Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Higher Roughton Gill (Balliway Rigg), Roughton Gill, Caldbeck, Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UK
Higher Roughton Gill (Balliway Rigg), Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UK

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 54° 41' 39'' North , 3° 5' 3'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 54.69417,-3.08444
GeoHash:G#: gctz1ucbx
UK National Grid Reference:NY301338
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Other/historical names associated with this locality:North and Western Region; Cumberland


Note on the mineral list:

acanthite is a post-collection growth almost certainly due to the oxidation of tiny masses of supergene silver. It has not been found in situ. (Green et al., 2008).

Regions containing this locality

Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UK

Mining District - 289 mineral species & varietal names listed

Lake District National Park, Cumbria, England, UK

National Park - 383 mineral species & varietal names listed

Lake District National Park Authority - Caldbeck and Uldale Amber Zone, Cumbria, England, UK

Mineral Collecting Permit Zone - 223 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


68 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Description: post collection growths as minute spiky clusters on silver specimens, not found in situ. Green et al. (2008): "The presence of acanthite on several of the specimens we have examined in this study is almost certainly due to the oxidation of tiny masses of supergene silver, although we have only been able to positively identify silver by EDS on one tiny specimen."
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Ankerite ?
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Description: Green et al. (2008): "It is worthwhile noting that unfortunately, no (dolomite) specimens were available for analysis in this study, and the possibility that some material may be ankerite cannot be dismissed."
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
'Apatite'
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Habit: aggregates of radiating lath-like crystals; randomly disposed blades
Colour: pale blue to turquoise (laths); blue to blue-green (blades)
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Azurite ?
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Description: Green et al. (2008): "An azurite specimen in the R. J. King collection at the National Museum Wales, with crystals up to 15 mm long, is reputed to be from higher Roughton Gill (Cooper and Stanley, 1990). If genuine it is by far the best example of the species from the Caldbeck Fells. No similar specimens have ever been found, and the history of the specimen, which was obtained from an old collection by the north-of-England mineral dealer W. F. Davidson, is sufficiently uncertain that we consider the occurrence remains unproven. The presence of large crystals of azurite, a mineral which requires a relatively high partial pressure of CO2 to crystallise, is geochemically unlikely in the Caldbeck Fells."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Bariopharmacosiderite
Formula: Ba0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
Habit: pseudocubic
Colour: dark green, yellow-brown to pale green
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: massive; tabular to blocky; rhombohedra
Colour: colourless to white
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Beaverite-(Cu) ?
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: powdery masses
Colour: yellow
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury and Hartley (1957): "as yellow, powdery masses, with jarosite and chrysocolla, in somewhat chalcedonic quartz from the outcrop of the main Roughtongill South Vein along the flank of Balliway Rigg." Green et al. (2008): "Beaverite was claimed from the outcrop of the South Vein on Balliway Rigg by Kingsbury and Hartley (1957b, 1960), but was not noted in an unpublished manuscript describing the minerals of the area in 1951. The specimens in the Kingsbury collection are rather non-descript, comprising beaverite, galena and somewhat corroded cerussite. They are not similar in appearance to any material of undoubted provenance collected in the recent past, and given Kingsbury's proven propensity for mislabelling and the probable late date of collection, they cannot be considered trustworthy."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957-1960).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: spherical aggregates of rhombic crystals; crusts; rhombic to pseudocubic
Colour: yellow, yellowish-brown, greenish-brown, brown
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Beudantite was identified by XRD and WDS as yellow to brown euhedral rhombic crystals up to about 0.2 mm on edge, which are sometimes aggregated into spherical masses. It also forms crusts on iron-stained quartz. Beudantite occurs with baryte and lepidocrocite in cellular quartz veinstone found in screes at the northeast end of the exposure of the vein in higher Roughton Gill. Screes on the east side of the valley produced well-formed yellow to dark brown rhombic to pseudo-cubic crystals in an iron-stained matrix. The exact source of these latter specimens, which are sometimes associated with well-crystallised carminite, is unknown. Beudantite was noted with carminite at Balliway Rigg in an unpublished manuscript prepared by Arthur Kingsbury in 1951. It was later described with a variety of other minerals including, jarosite, plumbojarosite, and beaverite by Kingsbury and Hartley (1960). The claimed Roughton Gill alunite jarosite group specimens in the Kingsbury collection are not particularly spectacular but they do not give the impression of a coherent group, which were all collected from the same locality. Many of the other specimens on which the 1960 'carminite and beudantite' paper is based, including for example beudantite with olivenite from Dry Gill Mine, and beudantite from Ingray Gill, are almost certainly fraudulent. Kingsbury's beudantite specimens cannot be considered trustworthy."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1951) (unpublished manuscript on the minerals of the northern Lake District.); Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Habit: powdery encrustations
Colour: pale yellow
Description: From the flank of Balliway Rigg in higher Roughton Gill (Hartley, 1984). Kingsbury claimed the occurrence as 'new to GB'. Also from the 90fm level dumps as a yellow powder in cavities in a quartz-galena matrix with cerussite, caledonite, leadhillite and malachite.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1950) Unpublished manuscript.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London. (referring to Kingsbury, 1950 and Hartley, 1984).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28. (referring to Kingsbury, 1950 and Cooper & Stanley, 1990).
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Colour: metallic purple
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Bournonite ?
