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Serpent Mound disturbance, Adams Co., Ohio, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 39° 1' 30'' North , 83° 23' 47'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 39.02500,-83.39639
GeoHash:G#: dnuwn2295
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate


Bratton & Franklin townships (unspecified locations).

"Serpent Mound is an archaeological site located in Adams County, Ohio constructed by the Adena tribe between 1000 BCE and 700 CE. Located near the western edge of the Serpent Mound structure, is a unique astrobleme site based on bedrock geology, planar deformed quartz, and shatter cones. The geology at that location is complex, owing to the disturbance caused by the impactor. Detailed studies of the environmental mineralogy of the region are uncommon; such studies provide critical information for long-term archaeological site management and broader understanding of the geologic and environmental history of the region."

"Rock samples were collected from an outcrop of impact breccia in the Silurian Tymochetee Formation northeast of the archaeological site. Those samples were analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results from the analysis indicate a wide range of minerals in the bedrock, composed of mostly dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), some calcite (CaCO3), and a minor amount of other mineral phases such as oxide minerals, sulfides, and minerals minor rare earth element (REE) bearing minerals. Euhedral kaolinite crystals approximately 5 micrometers in diameter were also commonly observed. The SEM investigation indicated the dolomite crystals to be anhedral to euhedral and possessed variable twinning textures and pitting. Natural asphalt or tar occurred as tacky infilling that completely filled the pores, which were commonly 10 micrometers to 50 micrometers in diameter. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicated an appreciable amount of sulfur in the asphalt or tar material."

"This is the first detailed mineralogical investigation of bedrock at the Serpent Mound archaeological site using SEM. The occurrence of natural asphalt or tar along with information on mineralogical constraints will provide a detailed reference for future environmental impact studies, particularly relating to road traffic, rock face preservation and geoarchaeological investigations of sediment and soil tied to site use." (MINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A METEORITE IMPACT BRECCIA FROM THE SERPENT MOUND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE, ADAMS COUNTY OHIO, see reference below).

"The Serpent Mound structure is an 8 km impact crater in southern Ohio. The impact occurred in and affected sedimentary target rock ranging from Cambrian to Silurian (and possibly strata as young as Mississippian) in age. Serpent Mound is a partially-preserved complex crater, with a central uplift, transition zone, and surrounding ring graben. Within the crater lies an anomalous gray, dolomitic polymict breccia with unique characteristics we informally refer to as the Serpent Mound Breccia (SMB). Originally, it was identified in a single (type) location in the western crater. The purpose of this study was to identify and map additional SMB locations and track its lateral distribution, which may allow us to identify a formation/emplacement mechanism. Different breccia generation mechanisms result in a wide variation of lateral distributions. For the 3 most probable mechanisms for the SMB, faulting during rise/collapse of the central uplift, mass wasting from gravitational collapse, or ejecta fallback/resurge, expected distributions range from localized to crater-wide respectively. In order to track the lateral distribution of the SMB, we searched for new potential sites using aerial/satellite imagery, new field exposures, and references from former field investigations. Each potential breccia was compared to the SMB at its type location. Upon positive identification, we mapped each new site and recorded elevations with GPS. GPS elevations and Brunton compass measurements allowed us to determine minimum apparent thicknesses of the SMB. Our team confirmed 8 new exposures in all but the eastern portions of the crater to date, with most of the sites located in the western half. Several other suspected sites are still under investigation. All confirmed and suspected sites lie in the transition zone within the crater. The SMB ranged from 220-246 m above sea level and 3-21m in minimum apparent thickness at individual sites. The widespread distribution of the SMB within the crater does not support an origin by localized fault brecciation or single mass wasting events. It does support generation by a crater-wide geologic process following the impact event, with the most probable mechanism being fallback or resurge of ejecta. Ongoing work continues to address the viability of this hypothesis." (DISTRIBUTION AND FORMATION OF AN ANOMALOUS BRECCIA WITHIN THE SERPENT MOUND IMPACT CRATER - see reference below)

