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Boraxo Mine (Kern Borate Mine; Boraxo deposit; Boraxo No. 1 and No. 2; Clara claim; Thompson Mine; Tenneco Mine), Ryan, Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area), Inyo Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Boraxo Mine (Kern Borate Mine; Boraxo deposit; Boraxo No. 1 and No. 2; Clara claim; Thompson Mine; Tenneco Mine)Mine
Ryan- not defined -
Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)Mining District
Inyo Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Boraxo open pit mine, Death Valley California 1974

Boraxo Mine, Ryan, Furnace Creek District, Inyo Co., California, USA
Boraxo Mine open pit, Death Valley, California 1974

Boraxo Mine, Ryan, Furnace Creek District, Inyo Co., California, USA
Boraxo open pit mine field trip for the Mineralogical Society of Southern California 1974

Boraxo Mine, Ryan, Furnace Creek District, Inyo Co., California, USA
Boraxo open pit mine, Death Valley California 1974

Boraxo Mine, Ryan, Furnace Creek District, Inyo Co., California, USA
Boraxo Mine open pit, Death Valley, California 1974

Boraxo Mine, Ryan, Furnace Creek District, Inyo Co., California, USA
Boraxo open pit mine field trip for the Mineralogical Society of Southern California 1974

Boraxo Mine, Ryan, Furnace Creek District, Inyo Co., California, USA
Boraxo open pit mine, Death Valley California 1974

Boraxo Mine, Ryan, Furnace Creek District, Inyo Co., California, USA
Boraxo Mine open pit, Death Valley, California 1974

Boraxo Mine, Ryan, Furnace Creek District, Inyo Co., California, USA
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 36° 20' 23'' North , 116° 42' 17'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 36.33972,-116.70472
GeoHash:G#: 9qmn8r6nn
USGS MRDS Record:10023438
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate


A former borate mine located in the NE¼NE¼ sec. 36, T26N, R2E, SBM, 2 miles 3.6 km (2.2 miles) WNW of Ryan (S of hill 2562), on National Park Service land (Death Valley National Park). Discovered in 1915. Operated by Tenneco Mining Inc. (1976). Owned by the Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Russell, Monaghan, Barlow, and Hill; Pacific Coast Borax Co. (1915). The mine was purchased in 1960 by the Kern County Land Company for $200,000. Operated in the 1960's and during the period 1970 to 1977 (?). Closed in 1977. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 100 meters.

Mineralization is a lacustrine borate deposit (Deposit model: 260: Lacustrine borates; USGS model code 35b.3), hosted in rocks of the Miocene Furnace Creek Formation (limestone, clay, mud, mudstone, sandstone, shale). The ore body is lenticular, strikes E-W and dips 5-60S (40S average), at a thickness of 39.62M, width of 853.44 meters, and a length of 213.36 meters.

The rocks of the Furnace Creek Formation weather to a yellow or green. Grayish basaltic flows and/or intrusions occur locally in a zone from 400 to 900 feet above the base of the formation. In the mine area, the formation is a maximum of 1,200 feet thick. Local rocks include Quaternary alluvium and marine deposits.

The deposit occurs on the S limb of the anticline within a few tens of feet to 200 feet of the base of the Furnace Creek Formation. t is cut near ground surface on the N by the pit fault and pinches out on the S at a depth of about 800 feet below then ground surface. The body is deformed locally by minor folds and ranges in thickness up to 130 feet (average 40 to 45 feet). The deposit is 2,800 feet wide along strike and 300 to 700 feet long down dip. The deposit is largely parallel to the dip of the enclosing beds. The Boraxo deposit is composed of 2 zones of borate minerals with interstitial clay and interlayered limy shale, mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone beds that are commonly 1 to 5 feet thick. The outer zone of the deposit is colemanite and the core is a mixture of ulexite and probertite.

Local structures include a W-trending E-plunging anticline, the Death Valley graben, Pit fault and minor folding.

Workings include surface openings comprised of an open pit with a length of 670.56 meters. In 1976, the pit was 2,200 feet long, 300 feet wide at surface on the W to about 1,000 feet wide on the E and 225 feet deep. The maximum pit depth will be 450 feet on the E, but the length and width were already at the maximum of the pit design. On completion of open pit operations, a substantial tonnage of ore will remain beneath the floor that would require underground mining. The stripping ratio of overburden to ore was 26:1 in 1976, but was expected to decrease with further mining.

Production data are found in: Evans and Others (1976).

Analytical data results: Assays of drill cores indicate an average grade of 20% B2O3 for colemanite ore. Assays of mill-run material indicate an average grade of 28% B2O3 for ulexite ore. This indicates a mineral content of about 40% colemanite and 70% ulexite-probertite.