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Bournonite was noted intergrown with galena from workings on the South Vein in higher Roughton Gill in an unpublished manuscript by Arthur Kingsbury (Cooper and Stanley, 1990). We have been unable to find any bournonite labelled from higher Roughton Gill in the Kingsbury Collection, but the mineral has been found as microscopic inclusions in galena on the strike extension of South Vein at Driggith Mine (Stanley and Vaughan, 1981). Although the record is quite likely to be correct, it is perhaps best considered unproven."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1951) (unpublished manuscript on the minerals of the northern Lake District.); Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: drusy crusts (on goethite); earthy masses and encrustations associated with partially oxidised sulphides (on vein quartz).
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. The North Western Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Colour: translucent white
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Habit: velvety encrustations; radiating sprays of acicular crystals; elongated prisms; laths; feathery
Colour: pale blue, deep blue, sky blue
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Cumberland and Westmorland. The North Western Naturalist, 23, 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Green, D.I. (1989) Scotlandite from Higher Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 53, n° 373, 653.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Habit: prismatic
Colour: deep carmine red
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Carminite was identified by XRD (to differentiate it from mawbyite) and EDS in material found in a scree on the east side of the valley at the northeastern end of the study area. Characteristic deep red pointed prismatic crystals up to about 0.1 mm in length accompany segnitite in small cavities in thin veins in quartz-rich wallrock. Carminite is also almost certainly present as minutely drusy deep red resinous encrustations in specimens found loose in screes on the west side of the valley, but they are too small for analysis by XRD. Carminite was claimed from the outcrop of the South Vein in higher Roughton Gill by Kingsbury and Hartley (1960). The Kingsbury specimens are different from any that we have collected, but they closely resemble classic material from Tintic, Utah, USA. They comprise mimetite, beudantite, and carminite, with grey copper sulphides, chalcopyrite, and arsenopyrite. The sulphide assemblage is unlike anything we have found along the exposure of the South Vein in higher Roughton Gill. The Kingsbury carminite specimens are likely to be fraudulent."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1951) (unpublished manuscript on the minerals of the northern Lake District.); Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Habit: acicular, blocky, prismatic and tabular crystals, commonly twinned.
Colour: colourless to white
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Cumberland and Westmorland. The North Western Naturalist, 23, 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Cesàrolite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Habit: dull earthy botryoidal crust
Colour: black
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Chalcopyrite is the commonest primary copper mineral in the vein exposure. It occurs as idiomorphic masses in quartz veinstone, these are sometimes bright and unoxidised, but more commonly partly replaced by goethite. Blue and green oxidation rims commonly surround chalcopyrite."
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Chenite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: monoclinic blades
Colour: pale blue
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Habit: botryoidal crusts
Colour: blue to green (coloured by included malachite)
Description: Confirmed by EDS and XRD by Green et al. (2008).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957-1960).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Colour: brick red
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Habit: acicular
Colour: blue
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: rhombohedra, sometimes aggregated into spherical masses; drusy crusts
Colour: yellow to brown
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Habit: botryoidal crusts made up of acicular crystals a few µm across.
Colour: black
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Habit: rims and encrustations (around galena and other sulphides); hexagonal plates (in small cavities in quartz veinstone)
Colour: dark purple; metallic blue to purple
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984). Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Colour: cream to brown
Description: Green et al. (2008): "the possibility that some material may be ankerite cannot be dismissed."
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
'Ferrodiorite'
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Habit: cubo-octahedra
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Green, D.I. (1989) Scotlandite from Higher Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 53(373), 653.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Habit: powdery; botryoidal and/or stalactitic masses
Colour: limonitic to dark brown
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Habit: gossanous material containing numerous small cavities lined with earthy red powder
Colour: dark red to brown
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Habit: radiating sprays of millimetre-sized platy crystals grading into botryoidal crusts
Colour: colourless to white; pale blue
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Habit: as thin bright pearly plates, which loosely encrust cavities in vein quartz; as aggregates of discoidal crystals up to 3 mm across; as well-formed rhombs up to 3 mm across; and as platy hexagonal crystals with a perfect one-directional cleavage up to about 5 mm on edge.
Colour: very pale blue (Cooper & Stanley, 1990)
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From 'Thief Gills (northern)' [probably the outcrop workings in higher Roughton Gill] (Hartley Collection. Leeds Univ., det. University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST): IR."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Habit: earthy crusts up to about 1 mm thick, made up of minute lath-like pearly crystals.
Colour: white
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: drusy crusts
Colour: pale slightly pearly brown