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


8 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Minerals of Ohio Bull. 69 ODNR
'Bitumen'
Reference: "MINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A METEORITE IMPACT BRECCIA FROM THE SERPENT MOUND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE, ADAMS COUNTY OHIO. BURNETTE, Christopher S.1, SCHELLENBACH, William Louis1, WAINER, Richard C.1, CHANCE, Dean2, MCDONALD, Angela2, and KREKELER, Mark P.S.2, (1) Department of Geology, Miami University, 501 East High St, Oxford, OH 45056, burnetcs@muohio.edu, (2) Department of Geology, Miami University-Hamilton, Hamilton, OH 45011, 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting (31 October –3 November 2010), http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2010AM/finalprogram/abstract_180871.htm
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 162 (1998) 177–185
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: "MINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A METEORITE IMPACT BRECCIA FROM THE SERPENT MOUND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE, ADAMS COUNTY OHIO. BURNETTE, Christopher S.1, SCHELLENBACH, William Louis1, WAINER, Richard C.1, CHANCE, Dean2, MCDONALD, Angela2, and KREKELER, Mark P.S.2, (1) Department of Geology, Miami University, 501 East High St, Oxford, OH 45056, burnetcs@muohio.edu, (2) Department of Geology, Miami University-Hamilton, Hamilton, OH 45011, 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting (31 October –3 November 2010), http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2010AM/finalprogram/abstract_180871.htm
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Minerals of Ohio Bull. 69 ODNR
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: "MINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A METEORITE IMPACT BRECCIA FROM THE SERPENT MOUND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE, ADAMS COUNTY OHIO. BURNETTE, Christopher S.1, SCHELLENBACH, William Louis1, WAINER, Richard C.1, CHANCE, Dean2, MCDONALD, Angela2, and KREKELER, Mark P.S.2, (1) Department of Geology, Miami University, 501 East High St, Oxford, OH 45056, burnetcs@muohio.edu, (2) Department of Geology, Miami University-Hamilton, Hamilton, OH 45011, 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting (31 October –3 November 2010), http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2010AM/finalprogram/abstract_180871.htm
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Minerals of Ohio Bull. 69 ODNR; Earth and Planetary Science Letters 162 (1998) 177–185
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Minerals of Ohio Bull. 69 ODNR
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: "MINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A METEORITE IMPACT BRECCIA FROM THE SERPENT MOUND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE, ADAMS COUNTY OHIO. BURNETTE, Christopher S.1, SCHELLENBACH, William Louis1, WAINER, Richard C.1, CHANCE, Dean2, MCDONALD, Angela2, and KREKELER, Mark P.S.2, (1) Department of Geology, Miami University, 501 East High St, Oxford, OH 45056, burnetcs@muohio.edu, (2) Department of Geology, Miami University-Hamilton, Hamilton, OH 45011, 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting (31 October –3 November 2010), http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2010AM/finalprogram/abstract_180871.htm

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Sulphur'1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
'Fluorite'3.AB.25CaF2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
'Kaolinite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Bitumen'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Bitumen'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S SulphurS8
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 162 (1998) 177–185
"MINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A METEORITE IMPACT BRECCIA FROM THE SERPENT MOUND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE, ADAMS COUNTY OHIO. BURNETTE, Christopher S.1, SCHELLENBACH, William Louis1, WAINER, Richard C.1, CHANCE, Dean2, MCDONALD, Angela2, and KREKELER, Mark P.S.2, (1) Department of Geology, Miami University, 501 East High St, Oxford, OH 45056, burnetcs@muohio.edu, (2) Department of Geology, Miami University-Hamilton, Hamilton, OH 45011, 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting (31 October –3 November 2010), http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2010AM/finalprogram/abstract_180871.htm
DISTRIBUTION AND FORMATION OF AN ANOMALOUS BRECCIA WITHIN THE SERPENT MOUND IMPACT CRATER, BURNETTE, Christopher S.1, SCHELLENBACH, William Louis1, WAINER, Richard C.1, CHANCE, Dean2, MCDONALD, Angela2, and KREKELER, Mark P.S.2, (1) Department of Geology, Miami University, 501 East High St, Oxford, OH 45056, burnetcs@muohio.edu, (2) Department of Geology, Miami University-Hamilton, Hamilton, OH 45011, 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting (31 October –3 November 2010), http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2010AM/finalprogram/abstract_180871.htm
Subsurface geology of the Serpent Mound disturbance, Adams, Highland, and Pike counties, Ohio, by Mark T. Baranoski, Gregory A. Schumacher, Doyle R. Watts, Richard W. Carlton, and Belgasem M. El-Saiti. 60 p., 26 figs., 5 tables, 3 pls., 2003. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey RI 146.


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