Reserve-Resource data are found in: An estimate by G. Orris from published data (1990).

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada, USANational Park

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

8 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
'Clays'
Colemanite
Formula: Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Hydroboracite
Formula: CaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Priceite
Formula: Ca2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
Probertite
Formula: NaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Tunellite
Formula: SrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Ulexite
Formula: NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Colemanite6.CB.10Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Hydroboracite6.CB.15CaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Priceite6.EB.25Ca2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
Probertite6.EB.15NaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Tunellite6.FC.05SrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Ulexite6.EA.25NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Clays'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 25 - ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Pentaborates
Priceite25.5.1.1Ca2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Triborates
Colemanite26.3.5.1Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Hydroboracite26.3.6.1CaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Pentaborates
Probertite26.5.12.1NaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Ulexite26.5.11.1NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Hexaborates
Tunellite26.6.6.2SrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Clays'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
H UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
H ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
H HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
H PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
H TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
BBoron
B ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
B UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
B ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
B HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
B PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
B TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
O UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
O ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
O HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
O PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O CelestineSrSO4
O TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
NaSodium
Na UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Na ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
SSulfur
S CelestineSrSO4
CaCalcium
Ca ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Ca UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Ca ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Ca HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Ca PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
Sr TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Holocene - Pliocene
0 - 5.333 Ma



ID: 2894253
Quaternary alluvium and marine deposits

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 5.333 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Temescal Formation; Modesto Formation; Victor Formation; Alameda Formation; Aromas Red Sands; Bautista Beds; Brawley Formation; Borrego Formation; Burnt Canyon Breccia; Cabezon Fanglomerate; Campus Formation; Casitas Formation; Chemehuevi Formation; Corcoran Clay; Cushenbury Springs Formation; Dos Picachos Gravels; Dripping Springs Formation; Frazier Mountain Formation; Friant Formation; Harold Formation; Heights Fanglomerate; Hookton Formation; Huichica Formation; La Habra Formation; Manix Lake Beds; Mohawk Lake Beds; Montezuma Formation; Nadeau Gravel; Ocotillo Conglomerate; Orcutt Formation; Pacoima Formation; Pauba Formation; Peckham Formation; Pinto Formation; Resting Springs Formation; Riverbank Formation; Rohnerville Formation; San Dimas Formation; Shoemaker Gravel; Temecula Arkose; Battery Formation; Bay Point Formation; Colma Formation; Lindavista Formation; Lomita Marl; Merritt Sand; Millerton Formation; Palos Verdes Sand; San Pedro Formation; Sweitzer Formation; Timms Point Silt

Description: Alluvium, lake, playa, and terrace deposits; unconsolidated and semi-consolidated. Mostly nonmarine, but includes marine deposits near the coast.

Comments: Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{coarse alluvium}, Minor:{fine alluvium}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Erd, R.C., V. Morgan & J.R. Clark (1961), Tunellite, a new hydrous strontium borate from the Kramer borate district, California: USGS PP 424-C, article No. 255: C294-C297.
Anonymous (1963), California Division of Mines and Geology, Mineral Information Service: California Mineral Production 1962: 16(1): 9.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154, 295, 377.
McAllister, James Franklin (1970) Geology of the Furnace Creek borate area, Death Valley, Inyo County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 14, 9 pp.: 8.
Minette, J.W. and Wilber, D.P. (1973) Hydroboracite from the Thompson mine, Deathe Valley. Mineralogical Record: 4: 21-23.
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Report 26 (1976), "Guidebook: Las Vegas to Death Valley and Return," Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada - Reno, 1976.
Evans, James R., G.C. Taylor, and J.S. Rapp (1976) Mines and mineral deposits in Death Valley National Monument. California Division Mines and Geology Special Report 125: 23-26.
Guidebook: Las Vegas to Death Valley and Return (1976), Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Report 26, Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada - Reno.
Countryman, R.I. (1977), Hydroboracite from the Amargosa Desert, eastern California: Mineralogical Record: 8: 503-504.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1978) Hydroboracite from the Furnace Creek formation. Mineralogical Record: 9: 379-381.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 238 (map 7-1), 240, 246, 255, 256, 288.
Orris, G. (1990) estimate of reserves from published data (NFI).
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10023438 & 10115311.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060271259.

Localities in this Region
Show map

  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
        • Ryan
          • Boraxo Mine (Kern Borate Mine; Boraxo deposit; Boraxo No. 1 and No. 2; Clara claim; Thompson Mine; Tenneco Mine)

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