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury and Hartley (1958): "occurs as a yellow to brown powdery aggregates, associated with beaverite, beudantite, and chrysocolla in chalcedonic quartz, in the outcrop of the south vein along the flank of Balliway Rigg (B.M. 1956, 77; 1958, 47)." Green et al. (2008): "Jarosite was identified by EDS as drusy crusts of pale slightly pearly brown crystals a few tens of micrometres across in cavernous iron-stained quartz matrix in loose screes on the east side of the valley. Jarosite was claimed from several locations in the Caldbeck Fells by Kingsbury and Hartley (1958). These include higher Roughton Gill where jarosite is described with beudantite, beaverite and 'chrysocolla' in chalcedonic quartz. No material similar to the rather nondescript Kingsbury specimens has been discovered in our investigations and bearing in mind Arthur Kingsbury's propensity for mis-labelling specimens it must be regarded with some skepticism."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Kintoreite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Habit: rhombic crystals up to 0.1mm on edge
Colour: yellow
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Habit: lath-like
Colour: colourless to white
Description: Green et al. (2008): "The specimen in the Kingsbury collection at the NHM is described by Cooper and Stanley (1990) and comprises radiating sprays and crystal sections to 20 mm with leadhillite. In common with the Brae Fell specimens, it is almost certainly a fragment of an old specimen from the Leadhills-Wanlockhead district in Scotland. It is amazingly large, a single isolated example, strongly resembles Leadhills specimens and is unlike anything ever collected by anyone else at Roughton Gill."
Reference: BMS Database; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39. Green, D.I. (1989) Scotlandite from Higher Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 53, n° 373, 653.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: blocky pseudohexagonal; thin tabular to prismatic.
Description: Occasionally occurs as pseudomorphs and epimorphs after lanarkite. Green et al. (2008): "Fine lustrous pale yellow leadhillite crystals to 10 mm in the Kingsbury Collection at the NHM are described by Cooper and Stanley (1990). While these may be genuine, they are much larger than any that have been reported since, and given Kingsbury's penchant for claiming old-time specimens from the Leadhills-Wanlockhead district as Caldbeck Fells, they should be treated with caution."
Reference: Green, D.I. (1989) Scotlandite from Higher Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 53(373), 653.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Habit: drusy crusts of sub-millimetre size tabular crystals; reniform and botryoidal crusts
Colour: dark reddish-brown to black
Description: sometimes as epimorphs after supergene baryte.
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Linarite ?
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: blocky to elongated tabular; bladed; crusts.
Colour: deep azure-blue
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "As small, poor crystals in altered sulphides from an old working on the Silver Gill lode [NY301342].". Although many early records note Roughton Gill as a locality for fine specimens of linarite, it seems likely that most of the specimens claimed for the locality originated in the nearby workings of Red Gill Mine (see Bridges et al., 2008 for a detailed discussion).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: acicular; fibrous masses; crusts.
Colour: pale to dark green
Reference: BMS Database; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman, Clapham.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Cumberland and Westmorland. The North Western Naturalist, 23, 136-154.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Mattheddleite
Formula: Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Habit: drusy crusts; minute acicular crystals.
Reference: Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Braithwaite, R.S.W (1988) The occurrence of mattheddleite in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: a preliminary note. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 5, 21.; Green, D.I. (1989) Scotlandite from Higher Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 53, n° 373, 653.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London. Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
'Microgranite'
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: squat to elongated hexagonal prisms; curved 'rice grains'; rounded barrels.
Colour: yellow, green, brown, white.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Montetrisaite ?
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
Description: Green et al. (2008): "full confirmation (of redgillite vs. its dimorph montetrisaite) requires XRD for which there is insufficient material at present."
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Habit: pyramidal; blocky.
Colour: olive green; yellow to yellow-brown; brown.
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
'Mudstone'
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Phosphohedyphane
Formula: Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Habit: botryoidal crusts
Colour: pale to dark green
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Plumbogummite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Habit: drusy encrustations and crystals.
Colour: pale lavender blue to dark blue; yellow-brown.
Description: The first report of plumbogummite from the South Vein in higher Roughton Gill is due to Arthur Kingsbury, who recorded specimens "along the back of the south vein, on the flank of Balliway Rigg, from just above the waterfall to the junction of higher Roughtongill with the northern Thief Gill" in an unpublished manuscript completed in 1951. A number of superb specimens, with very precise labels are preserved in the Kingsbury collection at the NHM.
Reference: BMS Database; Meirs, H.A. (1900) Note on the hitchcockite, plumbogummite and beudantite analysed by Mr. Hartley. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 11, n° 53, 263-285.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1951) (unpublished manuscript on the minerals of the northern Lake District.); Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Cumberland and Westmorland. The North Western Naturalist, 23, 136-154.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: pseudocubic
Colour: dark brown
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Plumbojarosite was described from an outcrop of the South Vein in Higher Roughton Gill with galena, cerussite, 'chrysocolla', carminite, beudantite, jarosite and beaverite by Kingsbury and Hartley (1960). The specimens are dissimilar to those that we have collected and must be regarded with suspicion."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
'Psilomelane'
Description: The hard manganese oxides that occur in the Caldbeck Fells were commonly described using the 'catch all' term psilomelane (see Cooper and Stanley, 1990). We have identified cryptomelane, cesàrolite, coronadite, manganite and romanèchite from higher Roughton Gill by XRD, WDS and EDS. Further studies of the manganese oxides would be useful."
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: massive
Colour: silvery
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Pyrolusite ?
Formula: Mn4+O2
