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Messina Mine (No. 5 shaft; Musina Mine), Musina (Messina), Vhembe District, Limpopo, South Africai
Regional Level Types
Messina Mine (No. 5 shaft; Musina Mine)Mine
Musina (Messina)- not defined -
Vhembe DistrictDistrict
LimpopoProvince
South AfricaCountry

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Key
Lock Map
Name(s) in local language(s):Five Shaft
Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude: 22° South , 30° East (est.)
Margin of Error:~150km
Locality type:Mine


Located approx 8 Km south of the Limpopo river.

Note: No. 5 shaft or Five Shaft is a local term used to distinguish this particular mine from others in the Messina mining area.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


41 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ajoite
Formula: (K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
'Apatite'
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
'Biotite'
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
'Chlorite Group'
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Copper
Formula: Cu
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
'Hornblende'
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Papagoite
Formula: CaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Pennantite
Formula: Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Plancheite
Formula: Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Riebeckite
Formula: ⃞[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Shattuckite
Formula: Cu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Clausthalite2.CD.10PbSe
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Ajoite9.EA.70(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Fuchsite9.EC.15K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Papagoite9.CE.05CaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Pennantite9.EC.55Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Piemontite9.BG.05{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Plancheite9.DB.35Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Riebeckite9.DE.25⃞[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Shattuckite9.DB.40Cu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Zoisite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Clausthalite2.8.1.2PbSe
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite58.2.1a.11{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Zoisite58.2.1b.1{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 60 - CYCLOSILICATES Four-Membered Rings
Four-Membered Rings, as Titanosilicates
Papagoite60.1.4.1CaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Shattuckite65.1.7.1Cu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Ca subgroup
Plancheite66.2.1.1Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Pennantite71.4.1.8Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Ajoite78.5.1.1(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite
var: Fuchsite
-K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
var: Sericite-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Riebeckite-⃞[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
H Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
H PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
H Riebeckite⃞[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O HematiteFe2O3
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
O Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
O Riebeckite⃞[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O CupriteCu2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
NaSodium
Na Riebeckite⃞[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Al Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Al PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Si Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Si PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Si Riebeckite⃞[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Si PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BaryteBaSO4
S CovelliteCuS
S DigeniteCu9S5
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
K Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
CrChromium
Cr Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Mn PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Riebeckite⃞[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Cu CopperCu
Cu Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Cu CupriteCu2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SeSelenium
Se ClausthalitePbSe
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb ClausthalitePbSe

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Emery, A.B., (1930). The Messina copper mining industry. Imperial Mining and Metallurgical Congress, III, 245-293.
Preller, G.S. (1941). Copper mining and smelting at Messina. Official Journal of the Department of Commerce, South Africa, 4(10), 159-161.
Söhnge, P.G., (1945). The geology of the Messina copper mines and surrounding country. Geological Survey of South Africa, Memoir 40, 272 pp.
Schwellnus, C.M. (1953). Geology of Messina copper deposits. South African Mining and Engineering Journal, 64, 557-559.
Spence, W.I., (1961). The Messina Copper Mine. Transactions of the Seventh Commonwealth Mining and Metallurgical Congress, Papers and Discussions Vol. I. South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, 123-144.
Van Graan, S.J., (1964). Geology of the Messina copper deposits. In: Haughton, S.H., (Ed.). The Geology of some Ore Deposits in Southern Africa, vol. 2. Geological Society of South Africa, 739 pp.
Jacobsen, J.B.E., (1967). The geology of the Artonvilla mine, Messina district. Ph.D thesis (unpublished). University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 123 pp.
Laing, G.J.S., (1973). The geology, structure and the origin of the West Lode Breccia Pipe, Campbell Mine, Messina district. B.Sc (engineering) mining geology thesis. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 59 pp.
Jacobsen, J.B.E. and McCarthy, T.S., (1975). Possible late Karroo carbonatite and basalt intrusions at Messina. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, 78, 153-159.
Jacobsen, J.B.E., McCarthy, T.S. and Laing, G.J.S., (1976). The copper bearing breccia pipes of the Messina district, South Africa. Mineralium Deposita, 11, 33-45.
Bahnemann, K.P., (1972). A review of the structure, the stratigraphy and the metamorphism of the basement rocks in the Messina district northern Transvaal. D.Sc. thesis (unpublished). University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 354 pp.
Bahnemann, K.P., (1986). A review of the geology of the Messina copper deposits, northern Transvaal. In: Anhaeusser, C.R. and Maske, S., (Eds.). Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa, Vols I & II, Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1671-1688.
Cairncross, B. (1991): The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199.
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, SA.
Cairncross, B. (2016). Ajoite: Connoisseur’s Choice, Rocks & Minerals, 91, 426-432.


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