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N'Chwaning Mines, Kuruman, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 27° 7' 45'' South , 22° 51' 56'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -27.12944,22.86556
GeoHash:G#: ke0m8m4pw
Locality type:Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate


Mine Type/Method: Room & Pillar. N'Chwaning 1 was originally established in 1972, with a single vertical shaft. The 450m N'Chwaning 2 shaft with an underground crushing station came into production in 1981. N'Chwaning 3 became fully operational in 2006 and is serviced by two shafts; a vertical personnel shaft to a depth of 350m and a 2.2km main hoisting decline conveyor shaft.

Geology: The manganese ores of the Kalahari Manganese Field are contained within sediments of the Hotazel Formation of the Griqualand West Sequence, a subdivision of the Proterozoic Transvaal Supergroup. The N'Chwaning deposit consists of a gently dipping and regular strata bound body of high-grade ore, which has undergone a hydrothermal upgrading associated with faulting.

The base of the Hotazel Formation consists of a bright-red banded iron-formation bed (varying from massive to fine-grained specularite and/or euhedral magnetite crystals) overlying volcanic glass breccias and lavas of the Ongeluk Formation. The banded iron-formation units grade into microcrystalline kutnohoritic ovoid-rich braunite rock. The kutnohorite in this area is concentrated in ovoids, which represent partially compacted, early diagenetic concretions in hematite and braunite rock. The braunite rock bed of the lower section of the lowest of the three sedimentary cycles present in the Hotazel Formation is between 5 and 45m thick. This is the major ore unit of the Kalahari manganese field with a manganese content varying between 20 and 48 weight percent. The middle manganese-bearing unit (cycle 2) is a maximum of 2m thick and is not economically viable. The top manganese ore body was mined in previous years. It rarely exceeds 5m thickness. Grey hematitic and manganese minnesotaite rocks are found between the lower and the middle manganese ore bodies.

About 1300 million years ago a widespread hydrothermal event occurred in the north-western portion of the Kalahari manganese field which reached temperatures up to 450°C in the Wessels, N'Chwaning and Black Rock Mines. This event decarbonated and desilicated portions of the Hotazel Formation to the north-west and thus upgraded the manganese content of the ore. Furthermore, the hydrothermal event is of great significance from the collectors' point of view as a wide range of rare as well as unusual mineral combinations where produced.

The manganese ore bodies in the north-western part of the Kalahari manganese field (Wessels, Black Rock, and N'Chwaning Mines) have been termed Wessels-type ore. These ore bodies contrast markedly to the primary Mamatwan-type ore. The ore has been hydrothermally altered and metamorphosed. This resulted in a manganese ore with a coarser grain size with higher manganese content. This ore is braunite-rich and contains other major minerals such as braunite II, bixbyite, hausmannite, marokite, and hematite together with minor amounts of calcite. The overall carbonate content of the Wessels-type ore is lower than that of the Mamatwan-type ore. Andradite and barite are common gangue minerals. Additionally, minor minerals such as tephroite and rhodochrosite as well as aegirine (in the iron formation above the ore layers)are associated with this ore type. Most of the Wessels, Black Rock, N'Chwaning II and parts of N'Chwaning I ores are of this type.

The Hotazel outlier is situated in a graben to the east of Black Rock and contains a very high-grade ore (60 to 70 percent average). Hausmannite with lesser amounts of other minerals and a very low carbonate component are the main constituents of the Hotazel supergrade ores. Although the ore is found typically in the Hotazel Mine, parts of the Langdon Annex and N'Chwaning I Mines also contain this ore-type[1]

Mineralization:
Ore: Rhodochrosite (carbonate) and olmiite (silicate)
Gangue: Oyelite and calcite.

(Sources: Cairncross et al & Messner.)

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

N`Chwaning Mine, Kuruman, Kalahari Mn-fields, South Africa
N'Chwaning Mines, Kuruman, Kalahari manganese fields, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