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Pyrolusite or manganite was noted in one of the Thief gills by Davidson and Thomson (1951). Our analyses have only confirmed manganite, but very few specimens were available for study. Further field and analytical work is required to establish the diversity of manganese oxide minerals in the area."
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Cumberland and Westmorland. The North Western Naturalist, 23, 136-154.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: botryoidal to stalactitic masses; hexagonal barrels and plates; elongated prisms; lenticular crystals; drusy microcrystalline crusts.
Colour: yellow; orange-yellow; orange-brown; yellow-green; green.
Description: Occasionally as pseudomorphs and epimorphs after cerussite and hydrocerussite.
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. The North Western Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.; BMS Database;
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: massive; saccharoidal; stumpy pyramidal crystals.
Colour: white
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Quartz is the major vein filling along the exposure of the South Vein in higher Roughton Gill. It varies in texture from compact, massive, white, fine-grained almost chalcedonic infillings to loose saccharoidal masses and white coarsely crystalline masses with numerous cavities containing stumpy pyramidal crystals.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 239, 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 240, 813-815.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1958).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Redgillite
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Habit: acicular
Colour: light green
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Habit: botryoidal
Colour: sooty black
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: crusts; spherulitic aggregates typically 0.5mm across
Colour: blue-green
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Surprisingly, rosasite was not described from Britain until 1957, when Kingsbury and Hartley noted it from seven localities including the exposure of the South Vein in higher Roughton Gill. This is not listed as a rosasite locality by Hartley (1984), but the Roughton Gill finds have been duplicated by many other collectors (see Cooper and Stanley, 1990) and there is no reason to doubt their authenticity."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
'Sandstone'
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Habit: crusts
Colour: brown to grey
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Scotlandite
Formula: PbSO3
Habit: pointed; chisel-shaped.
Colour: pale brown; colourless.
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Recently found on a few small specimens collected from an outcrop of the Roughton Gill South vein in higher Roughton Gill. It occurs as a sparkling pale brown encrustation on altered galena with mattheddleite, lanarkite, leadhillite and caledonite (det. Leeds Univ.: XRD, D.I. Green in prep.)"
Reference: Green, D.I. (1989) Scotlandite from Higher Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 53(373), 653.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Green, 1989); Neall, T., Green, D.I., and Bridges, T.F. (2006) Scotlandite in the British Isles: its occurrence morphology and paragenesis. Journal of the Russell Society, 9, 83-89.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Segnitite
Formula: PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Habit: rhombohedra; drusy aggregates and crusts.
Colour: pale yellow to yellow-brown.
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
'Siltstone'
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Description: Green et al. (2008): "The presence of acanthite on several of the specimens we have examined in this study is almost certainly due to the oxidation of tiny masses of supergene silver, although we have only been able to positively identify silver by EDS on one tiny specimen."
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Colour: red to red-brown (crystals); dark brown (more compact masses)
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Habit: rounded crystals.
Colour: pale yellow to colourless.
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Susannite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: rhombohedra and trigonal prisms, some highly elongated.
Colour: colourless to pale blue.
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Tennantite ?
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Tetrahedrite-tennantite with an intermediate composition is listed from higher Roughton Gill by Hartley (1984). We have been unable to trace the specimen in the Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Tetrahedrite has been confirmed along the easterly strike extension of the Roughton Gill South Vein at Driggith Mine (Stanley and Vaughan, 1981), but tennantite remains unconfirmed. There is no reference to tetrahedrite or tennantite from higher Roughton Gill in any of Kingsbury's X-ray catalogues and it may be that specimens were found independently by Jack Hartley. A more extensive investigation of the primary mineralisation is required to resolve this problem."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series' ?
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Tetrahedrite-tennantite with an intermediate composition is listed from higher Roughton Gill by Hartley (1984). We have been unable to trace the specimen in the Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Tetrahedrite has been confirmed along the easterly strike extension of the Roughton Gill South Vein at Driggith Mine (Stanley and Vaughan, 1981), but tennantite remains unconfirmed. There is no reference to tetrahedrite or tennantite from higher Roughton Gill in any of Kingsbury's X-ray catalogues and it may be that specimens were found independently by Jack Hartley. A more extensive investigation of the primary mineralisation is required to resolve this problem."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Habit: massive dull patches
Colour: black
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Tetrahedrite ?
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Description: Green et al. (2008): "A tetrahedrite-tennantite intermediate is listed from higher Roughton Gill without description by Hartley (1984), but we have been unable to trace the specimen in the Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Since tetrahedrite has been confirmed along the strike extension of the Roughton Gill South Vein at Driggith Mine (Stanley and Vaughan, 1981), and the specimen does not appear to be linked to Kingsbury, there seems no reason to doubt the report, but whether it represents tetrahedrite or tennantite is unknown."
Reference: BMS Database.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Habit: tablets and plates.
Colour: yellow and orange-yellow to orange.
Reference: Rothwell, M. and Mason, J. (1992) Wulfenite in the British Isles. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 11, 30-41.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Acanthite'2.BA.35Ag2S
'Bornite'2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
