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Anita Mine (MS 6859), Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill), Pala, Pala District, San Diego Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Anita Mine (MS 6859)Mine
Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill)Mountain
Pala- not defined -
Pala DistrictMining District
San Diego Co.County

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 22' 38'' North , 117° 2' 32'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.37722,-117.04222
GeoHash:G#: 9muvbshkq
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Nearest Settlements:
Rainbow1,832 (2011)10.5km
Temecula112,011 (2017)16.3km
Valley Center9,277 (2011)17.7km
Aguanga1,128 (2011)18.0km
Hidden Meadows3,485 (2011)18.1km

Name: "Anita" — Spanish, from the Latin 'Anna', meaning "Gracious".

Located in the S2 Sec. 24 T9S R2W SBM, the mine is near the base of the northwest slope of Hiriart Mountain. The Anita pegmatite dike is exposed over an area of several thousand feet in the center of the claim (Anita Lode MS 6859). Reports mention the shallow workings as producing gem minerals including spodumene, beryl and quartz. Petalite is also noted to occur. The deposit was developed by several shallow cuts and minor underground workings.

The deposit was located by Bernardo Hiriart and Pedro Peiletch in 1901 as the second of three claims made by the two Basque Frenchman between 1901 and 1902. Not long after the date of the Anita location, the surrounding vacant public lands were temporarily withdrawn and removed from mineral entry under the United States land and mineral laws pursuant to Secretarial Order dated January 24, 1903. This order was a temporary withdrawal pending acquisition of all private inholdings, including valid existing rights, for the benefit of the Pala Tribe, under Indian tract allotment pursuant to the Act of January 12, 1891.

In 1906, George F. Kunz described the development of the Anita mine as several test cuts which yielded quartz crystals, lepidolite, and good pink kunzite. The mine was later acquired by Jim R. Fouch, head of the Universal Microphone Company of Inglewood. Fouch mined the deposit between 1943 and 1945. These workings were described around 1947 by Edward Swoboda as a cut into soft weathered pegmatite and surface slump. Here the pegmatite averaged 12 feet thick, with gabbro noted on the hangwall contact. The pegmatite hangwall was noted as coarse graphic granite.

The "huge beryl pocket" was described as albite-pegmatite rich in microcline as the possible core zone. The beryl was noted to occur within cavities of mica, feldspar and smaller crystals of quartz with cleavelandite rosettes. The beryl crystals measured 1/4 inch to 3" diameter as prisms up to 5 inches long, although mostly smaller. Peach colored morganite, some with cleavelandite. On the north wall of the main beryl stope was described cavities filled with bluish-black tourmaline prisms, and much tourmaline in the graphic rock. The north portal was described as quartz-spodumene pegmatite, with individual altered pink spodumene crystals averaging 1/2 x 1 inch, and up to 3 x 7 inches. The dumps were noted to contain pink spodumene needles and prisms.

Fouch sold the claim to George A. Ashley in 1947. Ashley then sold the claim to Charlie E. Reynolds of Escondido in 1948, whom subsequently sold it around 1958 to William Woynar, Harold Noble and William Granzow of San Diego, California.

In 1973, Pala International of Fallbrook developed a joint venture mining project involving the Anita mine and began working the deposit. The surface workings were expanded by using a D-8 Caterpillar track-type dozer, and the underground workings were extended for a short distance. Although moderately successful, these mining operations had ceased by 1978.

In the early 1990's the Secretary of the Interior, through the delegation to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), investigated the bona fides of the mining claim to determine any encumbrance of an allotment application (trust patent) filed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs on behalf of the Pala Tribe on June 19, 1980. The claim was adjudicated and in September of 1992 it was declared invalid from the beginning, or void ab initio. The land is now managed for the benefit of the Pala Band of Mission Indians by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).

Regions containing this locality

Pacific PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

6 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Formula: LiAl(Si4O10)
Formula: SiO2
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Group 9 - Silicates
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with tetrahedral Al cross-linking
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
var: Cleavelandite
var: Morganite
var: Kunzite

List of minerals for each chemical element

Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O QuartzSiO2
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Cretaceous - Triassic
66 - 251.902 Ma

ID: 2776321
Mesozoic gabbroic rocks, unit 2 (undivided)

Age: Mesozoic (66 - 251.902 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Cuyamaca Gabbro; Elk Creek Gabbro; Gold Park Gabbro-Diorite; San Marcos Gabbro; Summit Gabbro

Description: Gabbro and dark dioritic rocks; chiefly Mesozoic

Comments: Mostly small exposures of gabbro and diorite scattered in western Klamath Mts., Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, Mojave Desert, and Peninsular Ranges Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{diorite,gabbro}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

66 - 145 Ma

ID: 2706623
Granite pegmatite dike

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Description: Tabular, pegmatitic-textured granitic dikes. Most dikes range in thickness from a few centimeters to over a meter. Larger dikes are typically zoned compositionally and texturally.

Reference: Kennedy, M.P., and S.S. Tan. digital prep. by Bovard et al. Geologic Map of the Oceanside 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, California. California Department of Conservation California Geological Survey. [131]

66 - 145 Ma

ID: 3186295
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Kunz, G. F. (1905), Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: p. 86.
Kunz, G. F. (1906), The Production of Precious Stones in 1905. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Division of Mining and Mineral Resources. GPO, Washington: pages 26-27; 40 pp.
Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 72 p.
Weber, F. H. (1963), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 98.
Todd, W. R. & Waiwood, R. M. (1996), Mineral Report: Validity Examination of the Katerina Lode; Bureau of Land Management, United States Department of the Interior, Oct. 30; 71 p., maps/plats, photos, legal/technical data.
Cook, R. B. (1997). Connoisseur's Choice: Spodumene var. Kunzite, Nuristan, Afghanistan. Rocks & Minerals: 72(5): 340-343.
Swoboda, E. R. (2001), Pala district 1946-48: Unpublished field notes and personal interviews. Swoboda Inc., Beverly Hills, Los Angeles County, CA; 5/2; 8 p.
Pala International, Inc. (2007), A brief synopsis on mining operations by Pala Properties International, of Fallbrook, CA; at

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