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Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill), Pala, Pala District, San Diego Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill)Mountain
Pala- not defined -
Pala DistrictMining District
San Diego Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
33° 22' 36'' North , 117° 2' 13'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Rainbow1,832 (2011)10.9km
Temecula112,011 (2017)16.6km
Aguanga1,128 (2011)17.6km
Valley Center9,277 (2011)17.6km
Hidden Meadows3,485 (2011)18.2km


"The Mountain Between the Village"
—Basque, 'Iri' meaning "Village", 'Arte' meaning "Between".

Summary:
Hiriart Mountain is the easternmost pegmatite-hosting mountain in the area described by Richard H. Jahns in 1951 as the Pala pegmatite district. From the valley floor, the mountain rises nearly 1000 feet within a half mile to 1766 feet AMSL. The mountain was named by locals around 1901 in honor of the French-Basque prospector Bernardo Hiriart[1]. The spelling of his last name appears different throughout the available literature and maps, including Heriart[2] by George F. Kunz, and most recently adulterated into Heriot[3] Mountain by the US Interior Department. Hiriart is likely the correct spelling, as corrected by Kunz in 1906, and enshrined by US Mineral Survey No. 5391A (Hiriart lode as amended August 15, 1917, by Marion M. Sickler). Hiriart's forename has also been referred to as Domingo[4]. The mountain has also been incorrectly referred to as Hiriat Hill.

Footnotes:
1.Hiriart or the 'Iriarte' Basque surname includes: Uriarte, Iriarte, Iriart, Yriart, Yriarte etc. Meaning: IRI, means a group of houses, and ARTE: means between. Basque surnames are names of farms or houses so the meaning is: (The house) between the groups of houses or the house between the village. [http://www.buber.net/Basque/Surname/I/iriarte.html] (08/05/2007)
2.Heriart is likely a phonetically rendered version of the Hiriart surname. According to the U.S. Census records between the years 1890-1920, the Hiriart surname in southern California was also rendered as Hiriort and Hireart, although by 1930 the correct spelling of Hiriart was prevalent.
3.Heriot was the right of a lord in feudal Europe to seize a serf's best horse and or clothing upon his death. The enlightened cleric Jacques de Vitry (c. 1180-1240) called lords who imposed heriots "vultures that prey upon death... worms feeding upon the corpse." [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heriot] (08/05/2007)
4.See Merrill, 1914.

