that there are plenty of reasons to study this metal.

Nowadays, scandium is still a little used element due to its high price.

$3600/kg according to https://mineralprices.com/rare-earth-metals/ (26 nov. 2018)

But the USGS lists a much higher price:

https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/scandium/mcs-2018-scand.pdf

Up to $226.00/g for a 2 gram sample.


Coordinates © Kartverket - https://www.kartverket.no

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


10 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: George Creighton photo and specimen
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
'Alkali Feldspar'
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: George Creighton photo and specimen
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: George Creighton photo and specimen (visual identification)
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: George Creighton photo and specimen
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
Microcline var: Amazonite
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
'Monazite'
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p.91-92
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Andersen (1931, p. 91); Neumann (1985, p. 72).
Rutile var: Ilmenorutile
Formula: Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Reference: Andersen (1931, p. 91); Neumann (1985, p. 72).
Thortveitite
Formula: Sc2Si2O7
Reference: - Schetelig, J. (1922): Thortveitit- Ein scandiumsilikat, (Sc, Y)2Si2O7. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die MIneralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 51-87 + plates X- XIII

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var: Ilmenorutile4.DB.05Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
var: Amazonite9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Thortveitite9.BC.05Sc2Si2O7
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Alkali Feldspar'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Monazite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
var: Ilmenorutile4.4.1.2Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 55 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
Si2O7 Groups, Generally with no Additional Anions with cations in [6] coordination
Thortveitite55.2.1a.4Sc2Si2O7
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Alkali Feldspar'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Microcline
var: Amazonite
-K(AlSi3O8)
'Monazite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
OOxygen
O Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
O ThortveititeSc2Si2O7
O QuartzSiO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O HematiteFe2O3
O Microcline (var: Amazonite)K(AlSi3O8)
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O RutileTiO2
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
AlAluminium
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Microcline (var: Amazonite)K(AlSi3O8)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si ThortveititeSc2Si2O7
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Microcline (var: Amazonite)K(AlSi3O8)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
SSulfur
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K Microcline (var: Amazonite)K(AlSi3O8)
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
ScScandium
Sc ThortveititeSc2Si2O7
TiTitanium
Ti Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
NbNiobium
Nb Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
TaTantalum
Ta Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Schetelig, J. (1922) Thortveitit- Ein scandiumsilikat, (Sc, Y)2Si2O7. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th., and Schetelig, J. (1922) Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I. Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 51-87 + plates X- XIII.
Andersen, O. (1931) Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse nr 128b, p. 91-92.

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