Regions containing this locality

Kalahari Desert, Africa

Desert - 259 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

86 valid minerals. 8 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Afwillite
Formula: Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Apophyllite'
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Bementite
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
'Braunite-II'
Formula: CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Bultfonteinite
Formula: Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
'Chlorite Group'
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Copper
Formula: Cu
Creedite
Formula: Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Despujolsite
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Ettringite
Formula: Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Friedelite
Formula: Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Gageite
Formula: Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
'Gageite-2M'
Formula: (Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Galena
Formula: PbS
Gatehouseite
Formula: Mn2+5(PO4)2(OH)4
Gaudefroyite
Formula: Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Glauconite
Formula: (K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Gonyerite
Formula: (Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Gowerite
Formula: Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Grossular var: Hibschite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Groutite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Guidottiite (TL)
Formula: Mn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Reference: Wahle, M.W., Bujnowski, T.J., Guggenheim, S., Kogure, T. (2010): Guidottiite, the Mn-analogue of cronstedtite: A new serpentine group mineral from South Africa. Clays and Clay Minerals, 58, 364-378.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Henritermierite
Formula: Ca3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Inesite
Formula: Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Jouravskite
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Kenotobermorite (TL)
Formula: [Ca4Si6O15(OH)2·2H2O]·3H2O
Reference: Merlino S, Bonaccorsi E, Armbruster T (2001) The real structure of tobermorite 11Å: normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modification. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 577-590 ; Biagioni, C., Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E. (2015): The tobermorite supergroup: a new nomenclature. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 485-495
'Kenotobermorite-4O'
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Leucophoenicite
Formula: Mn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
Lipuite (TL)
Formula: KNa8Mn3+5 Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Reference: Yang, H., Gu, X., Xie, X., van Nieuwenhuizen, J.J., Evans, S.H. and Downs, R.T. (2015) Lipuite, IMA 2014-085. CNMNC Newsletter No. 23, February 2015, page 58; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 51-58.
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
'Manganese Oxides'
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
'Manganoan Calcite'
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Manganvesuvianite (TL)
Formula: Ca19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
Reference: T. Armbruster et al. (2002) Mineralogical Magazine 66, 137-150
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Marokite
Formula: CaMn3+2O4
Mozartite
Formula: CaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Nchwaningite (TL)
Formula: Mn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: [Amer.Min.(1995) 80, 377-386; MinRec 27:203-204]
Olmiite (TL)
Formula: CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Reference: Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L., Medenbach, O., Pagano, R., Lampronti, Menchetti, S. (2007): Olmiite, CaMn[SiO3(OH)](OH), the Mn-dominant analogue of poldervaartite, a new mineral species from Kalahari manganese fields (Republic of South Africa), Mineralogical Magazine, 71, 193-291.
Orlymanite
Formula: Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Oyelite
Formula: Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Poldervaartite
Formula: CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Portlandite
Formula: Ca(OH)2
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyrochroite
Formula: Mn(OH)2
Pyrolusite ?
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Rob Lavinsky photo
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Richterite
Formula: {Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ruizite
Formula: Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Saponite
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Schizolite
Formula: NaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Shigaite
Formula: Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University); Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Cairncross, B. (2016) Connoisseur's Choice: Shigaite, Kalahari Manganese Field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa, Rocks & Minerals, 91:2, 150-15
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Strontioruizite (TL)
Formula: Sr2Mn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Yang, H., Cairncross, B., Gu, X., Yong, T. and Downs, R.T. (2017) Strontioruizite, IMA 2017-045. CNMNC Newsletter No. 39, October 2017, page 1280; Mineralogical Magazine; 81: 1279–1286
Sturmanite
Formula: Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Sugilite
Formula: K(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Sussexite
Formula: Mn2+BO2(OH)
Taniajacoite (TL)
Formula: SrCaMn3+2Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Reference: Yang, H., Gu, X., Downs, R.T. and Xie, X. (2015) Taniajacoite, IMA 2014-107. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 531; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535.
Tephroite
Formula: Mn2+2SiO4
Thaumasite
Formula: Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
'Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)'
Formula: K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Xonotlite
Formula: Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Creedite3.CG.15Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bixbyite'4.CB.10Mn3+2O3
'Brucite'4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Diaspore4.FD.10AlO(OH)
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite4.FD.10Mn3+O(OH)
Hausmannite4.BB.10Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Jacobsite4.BB.05Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Marokite4.BC.05CaMn3+2O4
Portlandite4.FE.05Ca(OH)2
Pyrochroite4.FE.05Mn(OH)2
Pyrolusite ?4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Kutnohorite5.AB.10CaMn2+(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Gaudefroyite6.AB.60Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Gowerite6.EC.10Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Sussexite6.BA.15Mn2+BO2(OH)
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Celestine'7.AD.35SrSO4
Despujolsite7.DF.25Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ettringite7.DG.15Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jouravskite7.DG.15Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Shigaite7.DD.35Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Sturmanite7.DG.15Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Thaumasite7.DG.15Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Gatehouseite8.BD.10Mn2+5(PO4)2(OH)4
Group 9 - Silicates
'Aegirine'9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
'Afwillite'9.AG.75Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
'Andradite'9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Bementite'9.EE.05Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
'Braunite'9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
'Braunite-II'9.AG.05CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
'Bultfonteinite'9.AG.80Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
'Bustamite'9.DG.05CaMn2+(Si2O6)
'Caryopilite'9.ED.15Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Friedelite9.EE.10Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Gageite9.DH.35Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Gonyerite9.EC.55(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var: Hibschite9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Guidottiite (TL)9.ED.15Mn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Henritermierite9.AD.25Ca3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Inesite9.DL.05Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Leucophoenicite9.AF.60Mn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
Lizardite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Manganvesuvianite (TL)9.BG.35Ca19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
Mozartite9.AG.60CaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Nchwaningite (TL)9.DB.30Mn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Olmiite (TL)9.AF.90CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Orlymanite9.EE.30Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Oyelite9.HA.80Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Poldervaartite9.AF.90CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Richterite9.DE.20{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ruizite9.BJ.35Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Saponite9.EC.45Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sugilite9.CM.05K(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Tephroite9.AC.05Mn2+2SiO4