Regions containing this locality

Pacific OceanOcean
Pacific PlateTectonic Plate

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

48 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Description: Contains Rb & Sr.
Reference: Lapidary Journal, (1966), Morganite: aquamarine's peachy-colored cousin found at Pala, Calif. Vol. 19, No. 11: p. 1220, 1222, illust.; Riley, G. H. (1970b), Excess 87Sr in pegmatitic phosphates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 34: 729.
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Habit: Tabular
Colour: White to light gray
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 102.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 111.
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Beyerite
Formula: Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Reference: [Mineralogical Record 29:164]
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L.A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 72 p.: 38; Weber, F.H. (1963a), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 102; illus., maps.: 107; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 126.
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L.A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 72 p.: 38; Weber, F.H. (1963a), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 102; illus., maps.: 107; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 126.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 111.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Colour: Reddish brown
Description: Occurs as crystals to 3 mm, usually on cleavelandite in pocket zones of pegmatite dikes.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 42; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 176.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Colour: Black
Description: Occurs as pea-sized, sooty masses in quartz-rich inner zone of the pegmatite.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L.A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 72 p.: 41; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 98.
Clinobisvanite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Reference: [Mineralogical Record 29:164]
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 38, pp. 1399-1408 (2000)
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Schaller, W. T. (1911d), Orbicular gabbro from Pala, San Diego County, California: Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour., vol. 33, p. 162-166.
'Feldspar Group'
Localities:
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Foitite
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Description: Occurs in several dikes.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 34-35; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 498.
Grossular var: Magnesian Grossular
Formula: (Ca,Mg)3Al2(SiO4)3
Description: Occurs in several dikes.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 34-35; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 498.
Hambergite
Formula: Be2(BO3)(OH)
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Helvine
Formula: Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Habit: Tetrahedra
Colour: Honey-colored
Description: An exceedingly rare constituent of the pegmatite in the Katerina mine. It forms small honey-colored tetrahedral crystals that are less than 1 millimeter in diameter. They occur on the surfaces of cleavelandite and spodumene crystals, and in general are typical of the pocket-bearing parts of the dike.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 31, 38.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Schaller, W. T. (1911d), Orbicular gabbro from Pala, San Diego County, California: Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour., vol. 33, p. 162-166.
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Schaller, W. T. (1911d), Orbicular gabbro from Pala, San Diego County, California: Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour., vol. 33, p. 162-166.
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Iron
Formula: Fe
Description: Iron oxides.
Reference: Schaller, W. T. (1911d), Orbicular gabbro from Pala, San Diego County, California: Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour., vol. 33, p. 162-166.
'Lepidolite'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Lithiophilite
Formula: LiMn2+PO4
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Description: Usually associated with phosphates. Occurs as platy crystalline aggregates in core and adjacent zones of pegmatites.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 42; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
Ludlamite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Description: Occurs as small patches on lithiophilite.
Reference: Anonymous (1951), World news on mineral occurrences: Rocks & Minerals: 26: 265-279; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
'Mica Group'
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A; p. 14.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 111.
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Van King
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Namibite
Formula: Cu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Reference: [Mineralogical Record 29:164]
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Petalite
Formula: LiAl(Si4O10)
Reference: Ref.: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 98.
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Habit: Irregular masses and tiny blebs which are vitreous and conchoidal.
Colour: Dark green to light bluish green.
Description: Pseudomalachite averaging 5mm across; hosted in greenish feldspar; associated minerals include minor purple strengite, dark brown sicklerite, and reddish brown kaolinite.
Reference: Wentzell, Christopher N. (~1991), Discovery of pseudomalachite while chip sampling walls in the main underground workings developed by Sickler.
Pucherite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Localities:
Purpurite
Formula: (Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Description: Occurs in a pegmatite dike.
Reference: Kunz, George Frederick (1906), Precious stones: Mineral Resources U.S., 1905: 1344; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911e), Notes on purpurite and heterosite: USGS Bulletin 490: 79; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 300.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Citrine
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 111.
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ref.: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 111.
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Sicklerite
Formula: Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Reference: Dana 6:A3:72.
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 38, pp. 1399-1408 (2000)
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Description: Occurs in pegmatites.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 349.
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Ta2O6
Localities:
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: http://minerals.gps.caltech.edu/FILES/DENDRITE/Index.htm
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
'Tourmaline var: Rubellite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 86, 132-133.
'Tourmaline var: Verdelite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Tourmaline var: Watermelon Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1906. The Production of Precious Stones in 1905. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Division of Mining and Mineral Resources. GPO, Washington: pages 26-27; 40 pp.
Triphylite
Formula: LiFe2+PO4
Reference: Kunz, George Frederick (1906), Precious stones: Mineral Resources U.S., 1905: 1344; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911e), Notes on purpurite and heterosite: USGS Bulletin 490: 79; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 300.
Triplite
Formula: (Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
'Zinnwaldite'
Habit: Stubby prisms
Colour: Dark-gray to deep reddish brown; bronze-like luster.
Description: Zinnwaldite occurs very sparingly in several pegmatites as dark-gray to deep reddish brown crystals and flakes, and has a bronze-like luster. Most crystals are stubby prisms 1/4 inch in maximum length. They are only in the pocket-bearing parts of the pegmatites, where they are most commonly associated with quartz, cleavelandite, and beryl.
Reference: Jahns, R. A., and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-Bearing Pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 7A: 31, 40.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Iron1.AE.05Fe
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Löllingite2.EB.15aFeAs2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Columbite-(Fe)4.DB.35Fe2+Nb2O6
Columbite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Nb2O6
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Stibiotantalite4.DE.30Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Tantalite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Ta2O6
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Beyerite5.BE.35Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Group 6 - Borates
Hambergite6.AB.05Be2(BO3)(OH)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Amblygonite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)F
Clinobisvanite8.AD.65Bi(VO4)
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Lithiophilite8.AB.10LiMn2+PO4
Ludlamite8.CD.20Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Montebrasite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Namibite8.BB.50Cu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Pucherite8.AD.40Bi(VO4)
Purpurite8.AB.10(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Sicklerite8.AB.10Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Triphylite8.AB.10LiFe2+PO4
Triplite8.BB.10(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Vivianite8.CE.40Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Bertrandite9.BD.05Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Goshenite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Cookeite9.EC.55(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite9.CK.05(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var: Magnesian Grossular9.AD.25(Ca,Mg)3Al2(SiO4)3
Helvine9.FB.10Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Petalite9.EF.05LiAl(Si4O10)
Phenakite9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Lepidolite'-
'Mica Group'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Watermelon Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Zinnwaldite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Löllingite2.12.2.9FeAs2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Stibiotantalite8.1.6.2Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
AB2O6
Columbite-(Fe)8.3.2.2Fe2+Nb2O6
Columbite-(Mn)8.3.2.4Mn2+Nb2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)8.3.2.3Mn2+Ta2O6
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Beyerite16a.2.3.1Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Group 25 - ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Monoborates
Hambergite25.1.1.1Be2(BO3)(OH)
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
ABXO4
Lithiophilite38.1.1.2LiMn2+PO4
Sicklerite38.1.4.2Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Triphylite38.1.1.1LiFe2+PO4
AXO4
Clinobisvanite38.4.7.1Bi(VO4)
Pucherite38.4.6.1Bi(VO4)
Purpurite38.4.1.2(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Miscellaneous
Namibite38.5.9.1Cu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Ludlamite40.3.5.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Vivianite40.3.6.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Amblygonite41.5.8.1LiAl(PO4)F
Montebrasite41.5.8.2LiAl(PO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Triplite41.6.1.2(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Bertrandite56.1.1.1Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite61.3.1.1(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Cookeite71.4.1.2(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with tetrahedral Al cross-linking
Petalite72.6.1.1LiAl(Si4O10)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Helvine76.2.4.1Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Goshenite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Grossular
var: Magnesian Grossular
-(Ca,Mg)3Al2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Iron-Fe
'Lepidolite'-
'Mica Group'-
Quartz
var: Citrine
-SiO2
var: Rock Crystal-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
Spodumene
var: Kunzite
-LiAlSi2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Watermelon Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Zinnwaldite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
H BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
H MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
H VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
LiLithium
Li SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Li AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Li PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
Li MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Li Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Be HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Be HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
BBoron
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Tourmaline (var: Verdelite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Tourmaline (var: Rubellite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Tourmaline (var: Watermelon Tourmaline)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
CCarbon
C BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)
O BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
O NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
O QuartzSiO2
O SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
O Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O PucheriteBi(VO4)
O PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O Tourmaline (var: Verdelite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Tourmaline (var: Rubellite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Tourmaline (var: Watermelon Tourmaline)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O Grossular (var: Magnesian Grossular)(Ca,Mg)3Al2(SiO4)3
O BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
O Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
O TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
O StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
O MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
O CassiteriteSnO2
O HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
O Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
O VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg Grossular (var: Magnesian Grossular)(Ca,Mg)3Al2(SiO4)3
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Al PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Grossular (var: Magnesian Grossular)(Ca,Mg)3Al2(SiO4)3
Al MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Grossular (var: Magnesian Grossular)(Ca,Mg)3Al2(SiO4)3
Si BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Si HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
PPhosphorus
P SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
P AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
P Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
P TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
P MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
P Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
P VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
SSulfur
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CaCalcium
Ca BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Grossular (var: Magnesian Grossular)(Ca,Mg)3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
VVanadium
V ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)
V NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
V PucheriteBi(VO4)
MnManganese
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Mn SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Mn Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mn Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Mn HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
Mn Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
FeIron
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
Fe Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Fe TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
Fe Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
Fe Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Fe VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe IronFe
CuCopper
Cu NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
AsArsenic
As LöllingiteFeAs2
SrStrontium
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
Nb Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
BaBarium
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
TaTantalum
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Ta StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
BiBismuth
Bi ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)
Bi BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bi NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi PucheriteBi(VO4)
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cretaceous - Triassic
66 - 251.902 Ma



