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Malta

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Area:316 km2
Locality type:Country


The country of Malta consists of an archipelago of seven islands, three of which are inhabited (Malta, Gozo, and Comino).

The Maltese Islands are located on the northern flank of the Pantelleria Rift, between Tunisia and Sicily to the south of the Sicilian platform.

Geologically, the islands consist exclusively of sedimentary rocks, mostly limestone of Oligocene and Miocene age, although older rocks (Cretaceous and Eocene) have been encountered in deep boreholes.

The stratigraphic succession outcropping on the islands consists of five main litho-stratigraphic units of Oligocene-Miocene ages defined from the basement to the top by: the Aquitanian-Burdigalian Lower Coralline Limestone (140 m thick), the Chattian to Langhian Globigerina Limestone (20 - 200 m thick), the Langhian Blue Clay Formation (75 m thick), the Greensand Formation (few meters thick) and the Tortonian Upper Coralline Limestone (100 m thick). The Globigerina Limestone is composed of three members called Lower, Middle and Upper Globigerina Limestone.

Malta yields hardly any crystallized mineral specimens except for calcite and gypsum. It is much better known for its fossil specimens, although their export is technically illegal. Ubiquitous cerussite pellets in the soil are the product of alteration of bullets and birdshot and are not native.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

14 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: www.geocities.com/RainForest/3096/mineral.html (associated with gypsum in the Blue Clay strata)
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Apatite'
'Apatite var: Carbonate-rich Apatite'
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: www.geocities.com/RainForest/3096/mineral.html (detrital grains up to 0.2mm in the Greensand strata, the Blue Clay strata, and the Globigerina limestone strata)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
'Chert'
Reference: www.geocities.com/RainForest/3096/mineral.html (in the Globigerina limestone strata); https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/EGU2018-6443.pdf
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
'Flint'
Reference: www.geocities.com/RainForest/3096/mineral.html (in the Globigerina limestone strata)
Glauconite
Formula: (K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Techer I., Casteleyn L., Rocher M., Missenard Y., Robion P., Reynes J. (2013): Identifying eroded Messinian deposits on the Maltese Islands by gypsum Sr isotopes. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 7, 830–833.
Gypsum var: Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
'Hornblende'
Reference: www.geocities.com/RainForest/3096/mineral.html (detrital grains up to 0.2mm in the Greensand strata, the Blue Clay strata, and the Globigerina limestone strata)
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
'K Feldspar'
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Manganese Oxides'
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: www.geocities.com/RainForest/3096/mineral.html (detrital grains up to 0.2mm in the Greensand strata, the Blue Clay strata, and the Globigerina limestone strata)
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: www.geocities.com/RainForest/3096/mineral.html (detrital grains up to 0.2mm in the Greensand strata, the Blue Clay strata, and the Globigerina limestone strata)
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: www.geocities.com/RainForest/3096/mineral.html (detrital grains up to 0.2mm in the Greensand strata, the Blue Clay strata, and the Globigerina limestone strata)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Ankerite'5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anhydrite'7.AD.30CaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
var: Selenite7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Group 9 - Silicates
'Augite'9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'var: Carbonate-rich Apatite'-
Chert-
Flint-
Glauconite-(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Hornblende-
K Feldspar-
Limonite-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Manganese Oxides-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Glauconite71.2.2a.5(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'var: Carbonate-rich Apatite'-
'Chert'-
'Flint'-
Gypsum
var: Selenite
-CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Hornblende'-
Hydroxylapatite
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
-Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
'K Feldspar'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
H Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O CalciteCaCO3
O Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
NaSodium
Na Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
SSulfur
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
KPotassium
K Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Ca Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Pedley, H.M., House, M.R., Waugh, B. (1976): Geology of Malta and Gozo. Proc. Geol. Ass., 87, 325-341.
Reuther, C.D. (1984): Tectonics of the Maltese Islans. Centro, 1, 1-16.
Missenard, Y., Rocher, M., Casteleyn, L., Grare, A., Bertrand, A., Vergely, P., et al. (2011): Sealing capacity of clays in multilayer systems: a field study of fracture-fluid flow relationships (Blue Clay formation, Maltese Islands). EGU General Assembly 2011, Vienna, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, 8406.
Techer, I., Casteleyn, L., Rocher, M., Missenard, Y., Robion, P., Reynes, J. (2013): Identifying eroded Messinian deposits on the Maltese Islands by gypsum Sr isotopes. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 7, 830–833.

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