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Rio Mine (Rio Marina Mine), Rio Marina, Elba Island, Livorno Province, Tuscany, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Rio Mine (Rio Marina Mine)Mine
Rio Marina- not defined -
Elba IslandIsland
Livorno ProvinceProvince
TuscanyRegion
ItalyCountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
42° 49' 16'' North , 10° 25' 47'' East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~0km
Locality type:
Name(s) in local language(s):
Miniera di Rio (Miniera di Rio Marina), Rio Marina, Isola d'Elba, Livorno, Toscana, Italia


The original name is Miniera di Rio because the nearby town of Rio Marina was only settled in the 16th century as a harbour for ore shipping and soldiers and superintendant residences.

The iron mine of Rio was surely used by the Etruscans and later by the Romans; the ore body is hematite, with pyrite at the bed and limonite at the roof. The origin, like in the other mines of eastern Elba, is hydrothermal and related to the Porto Azzurro monzogranitic intrusion (5.1 MY). The pyrite bed had been the limit of mining exploitation, ended in 1980.

The mine is placed at the North of the Rio Marina small town, 100 meters beyond the town hall.

Mining area is delimited by Monte Giove at the North, by sea at the East and by Grassera torrent valley at the West (approximately 1.1 km width and 1.6 km height) and is formed by several stopes: Bacino, Filon basso, Pozzofondi, Bottaccio (or Sanguinacci), Antenna (or L'Antenna), Rosseto, Falcacci (or Le Cavacce), Piè d'Ammone, Vigneria, Zuccoletto, Valle Giove.

Some of this mining has been very important for mineralogy: very probably Rio hematites at the Florence Museum were studied by Niel Stensen when he developed the 1st Law of the Crystallography.

Iron ore bodies from different mining stopes may show distinctive features. The three most important stopes (Bacino, Valle Giove, and Vigneria) still show good outcrops of large stratiform bodies. Fine- to medium-grained lamellar hematite with minor quartz is the dominant iron-rich assemblage in ore shoots from the Bacino and Vigneria stopes, although massive coarse-grained hematite with cavities lined by large rhombohedral crystals is not unusual. Iron ores from the Valle Giove stope typically contain hematite associated with abundant pyrite and adularia.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

