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Nakhlak Mine (Madan-e Nakhlak), Anarak District, Nain County (Nayin County), Isfahan, Irani
Regional Level Types
Nakhlak Mine (Madan-e Nakhlak)Mine
Anarak DistrictDistrict
Nain County (Nayin County)County
IsfahanProvince
IranCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 33' 47'' North , 53° 50' 42'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.56306,53.84500
GeoHash:G#: tjyqcmbwz
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate


The Nakhlak mine, 55 kilometers northeast of Anarak is the largest and one of the most ancient lead ore deposits ever exploited in the Anarak region. Mining history, based on dated material from the mine adits and nearby historical ruins (e.g. the Qaleh-Bozorg fortress), was traced to the earliest stages of the Sassanid Empire (224-651 AD), and possibly even the latest stages of the Parthian Empire (247 BC-224 AD) (Hallier, 1972; Stöllner and Weisgerber, 2004). The Gombad and Shaft no. 1 of the Nakhlak mine are nearby undated historical digging sites (which may reach 80 m depth), where smelters and mining tools (e.g. picks, hammers, wooden shoes, lamps, etc) are still preserved (Pernicka et al. 2011). Old reports on Iranian lead ores, including Nakhlak, can be found in the articles of Vaughan (1896) and Stahl (1897). More modern mining started in the mid-1930s, in co-operation with German and Austrian engineers and geologists like E. Fischer, E. Bohne, G. Ladame and M. Mazcek.
The lead mineralization is situated mainly in the lower part of the Late Cretaceous carbonate rocks at Nakhlak, where sandstones and conglomerates are more common. Many characteristics of the ore deposit fit well with that of the typical Iranian MVT deposits (Rasa, 1987). The ore bodies occur within dolomites and dolomitized sandy limestones as steeply dipping quartz-calcite-barite veins or vein clusters of massive galena. Their thickness varies from 0.25 to 25 meters and extends up to 500 meters in length; it can be traced down along the dip to 400 meters deep (Romanko et al. 1984). Mining reserves have been estimated at ca. 7 million tons of lead (8.33%), zinc (0.38%) and a considerable amount of silver (72 g/t) (Cherepovsky, Chinakov and Kokorin, 1981). The lead greatly predominates over the zinc and silver contents, suggesting a basinal brine origin or fluid release model for the deposit (Rasa, 1987). The northern and southern flanks, as well as the deeper levels, offer potential supplementary mining possibilities, where even new ore bodies may be found.
The primary ore seems to be monomineralic, consisting solely of galena. Cerussite in various forms is common in the oxidized zone.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


10 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Jazi, M.A. and Shahabpour, J. (2010). Mineralogical, textural, structural and geochemical aspects of Nakhlak lead mine, Isfahan. Journal of Economic Geology, 2(2): 131-151. [In Persian with English summary]; Jazi, M.A. and Shahabpour, J. (2010). Mineralogical, textural, structural and geochemical aspects of Nakhlak lead mine, Isfahan. Journal of Economic Geology, 2(2): 131-151. [In Persian with English summary]. http://jmum.um.ac.ir/index.php/econg/article/view/7847
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Jazi, M.A. and Shahabpour, J. (2010). Mineralogical, textural, structural and geochemical aspects of Nakhlak lead mine, Isfahan. Journal of Economic Geology, 2(2): 131-151. [In Persian with English summary]; Jazi, M.A. and Shahabpour, J. (2010). Mineralogical, textural, structural and geochemical aspects of Nakhlak lead mine, Isfahan. Journal of Economic Geology, 2(2): 131-151. [In Persian with English summary]. http://jmum.um.ac.ir/index.php/econg/article/view/7847
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Wilke, H.J. (1977): Persisches Tagebuch (2). - LAPIS, 2, 7, p. 24-27
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Wilke, H.J. (1977): Persisches Tagebuch (2). - LAPIS, 2, 7, p. 24-27
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Mineralien-Welt 1/2009, p. 12
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Plattnerite
Formula: PbO2
Reference: Wilke, H.J. (1977): Persisches Tagebuch (2). - LAPIS, 2, 7, p. 24-27
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: Jazi, M.A. and Shahabpour, J. (2010). Mineralogical, textural, structural and geochemical aspects of Nakhlak lead mine, Isfahan. Journal of Economic Geology, 2(2): 131-151. [In Persian with English summary]. http://jmum.um.ac.ir/index.php/econg/article/view/7847
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Jazi, M.A. and Shahabpour, J. (2010). Mineralogical, textural, structural and geochemical aspects of Nakhlak lead mine, Isfahan. Journal of Economic Geology, 2(2): 131-151. [In Persian with English summary]. http://jmum.um.ac.ir/index.php/econg/article/view/7847
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: Wilke, H.J. (1977): Persisches Tagebuch (2). - LAPIS, 2, 7, p. 24-27