'Bournonite' ?2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tennantite ?2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite ?2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Connellite3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bindheimite'4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
'Cesàrolite'4.FG.10Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Coronadite4.DK.05aPb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Cryptomelane4.DK.05aK(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Pyrolusite ?4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Romanèchite4.DK.10(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Scotlandite4.JE.20PbSO3
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Ankerite' ?5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Aurichalcite'5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Azurite' ?5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Cerussite'5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrocerussite5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Susannite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anglesite'7.AD.35PbSO4
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Beaverite-(Cu)' ?7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
'Brochantite'7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
'Caledonite'7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Chenite7.BC.70Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
Linarite ?7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Montetrisaite ?7.DD.85Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
Plumbojarosite7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Redgillite7.DD.70Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Bariopharmacosiderite'8.DK.10Ba0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
'Beudantite'8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
'Carminite'8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Corkite8.BL.05PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Kintoreite8.BL.10PbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Phosphohedyphane8.BN.05Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Plumbogummite8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Segnitite8.BL.10PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Mattheddleite9.AH.25Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
Feldspar Group-
Ferrodiorite-
Microgranite-
Mudstone-
Psilomelane-
Sandstone-
Siltstone-
Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series ?-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite ?3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite ?3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Bournonite ?3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite ?4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)5X8
Cesàrolite7.6.1.1Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
AB8X16
Coronadite7.9.1.4Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Cryptomelane7.9.1.2K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Romanèchite7.9.2.1(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite ?14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite ?16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrocerussite16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Susannite17.1.3.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chenite30.1.16.1Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Beaverite-(Cu) ?30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Linarite ?30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
(AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Montetrisaite ?31.2.8.Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 34 - SELENITES, TELLURITES AND SULFITES
A(XO3)
Scotlandite34.1.1.2PbSO3
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Kintoreite42.7.3.6PbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Plumbogummite42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Segnitite42.7.4.4PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Bariopharmacosiderite42.8.1a.3Ba0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Corkite43.4.1.2PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Mattheddleite52.4.9.6Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Ferrodiorite'-
'Microgranite'-
'Mudstone'-
Phosphohedyphane-Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
'Psilomelane'-
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
Redgillite-Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
'Sandstone'-
'Siltstone'-
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series' ?-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
H CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
H ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
H CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
H MontetrisaiteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
H SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C CerussitePbCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CalciteCaCO3
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
O CerussitePbCO3
O CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
O CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
O CupriteCu2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MontetrisaiteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O ScotlanditePbSO3
O SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
O SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O TenoriteCuO
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
P KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AcanthiteAg2S
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
S CinnabarHgS
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
S CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S CovelliteCuS
S GalenaPbS
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
S MontetrisaiteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S PyriteFeS2
S RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
S ScotlanditePbSO3
S SphaleriteZnS
S SulphurS8
S SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ClChlorine
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cl MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
MnManganese
Mn CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Mn CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Mn CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
CuCopper
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MontetrisaiteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
As SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag SilverAg
SbAntimony
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
BaBarium
Ba BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Pb ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb ScotlanditePbSO3
Pb SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Pb SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Silurian - Ordovician
419.2 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2032137
Unnamed Igneous Intrusion, Ordovician To Silurian