54 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: E. Manasse, 1911 – Sopra alcuni minerali della Toscana – Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem. serie A, 27: 1-19.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: L. Busatti, 1881 - Alcuni minerali dell'Elba (arsenopirite, farmacosiderite, dufrenite) - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Proc. Verb., 2: 243-245.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: G. Tanelli, M. Benvenuti, 1998 - Guida ai Minerali dell’Isola d’Elba e del Campigliese – Il Libraio, Portoferraio (Isola d’Elba)
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: N. Calanchi, G. Dal Rio, A. Prati (1976) - Miniere e minerali dell'Elba orientale - Tip. Cacciari, Bologna.
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Reference: C. Garavelli, F. Quagliarella, 1967 - Beraunite di Rio Marina (Isola d'Elba). - Per. Miner., 36: 1041-1053.
Bismoclite
Formula: BiOCl
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Mariani & Scaini, 1978. I minerali d'Italia. Rizzoli Ed., Milano.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: G. Marinelli, 1959 - I minerali di bismuto del cantiere Falcacci a Rio Marina (Isola d'Elba). - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem. Serie A, 66: 337-352.; Senesi, F., Hanauer, M. & Rogner, P. (2013): I minerali di bismuto di Rio Marina, Isola d'Elba. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2013, 234-242
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: P. Rögner, M. Hanauer, F. Senesi (2000) - Elba orientale: nuovi ritrovamenti - Riv. Min. It., 24, 2: 102-109.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cannonite
Formula: Bi2(SO4)O(OH)2
Reference: Rögner, P. (2005) Aufschluss 56, 53-60; Senesi, F., Hanauer, M. & Rogner, P. (2013): I minerali di bismuto di Rio Marina, Isola d'Elba. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2013, 234-242
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Benvenuti, N., Dini, A., D’Orazio, M., Chiarantini, L., Corretti, A., Costagliola, P. (2013): The tungsten and tin signature of iron ores from Elba Island (Italy): a tool for provenance studies of iron production in the Mediterranean Region. Archaeometry, 55, 3, 479–506.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
'Chlorite Group'
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: P. Rögner, M. Hanauer, F. Senesi, 2000 - Elba orientale: nuovi ritrovamenti - Riv. Min. It., 2: 102-109.
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Reference: G. Duchi, P. Orlandi, G. Vezzalini, 1982 - La cosalite del cantiere Falcacci di Rio Marina (Isola d'Elba) - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem. Serie A, 89: 141-144.; Senesi, F., Hanauer, M. & Rogner, P. (2013): I minerali di bismuto di Rio Marina, Isola d'Elba. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2013, 234-242
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: P. Rögner, M. Hanauer, F. Senesi (2000) - Elba orientale: nuovi ritrovamenti - Riv. Min. It., 24, 2: 102-109.
Daubréeite
Formula: (BiO)(OH,Cl)
Reference: G. Marinelli, 1959 - I minerali di bismuto del cantiere Falcacci a Rio Marina (Isola d'Elba). - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem. Serie A, 66: 337-352.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Barsotti, G., & Nannoni, R. (2006). Rocce, minerali e miniere delle isole dell'Arcipelago Toscano. Pacini editore, 152 pp.
Dundasite
Formula: PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: P. Rögner, M. Hanauer, F. Senesi (2000) - Elba orientale: nuovi ritrovamenti - Riv. Min. It., 24, 2: 102-109.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: F. Millosevich (1914) - I 5000 Elbani del Museo di Firenze - R. Ist. Studi Sup. Prat. e Perf. Firenze.
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: Benvenuti, N., Dini, A., D’Orazio, M., Chiarantini, L., Corretti, A., Costagliola, P. (2013): The tungsten and tin signature of iron ores from Elba Island (Italy): a tool for provenance studies of iron production in the Mediterranean Region. Archaeometry, 55, 3, 479–506.
Fibroferrite
Formula: Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: E. Manasse, 1911 – Sopra alcuni minerali della Toscana – Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem. serie A, 27: 1-19; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 616.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Galena
Formula: PbS
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Description: 2 specimens from Foresi collection in Florence Museum determined by Millosevich are the only known.
Reference: F. Millosevich (1915) - Alotrichite di Rio (Isola d'Elba) - Atti R. Acc. Naz. Lincei, Rend., 24: 501-503.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Hematite var: Red Ochre
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Giuliano Bettini Collection
Hydroniumjarosite
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: P. Roegner - (raggi X, EDS) Ratisbona Univ. ; Senesi, F., Hanauer, M. & Rogner, P. (2013): I minerali di bismuto di Rio Marina, Isola d'Elba. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2013, 234-242
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: P. Rögner, M. Hanauer, F. Senesi (2000) - Elba orientale: nuovi ritrovamenti - Riv. Min. It., 24, 2: 102-109.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
'K Feldspar'
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: U. Panichi, 1909 - Sulla pirite dell’Elba - Riv. Min. Crist. It., 38: 12-35.
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Reference: L. Busatti, 1881 - Alcuni minerali dell'Elba (arsenopirite, farmacosiderite, dufrenite) - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Proc. Verb., 2: 243-245.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Senesi, F., Hanauer, M. & Rogner, P. (2013): I minerali di bismuto di Rio Marina, Isola d'Elba. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2013, 234-242
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: L. Busatti, 1881 - Alcuni minerali dell'Elba (arsenopirite, farmacosiderite, dufrenite) - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Proc. Verb., 2: 243-245.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: P. Orlandi, F. Pezzotta (1997) - Minerali dell'Isola d'Elba - Ed. Novecento Grafico, Bergamo.
Quartz var: Prase
Formula: SiO2