ID: 2776321
Mesozoic gabbroic rocks, unit 2 (undivided)

Age: Mesozoic (66 - 251.902 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Cuyamaca Gabbro; Elk Creek Gabbro; Gold Park Gabbro-Diorite; San Marcos Gabbro; Summit Gabbro

Description: Gabbro and dark dioritic rocks; chiefly Mesozoic

Comments: Mostly small exposures of gabbro and diorite scattered in western Klamath Mts., Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, Mojave Desert, and Peninsular Ranges Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{diorite,gabbro}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 2703103
Gabbro, undivided

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Description: Massive, coarse-grained, dark-gray and black biotite-hornblende-hypersthene gabbro.

Reference: Kennedy, M.P., and S.S. Tan. digital prep. by Bovard et al. Geologic Map of the Oceanside 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, California. California Department of Conservation California Geological Survey. [131]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3186295
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Graton, Louis Caryl & Schaller, W. T. (1905), Purpurite, a new mineral American Journal of Science, 4t. series: 20: 146-151; […Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 41: 433-438 (1905)]: 146.
Kunz, G. F. (1905), Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: 171 p.
Gross, W. B. (1905), Kunzite the Precious. Sunset magazine, October, p. 556-560.
Kunz, George Frederick (1906), Precious stones: Mineral Resources U.S., 1905: 1344.
Kunz, G. F. (1906), The Production of Precious Stones in 1905. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Division of Mining and Mineral Resources. GPO, Washington: pages 26-27; 40 pp.
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911e), Notes on purpurite and heterosite: USGS Bulletin 490: 79.
Merrill, F. J. H. (1914), Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office. Chapter 1, p. 70.
Wheeler, H. V. (1917), Field notes of the survey of the mining claims of Marion M. Sickler, known as the El Molino, Fargo, Hiriart, K. C. Naylor, and Vanderberg Lodes; and El Molino Mill Site; in Sec 24-25, T9S, R2W, SBM. USDI, Surveyor General's Office, Mineral Survey No. 5391A-B: 1 plat.
Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31, 34-35, 40-42.
Weber, F. H. (1963), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 102; illus., maps.
Murdoch, Joseph & Webb, Robert W. (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 79, 102, 245, 286, 300, 349.
Moss, A. A., Fejer, E. E., and Embrey, P. G. (1969), On the X-ray identification of amblygonite and montebrasite. Mineralogical Magazine: 37: 415.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 77, 176, 310, 317, 367, 498.
Todd, W. R. & Waiwood, R. M. (1996), Mineral Report: Validity Examination of the Katerina Lode; Bureau of Land Management, United States Department of the Interior, Oct. 30; 71 p., maps/plats, photos, legal/technical data.

Localities in this Region
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