Age: Paleozoic (419.2 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Felsic-rock

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Early Ordovician
470 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3157764
Early Ordovician limestone

Age: Early Ordovician (470 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{sandstone,siltstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Meirs, H.A. (1900) Note on the hitchcockite, plumbogummite and beudantite analysed by Mr. Hartley. Mineralogical Magazine, 11(53), 263-285.
Postlethwaite, J. (1913) Mines and Mining in the Lake District. Third Edition, Moss and Sons, Whitehaven.
Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. The North Western Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.
Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman, Clapham.
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.
Adams, J. (1988) Mines of the Lake District Fells. Dalesman Books, Clapham, Lancashire.
Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Braithwaite, R.S.W (1988) The occurrence of mattheddleite in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: a preliminary note. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 5, 21.
Green, D.I. (1989) Scotlandite from Higher Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 53(373), 653.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Rothwell, M. and Mason, J. (1992) Wulfenite in the British Isles. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 11, 30-41.
British Geological Survey (1997) Cockermouth. England and Wales, Sheet 23. Solid Geology. 1:50000. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham.
Ryback, G., Clark, A.M., and Stanley, C.J. (1998) Reexamination of the A.W.G. Kingsbury collection of British minerals at the Natural History Museum, London. The Geological Curator 6(9), 317-322.
Jecock, M., Dunn, C. and Lax, A. (2001) Roughton Gill Mine and Silver Gill Mine, Cumbria. Archaeological Investigations Reports Series, AI/8/2001.
Ryback, G., Hart, A.D., and Stanley, C.J. (2001) A.W.G. Kingsbury's specimens of British minerals. Part 1: some examples of falsified localities. Journal of the Russell Society, 7(2), 51-69.
Smith, R., Murphy, S., and Allison, W (2001) The lost German mines at Caldbeck. Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 1, 89-104.
Neall, T., Green, D.I., and Bridges, T.F. (2006) Scotlandite in the British Isles: its occurrence morphology and paragenesis. Journal of the Russell Society, 9, 83-89.
Tyler, I. (2006) The Lakes & Cumbria Mines Guide. Blue Rock Publications.
Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britain and Ireland. Terra Publications, Harpenden.


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: May 26, 2019 20:32:32 Page generated: October 12, 2018 13:06:28
Go to top of page