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Plattnerite4.DB.05PbO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Plattnerite4.4.1.6PbO2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
CCarbon
C CerussitePbCO3
OOxygen
O CerussitePbCO3
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O PlattneritePbO2
O AnglesitePbSO4
SiSilicon
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S AnglesitePbSO4
S AcanthiteAg2S
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
FeIron
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
CuCopper
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
ZnZinc
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
PbLead
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb PlattneritePbO2
Pb AnglesitePbSO4

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Neogene
2.588 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185708
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Neogene (2.588 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Cretaceous
66 - 100.5 Ma



ID: 3334826

Age: Late Cretaceous (66 - 100.5 Ma)

Description: Upper cretaceous, undifferentiated rocks

Reference: Sahandi, M.R., and M. Soheili (compilers). 1:1,000,000 scale Bedrock and Structural geology of Iran. National Geoscience Database of Iran. [191]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Bariand, P. 1963. Contribution à la minéralogie de l’lran. Bulletin de la Société Française de minéralogie et de cristallographie, 86: 17-64.
Bariand, P. 2003. Un apercu général sur la Minéralogie de I'Iran. Le Règne Minéral, 54: 41-51.
Bariand, P. 2008. Mémoires d’ un Minéralogiste sans Frontières. Le Règne Minéral, Paris. 144 pp.
De Ascenção Guedes, R., Lebockey, J., Bayle, L.-D., 2015. Munich 2015. Le Règne Minéral, 126: 44-47.
Cherepovsky, N., I. Chinakov, and Yu. Kokorin. 1981. Report on detailed geological prospecting in Anarak area (Chah Kharbezeh-Pateyar, Torkemani localities). V/O Technoexport, Report no. 12: 1-132. Tehran.
Rasa, I. 1987. Geologisch-petrographische Untersuchungen in der Blei-Lagerstätte Nakhlak, Zentraliran [Ph.D. thesis]: Heidelberg, Heidelberg University.
Romanko, E., Y. Kokorin, B. Krivyakin, M. Susov, L. Morozov, and M. Sharkovski. 1984. Outline of metallogeny of Anarak area (Central Iran). V/O Technoexport, Report no. 21: 1-136. Tehran.
Hallier, U.W. 1972. Fort, Atashgah and Chahar Taq von Nakhlak. Oberrest einer sassanidischen Bergbausiedlung. Archaologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, Neue Folge 5: 285-307.
Pernicka, E., Adam, K., Bohme, M., Hezarkhani, Z., Nezafati, N., Schreiner, M., Winterholler, B., Momenzadeh, M. and Vatandoust, A. 2011. Archaeometallurgical research on the western Central Iranian Plateau. In: Vatandoust, A., Parzinger, H. and Helwing, B. (eds). Early Mining and Metallurgy on the Western Central Iranian Plateau: The First Five Years of Work (Archaologie in Iran Und Turan), 633-687.
Vaughan, H.B. 1896. Journeys in Persia (1890-91). Geographical Journal 7: 24-41, 163-175.
Stahl, A.F. 1897. Zur Geologie von Persian, Geognostische Beschreibung von Nord-und Zentral Persian.

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