Reference: L. Rossato, M. Benvenuti, 2002 - Guida al sentiero geo-mineralogico attraverso la Miniera di Rio Marina - Regione Toscana, Firenze
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: E. Manasse, 1911 - Sopra alcuni minerali della Toscana. - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem. Serie A, 27: 1-19.
Riomarinaite (TL)
Formula: Bi(SO4)(OH) · H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Rögner, P. (2005) Aufschluss 56, 53-60; Senesi, F., Hanauer, M. & Rogner, P. (2013): I minerali di bismuto di Rio Marina, Isola d'Elba. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2013, 234-242
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Benvenuti, N., Dini, A., D’Orazio, M., Chiarantini, L., Corretti, A., Costagliola, P. (2013): The tungsten and tin signature of iron ores from Elba Island (Italy): a tool for provenance studies of iron production in the Mediterranean Region. Archaeometry, 55, 3, 479–506.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: G. Marinelli, 1959 - I minerali di bismuto del cantiere Falcacci a Rio Marina (Isola d'Elba). - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem. Serie A, 66: 337-352.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Tschermigite
Formula: (NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Rögner, P., Möckel, S., Ciriotti, M.E. (2007): Note di mineralogia elbana: tschermigite al cantiere Antenna, miniera di Rio Marina. Micro (notizie mineralogiche), 2/2007, 89-92.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cosalite2.JB.10Pb2Bi2S5
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Bismoclite3.DC.25BiOCl
Daubréeite3.DC.25(BiO)(OH,Cl)
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Ferberite4.DB.30FeWO4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Red Ochre4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Prase4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Dundasite5.DB.10PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cannonite7.BD.35Bi2(SO4)O(OH)2
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Fibroferrite7.DC.15Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hydroniumjarosite7.BC.10(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Plumbojarosite7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Riomarinaite (TL)7.DF.75Bi(SO4)(OH) · H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Tschermigite7.CC.20(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Beraunite8.DC.27Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
2.5 < ø < 3
Cosalite3.5.9.1Pb2Bi2S5
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A(O,OH)Xq
Bismoclite10.2.1.2BiOCl
Daubréeite10.2.1.3(BiO)(OH,Cl)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Dundasite16b.2.1.1PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Tschermigite29.5.5.3(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Cannonite30.2.9.1Bi2(SO4)O(OH)2
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Plumbojarosite30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Fibroferrite31.9.12.1Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Beraunite42.11.16.1Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Ferberite48.1.1.2FeWO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
Hematite
var: Red Ochre
-Fe2O3
Hydroniumjarosite-(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Prase-SiO2
Riomarinaite (TL)-Bi(SO4)(OH) · H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H RiomarinaiteBi(SO4)(OH) · H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2
H Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
H Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
NNitrogen
N Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
OOxygen
O RiomarinaiteBi(SO4)(OH) · H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O QuartzSiO2
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AnglesitePbSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O BismocliteBiOCl
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O BaryteBaSO4
O Quartz (var: Prase)SiO2
O CupriteCu2O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
O Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O Hematite (var: Red Ochre)Fe2O3
O FerberiteFeWO4
O CassiteriteSnO2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Al Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Quartz (var: Prase)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
PPhosphorus
P BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
SSulfur
S RiomarinaiteBi(SO4)(OH) · H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
S AnglesitePbSO4
S GalenaPbS
S SulphurS8
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S CosalitePb2Bi2S5
S BaryteBaSO4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2
S Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
S Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
ClChlorine
Cl BismocliteBiOCl
Cl Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
KPotassium
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Hematite (var: Red Ochre)Fe2O3
Fe FerberiteFeWO4
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu CopperCu
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W FerberiteFeWO4
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Pb DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
BiBismuth
Bi RiomarinaiteBi(SO4)(OH) · H2O
Bi BismocliteBiOCl
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
Bi CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Bi BismuthBi
Bi CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Pini, E. (1777) Osservazioni mineralogiche sopra la miniera di ferro di Rio e d'altre parti dell'Isola d'Elba. G. Marelli, Milano.
Gillieron, F. (1959) Osservazioni sulla geologia dei giacimenti di ferro dell'Isola d'Elba orientale. L'Ind. Miner., X, fasc. 1.
Calanchi, N., Dal Rio, G., and Prati, A. (1976) Miniere e minerali dell'Elba orientale. Tip. Cacciari, Bologna.
Orlandi, P. and Pezzotta, F. (1996) Minerali dell’Isola d’Elba. Ed. Novecento Grafico, Bergamo.
Rossato, L. and Benvenuti, M. (2002) Guida al sentiero geo-mineralogico attraverso la Miniera di Rio Marina. Regione Toscana, Firenze.
Benvenuti, N., Dini, A., D’Orazio, M., Chiarantini, L., Corretti, A., and Costagliola, P. (2013) The tungsten and tin signature of iron ores from Elba Island (Italy): a tool for provenance studies of iron production in the Mediterranean Region. Archaeometry, 55, 3, 479–506.

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