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Messina Mine (No. 5 shaft; Musina Mine), Musina (Messina), Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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Key
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Name(s) in local language(s):Five Shaft
Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude: 22° South , 30° East (est.)
Margin of Error:~150km
Locality type:Mine


Located approx 8 Km south of the Limpopo river.

Note: No. 5 shaft or Five Shaft is a local term used to distinguish this particular mine from others in the Messina mining area.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


41 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ajoite
Formula: (K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Description: Crystals to 10 cm
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Apatite'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: Flattened orthorhombic
Colour: light beige to tan
Description: Often found coating secondary quartz crystals.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 186.
'Biotite'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field guide to rocks & minerals of Southern Africa
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Description: Periodically found as attractive green lumps.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 59.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Minerals of South Africa
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Minerals of South Africa
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Minerals of South Africa
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Minerals of South Africa
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Reference:  
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Colour: Grey-blue, greenish.
Description: Occurs in most of the garnet-biotite-quartz rocks as anhedral grains containing numerous biotite inclusions. In hand specimens colour is grey-blue however in areas where hydrothermal alteration has occurred the mineral becomes greenish.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1991): The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 52.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Description: Considered very rare and restricted to zones of late hydrothermal activity. Covellite along with goethite are commonly developed in supergene replacement ores.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1991): The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Colour: Red
Description: Cuprite as bright red inclusions with native copper has been qualitatively identified as copper oxide presumed cuprite (personal comment to author - Mineralogical Record 22(3)).
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1991): The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Description: Is found only as ex-solution lamellae in association with chalcocite and clausthalite.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1991): The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Colour: Emerald-green to yellow-green & lime-green
Description: A common hydrothermal mineral in the ore lodes. They can partially coat the quartz or as isolated lath-like inclusions. It's been observed that light coloured apple-green variety associated with chlorite, calcite and albite is common in the Emery lode (Artonvilla mine). A second occurrence in the lower sections of the lode consists of bright lime-green to yellow-green crystals and have lower refractive index to the apple-green variety although both have been identified by x-ray analyses. Epidote fills vugs or is attached to quartz is usually less than 1cm length. Single crystals can reach over 5cm.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1991): The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.; Minerals of South Africa
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Colour: Reddish.
Description: Observed as the most common iron mineral in the more central sections of the orebodies, characterized by reddish colour in hand specimens.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1991): The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Minerals of South Africa
'Hornblende'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Minerals of South Africa
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Minerals of South Africa
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Papagoite
Formula: CaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Description: Note: Colour alone is not indicative in identification between papagoite and shattuckite or in some cases ajoite (Debbie Woolf's conclusion after further discussions with author 25 years later).
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1991) The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA
Pennantite
Formula: Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Minerals of South Africa
Plancheite
Formula: Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: The following minerals have been observed as inclusions; Ajoite Azurite (rare) Bornite Calcite Chalcocite Chalcopyrite Chlorite Clinozoiste Copper Cuprite Epidote Hematite Kaolinite Malachite Muscovite Papagoite Pyrite Shattuckite Zoisite
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1991): The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, SA.; Minerals of South Africa
Riebeckite
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Shattuckite
Formula: Cu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Description: Note: Colour alone is not indicative in identification between shattuckite and papagoite or in some cases ajoite (Debbie Woolf's conclusion after further discussions with author 25 years later).
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1991) The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa - Bruce Cairncross & Roger Dixon pg 52
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Copper'1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Bornite'2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
'Chalcocite'2.BA.05Cu2S
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Clausthalite'2.CD.10PbSe
'Covellite'2.CA.05aCuS
'Digenite'2.BA.10Cu9S5
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Brucite'4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Azurite'5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anhydrite'7.AD.30CaSO4
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
'Ajoite'9.EA.70(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
'Almandine'9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
'Analcime'9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
'Clinochlore'9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Clinozoisite'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Cordierite'9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Fuchsite9.EC.15K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Papagoite9.CE.05CaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Pennantite9.EC.55Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Piemontite9.BG.05{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Plancheite9.DB.35Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Riebeckite9.DE.25◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Shattuckite9.DB.40Cu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Zoisite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Hornblende-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Clausthalite2.8.1.2PbSe
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite58.2.1a.11{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Zoisite58.2.1b.1{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 60 - CYCLOSILICATES Four-Membered Rings
Four-Membered Rings, as Titanosilicates
Papagoite60.1.4.1CaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Shattuckite65.1.7.1Cu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Ca subgroup
Plancheite66.2.1.1Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Pennantite71.4.1.8Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Ajoite78.5.1.1(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite
var: Fuchsite
-K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
var: Sericite-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Riebeckite-◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
H PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O CupriteCu2O
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
O PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Al PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Si PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SSulfur
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CovelliteCuS
S DigeniteCu9S5
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
KPotassium
K Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
K Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Ca Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
CrChromium
Cr Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mn Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FeIron
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
CuCopper
Cu Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]
Cu PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Cu ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SeSelenium
Se ClausthalitePbSe
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb ClausthalitePbSe

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Emery, A.B., (1930). The Messina copper mining industry. Imperial Mining and Metallurgical Congress, III, 245-293.
Preller, G.S. (1941). Copper mining and smelting at Messina. Official Journal of the Department of Commerce, South Africa, 4(10), 159-161.
Söhnge, P.G., (1945). The geology of the Messina copper mines and surrounding country. Geological Survey of South Africa, Memoir 40, 272 pp.
Schwellnus, C.M. (1953). Geology of Messina copper deposits. South African Mining and Engineering Journal, 64, 557-559.
Spence, W.I., (1961). The Messina Copper Mine. Transactions of the Seventh Commonwealth Mining and Metallurgical Congress, Papers and Discussions Vol. I. South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, 123-144.
Van Graan, S.J., (1964). Geology of the Messina copper deposits. In: Haughton, S.H., (Ed.). The Geology of some Ore Deposits in Southern Africa, vol. 2. Geological Society of South Africa, 739 pp.
Jacobsen, J.B.E., (1967). The geology of the Artonvilla mine, Messina district. Ph.D thesis (unpublished). University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 123 pp.
Laing, G.J.S., (1973). The geology, structure and the origin of the West Lode Breccia Pipe, Campbell Mine, Messina district. B.Sc (engineering) mining geology thesis. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 59 pp.
Jacobsen, J.B.E. and McCarthy, T.S., (1975). Possible late Karroo carbonatite and basalt intrusions at Messina. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, 78, 153-159.
Jacobsen, J.B.E., McCarthy, T.S. and Laing, G.J.S., (1976). The copper bearing breccia pipes of the Messina district, South Africa. Mineralium Deposita, 11, 33-45.
Bahnemann, K.P., (1972). A review of the structure, the stratigraphy and the metamorphism of the basement rocks in the Messina district northern Transvaal. D.Sc. thesis (unpublished). University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 354 pp.
Bahnemann, K.P., (1986). A review of the geology of the Messina copper deposits, northern Transvaal. In: Anhaeusser, C.R. and Maske, S., (Eds.). Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa, Vols I & II, Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1671-1688.
Cairncross, B. (1991): The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199.
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, SA.


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