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Xonotlite9.DG.35Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apophyllite'-
Chlorite Group-
Gageite-2M-(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Glauconite-(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Kenotobermorite (TL)-[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2·2H2O]·3H2O
Kenotobermorite-4O-
Lipuite (TL)-KNa8Mn3+5 Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Manganese Oxides-
Manganoan Calcite-(Ca,Mn)CO3
Schizolite-NaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Strontioruizite (TL)-Sr2Mn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Taniajacoite (TL)- SrCaMn3+2Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)-K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Bixbyite4.3.7.2Mn3+2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite ?4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Diaspore6.1.1.1AlO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite6.1.1.3Mn3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Portlandite6.2.1.4Ca(OH)2
Pyrochroite6.2.1.3Mn(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hausmannite7.2.7.1Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Jacobsite7.2.2.2Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Marokite7.2.10.1CaMn3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
'Braunite-II'7.5.1.3CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 12 - COMPOUND HALIDES
Miscellaneous
Creedite12.1.4.1Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Kutnohorite14.2.1.3CaMn2+(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 25 - ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Diborates
Sussexite25.2.1.1Mn2+BO2(OH)
Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Pentaborates
Gowerite26.5.8.1Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Group 27 - COMPOUND BORATES
Miscellaneous
Gaudefroyite27.1.2.1Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Shigaite31.1.2.1Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Despujolsite31.7.6.1Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Miscellaneous
Ettringite31.10.2.1Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Jouravskite32.4.4.3Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Sturmanite32.4.4.2Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Thaumasite32.4.4.4Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Gatehouseite41.4.1.2Mn2+5(PO4)2(OH)4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Tephroite51.3.1.4Mn2+2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var: Hibschite51.4.3d.1Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Henritermierite51.4.4.1Ca3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Leucophoenicite52.3.2c.2Mn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Afwillite52.4.7.1Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Bultfonteinite52.4.7.2Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Mozartite52.4.2.1CaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 57 - SOROSILICATES Si3O10 Groups and Larger Noncyclic Groups
Insular Si3O10 and Larger Noncyclic Groups with [Si4O13] groups
Ruizite57.2.2.1Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Group 63 - CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)
Sugilite63.2.1a.9K(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Nchwaningite (TL)65.1.8.1Mn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Bustamite65.2.1.2CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=4
'Gageite-2M'65.3.2.2a(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Richterite66.1.3b.9{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Amphiboles - Ca-Na subgroup
Inesite66.3.3.1Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Xonotlite66.3.1.1Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Caryopilite71.1.2b.1Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Guidottiite (TL)71.1.4.8Mn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Lizardite71.1.2b.2Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Glauconite71.2.2a.5(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Saponite71.3.1b.2Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Gonyerite71.4.4.1(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Oyelite72.3.2.8Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-, 6-, and 12-membered rings
Friedelite72.4.1b.1Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Group 73 - PHYLLOSILICATES Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets
Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets with double and single layers
Orlymanite73.2.2b.2Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Miscellaneous
Poldervaartite78.1.8.1CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Bementite78.5.2.1Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apophyllite'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Chlorite Group'-
Gageite-Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)-KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Kenotobermorite (TL)-[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2·2H2O]·3H2O
'Kenotobermorite-4O'-
Lipuite (TL)-KNa8Mn3+5 Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Manganoan Calcite'-(Ca,Mn)CO3
Manganvesuvianite (TL)-Ca19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
Olmiite (TL)-CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
Schizolite-NaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Strontioruizite (TL)-Sr2Mn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Taniajacoite (TL)- SrCaMn3+2Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
'Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)'-K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
H BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
H CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H DiasporeAlO(OH)
H EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
H FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
H GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
H Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
H GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
H Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
H GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
H GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
H GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
H Grossular (var: Hibschite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
H Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
H InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
H JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
H Kenotobermorite[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2·2H2O]·3H2O
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
H LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
H LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
H MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
H NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
H OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
H OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
H OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
H PortlanditeCa(OH)2
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
H Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
H SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
H ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
H StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
H SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
H SussexiteMn2+BO2(OH)
H Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
H ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
LiLithium
Li SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Li Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
BBoron
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
B GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
B GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
B OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
B SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
B SussexiteMn2+BO2(OH)
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
C JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
C KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Manganoan Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
OOxygen
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
O BixbyiteMn23+O3
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
O BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
O CalciteCaCO3
O CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
O CelestineSrSO4
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O DiasporeAlO(OH)
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
O FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
O GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
O Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
O GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
O GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
O Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
O GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
O GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
O HematiteFe2O3
O HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
O Grossular (var: Hibschite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
O Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
O InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
O JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
O JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
O Kenotobermorite[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2·2H2O]·3H2O
O KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
O LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
O LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O Manganoan Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
O ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
O MarokiteCaMn23+O4
O MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
O NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
O OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
O OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
O OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
O PortlanditeCa(OH)2
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
O SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
O ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
O StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
O SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
O SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
O SussexiteMn2+BO2(OH)
O Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
O TephroiteMn22+SiO4
O ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
FFluorine
F BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
F CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
F Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
NaSodium
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Na LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Na Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Na SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Na ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Na SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
MgMagnesium
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Mg Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Mg LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Mg LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
AlAluminium
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Al DiasporeAlO(OH)
Al EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Al Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Grossular (var: Hibschite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Al ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Al SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Al SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
SiSilicon
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
Si BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Si BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Si CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Si GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Si Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Si Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Si Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Si HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Si Grossular (var: Hibschite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Si Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Si InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Si Kenotobermorite[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2·2H2O]·3H2O
Si LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
Si LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Si LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
Si MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Si NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Si OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Si OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Si OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Si SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Si StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Si Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Si TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Si ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Si Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
P LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S CelestineSrSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CinnabarHgS
S CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
S DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
S ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
ClChlorine
Cl FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
KPotassium
K Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
K Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
K LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
K Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
CaCalcium
Ca AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
Ca BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Ca BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Ca GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Ca GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Ca Grossular (var: Hibschite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Ca Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Ca InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Ca JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Ca Kenotobermorite[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2·2H2O]·3H2O
Ca KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Ca Manganoan Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
Ca ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
Ca MarokiteCaMn23+O4
Ca MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Ca OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Ca OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Ca OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Ca PortlanditeCa(OH)2
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Ca SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Ca SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Ca Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Ca ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Mn BixbyiteMn23+O3
Mn BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Mn Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
Mn BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Mn CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Mn DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Mn FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Mn GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Mn Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Mn GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
Mn GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Mn Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Mn GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Mn HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
Mn HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Mn InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Mn JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Mn JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Mn KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Mn LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
Mn LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Manganoan Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
Mn ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
Mn MarokiteCaMn23+O4
Mn MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Mn NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Mn OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Mn OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Mn PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Mn PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Mn SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Mn ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Mn StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Mn SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Mn SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Mn SussexiteMn2+BO2(OH)
Mn Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Mn TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mn Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
FeIron
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Fe GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Fe SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Fe Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
Sr StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Sr Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
ZrZirconium
Zr SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cenozoic
0 - 66 Ma



ID: 2233217
Kalahari Group

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Kalahari Group

Description: Superficial deposits comprising gravels, clays, sandstone, silcrete, calcrete and aeolian sand

Reference: Council for Geoscience. Geologic map of South Africa, 1:1M. National Science Councils of South Africa. [41]

Quaternary - Tertiary
0 - 66 Ma



ID: 3185837
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Pleistocene - Paleogene
0.0117 - 66 Ma



ID: 3306660

Age: Cenozoic (0.0117 - 66 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Hochleitner, R. (1986) Neufund von Gaudefroyit-Kristallen in Südafrika. Lapis, 11(6), 19-20.
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa.
Gutzmer, J. (1996) Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N., and Gutzmer, J. (1997) The Manganese Adventure – The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
Cairncross, B. and Beukes, N. (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Adventure – The Adventure Continues. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.

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South Africa

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