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Shigar Valley, Skardu District, Baltistan, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan

Key
Lock Map
Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 35° North , 75° East (est.)
Margin of Error:~14km
Locality type:Valley
Köppen climate type:ET : Tundra


The Shigar is a tributary of the Indus River to which binds near the town of Skardu. The Basha and Braldu rivers are northern tributaries of the Shigar. Numerous complex granitic pegmatites and some alpine-type deposits are found in this area in an altitude ranging from 2,500 to 4,000 mosl. The Shigar Valley runs along the Main Karakoram Thrust separating the Asian plate at north (metasediments chlorite to amphibolite grade) from Kohistan-Ladakh plate at south (volcaniclastic rocks).
Specimens from Braldu and Basha valley localities are often labeled as "Shigar Valley".

Regions containing this locality

The Himalayas, Asia

Mountain Range - 263 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

47 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: various added photos
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation; Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Reference: Muhammad Hassan; Mineralogy and geochemistry of the gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan, pag. 163; University of Peshwar, 2007
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Amphibole Supergroup var: Byssolite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Amphibolite'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
'Andesite'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
Andradite ?
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Bill Bunn specimen
'Apatite'
Reference: Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation ; MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).; Muhammad hassan 2007 Mineralogy and geochemistry of the gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas, Pakistan
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Axinite-(Fe)
Formula: Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
'Axinite Group'
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
'Basalt'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
Bavenite
Formula: Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation ; MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).; Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation ; MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).; Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation ; MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).; Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
'Biotite'
Reference: MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
'Clays'
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: FeNb2O6
Reference: AM Mizunaka
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation
'Diorite'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation ; Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).; Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
Fluornatromicrolite
Formula: (Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
Foitite
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Reference: Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
'Gabbro'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).
Genthelvite
Formula: Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Reference: Herb Obodda collection MIM Museum collection
'Gneiss'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
'Granite'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
'Granodiorite'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
'Granofels'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
'Greenschist'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Herderite ?
Formula: CaBePO4(F,OH)
Reference: No reference listed
'Herderite-Hydroxylherderite Series'
'Hornblendite'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
Hydroxylherderite
Formula: CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
'K Feldspar'
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
'Marble'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
'Mica Group'
'Mica schist'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
'Pegmatite'
Reference: Jose Zendrera collection
'Phyllite'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Rutile var: Sagenite (of Saussure)
Formula: TiO2
'Sagenite'
'Scapolite Group'
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna collection
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation ; Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
'Slate'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: MnTa2O6
Reference: Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation
'Tonalite'
Reference: -Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Technical/ Sub – Sector Study On Gemstones In Baltistan, Northern Areas Gem Sector Development Project. Baltistan Culture & Development Foundation; MARWAT, S. K., & ALI, A. TECHNICAL/SUB û SECTOR STUDY ON GEMSTONES IN BALTISTAN, NORTHERN AREAS GEM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT BALTISTAN CULTURE & DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (BCDF).; Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Triplite
Formula: (Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cassiterite'4.DB.05SnO2
Columbite-(Fe)4.DB.35FeNb2O6
Fluornatromicrolite4.DH.15(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var: Sagenite (of Saussure)4.DB.05TiO2
Tantalite-(Mn)4.DB.35MnTa2O6
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Herderite ?8.BA.10CaBePO4(F,OH)
Hydroxylherderite8.BA.10CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Triplite8.BB.10(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
'Allanite-(Ce)'9.BG.05b{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Almandine'9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
'Andradite' ?9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Axinite-(Fe)9.BD.20Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Bavenite9.DF.25Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Goshenite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Foitite9.CK.05(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Genthelvite9.FB.10Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Zoisite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'var: Byssolite'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Amphibolite'-
'Andesite'-
'Apatite'-
Axinite Group-
Basalt-
Biotite-
'Clays'-
Diorite-
Gabbro-
Garnet Group-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gneiss-
Granite-
Granodiorite-
Granofels-
Greenschist-
Herderite-Hydroxylherderite Series-
Hornblendite-
K Feldspar-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Marble-
Mica Group-
Mica schist-
Pegmatite-
Phyllite-
Sagenite-
Scapolite Group-
Slate-
Tonalite-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
AB2O6
Columbite-(Fe)8.3.2.2FeNb2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)8.3.2.3MnTa2O6
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Herderite ?41.5.4.1CaBePO4(F,OH)
Hydroxylherderite41.5.4.2CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
A2(XO4)Zq
Triplite41.6.1.2(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andradite ?51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Axinite-(Fe)56.2.2.1Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Allanite-(Ce)58.2.1a.1{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Zoisite58.2.1b.1{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite61.3.1.1(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 70 - INOSILICATES Column or Tube Structures
Column or Tube Structures with chains linked by Be
Bavenite70.5.3.1Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Genthelvite76.2.4.3Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'var: Byssolite'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Amphibolite'-
'Andesite'-
'Apatite'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Axinite Group'-
'Basalt'-
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Goshenite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-
'Clays'-
'Diorite'-
Fluornatromicrolite-(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
'Gabbro'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Gneiss'-
'Granite'-
'Granodiorite'-
'Granofels'-
'Greenschist'-
'Herderite-Hydroxylherderite Series'-
'Hornblendite'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Marble'-
'Mica Group'-
'Mica schist'-
'Pegmatite'-
'Phyllite'-
Rutile
var: Sagenite (of Saussure)
-TiO2
'Sagenite'-
'Scapolite Group'-
'Slate'-
'Tonalite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
H BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
H Amphibole Supergroup (var: Byssolite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
LiLithium
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Be Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
Be HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
BBoron
B Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
O BaryteBaSO4
O BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Amphibole Supergroup (var: Byssolite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O CassiteriteSnO2
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
O Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
O Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
O HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O Rutile (var: Sagenite (of Saussure))TiO2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O SideriteFeCO3
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F Amphibole Supergroup (var: Byssolite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
F Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
F HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Al BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Amphibole Supergroup (var: Byssolite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Al Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Si BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Amphibole Supergroup (var: Byssolite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Si Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
P HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
P Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Cl Amphibole Supergroup (var: Byssolite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Ca BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
Ca HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti Amphibole Supergroup (var: Byssolite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti Rutile (var: Sagenite (of Saussure))TiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
Mn Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Fe Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
ZnZinc
Zn GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TaTantalum
Ta Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
BiBismuth
Bi Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Blauwet, D., Smith, B., and Smith, C. (1997): A Guide to the Mineral Localities of the Northern Areas, Pakistan. Mineralogical Record 28(3), 183-200.
- Ikram Mineralogy information
- Hassam, Muhammad (2007) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of gemstones and the gemstone-bearing pegmatites in the Shigar Valley of Skardu, Northern Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, Peshawar University
- M. Hassan Agheem, M. Tahir Shah, Tahseenullah Khan, Amanullah Laghari and Humaira Dars (2011) Field features and petrography used as indicators for the classification of Shigar valley pegmatites, Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 44(2), 1-7

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Pakistan

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