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Rooiberg tin field, Waterberg District, Bushveld Complex, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 24° 24' 5'' South , 28° 7' 40'' East (est.)
Margin of Error:~0km
Area:180 km2
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate


The Rooiberg tin field is located within the western lobe of the Bushveld Complex.

Mining at Rooiberg is spread out over a wide area. The centre of operations is at Rooiberg itself, with Vellefontein and Leeuwpoort 10 km and 20 km respectively south of the main complex. Nieuwpoort is 9 km east of Rooiberg. Tin has been mined in the Rooiberg Fragment for at least 500 years, and modern mining started in about 1906.

The Rooiberg Minerals Development Company was registered in 1908, with operations on Hartbeestfontein and Olievenbosch farms, where the Rooiberg Mine (A Mine) is situated.

In 1924 the mineral rights for Nieuwpoort farm, where the B Mine is situated, were purchased. The mineral rights for the farms Leeupoort and Rietfontein and the C Mine on Leeuwpoort were purchased in 1935, followed by the purchase in 1964 of Blaaubank Tin and Nickel Mines Limited, including the mineral rights of Blaauwbank farm. In 1970 Vellefontein Tin Mining Company Limited was purchased, including the mineral rights on Vellefontein and the Vellefontein Mine. A tin smelter was installed in 1979, and the name of the company was changed to Rooiberg Tin Limited.

The company held mineral rights on 17 000 ha and freehold rights on 5330 ha of this area. The Rooiberg orebodies are contained in an ancient fragment of sedimentary rocks situated in the much younger rocks of the Bushveld Complex.

The sediments consist of arkosites and shales that are about 2100 million years old. The mineralization tends to be confined to the upper part of the arkosite rocks just below the transition of shaly arkosites and shales.

Tin is present as cassiterite. The origin of the mineralization is hydrothermal activity associated with the emplacement of the younger rocks of the Bushveld Complex.

The mineralization is controlled by structural features, and tends to be limited to favourable zones of the sedimentary sequence. The complex mineral deposits are classified as conformable or unconformable according to their geometrical relationship with the stratification of the host sedimentary sequence.

The conformable mineralization includes pockets, bedding-plane mineralization, bedded lodes, and bedded stringers, whereas the unconformable mineralization generally occurs as steeply dipping lodes that strike parallel to the major fracture directions.


Regions containing this locality

Transvaal, South Africa

Province (Former) - 831 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

28 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
'Apatite'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Coquimbite
Formula: Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Melanterite var: Cuprian Melanterite
Formula: (Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Römerite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Szomolnokite
Formula: FeSO4 · H2O
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Zinnwaldite'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Nickeline2.CC.05NiAs
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Coquimbite7.CB.55Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
var: Cuprian Melanterite7.CB.35(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Römerite7.CB.75Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Szomolnokite7.CB.05FeSO4 · H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Annabergite8.CE.40Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
Apatite-
Chlorite Group-
Feldspar Group-
Limonite-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Zinnwaldite-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Nickeline2.8.11.1NiAs
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Szomolnokite29.6.2.2FeSO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Römerite29.7.2.1Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Coquimbite29.8.3.1Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Annabergite40.3.6.4Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Apatite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
Hematite
var: Specularite
-Fe2O3
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Melanterite
var: Cuprian Melanterite
-(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Zinnwaldite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
H Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O CassiteriteSnO2
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
O Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O QuartzSiO2
O RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
O SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
S Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
S GalenaPbS
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Fe Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
Fe SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
NiNickel
Ni AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni NickelineNiAs
CuCopper
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As NickelineNiAs
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, p 95-98.
Heimann, R. B., Chirikure, S., & Killick, D. (2010). Mineralogical study of precolonial (1650–1850 CE) tin smelting slags from Rooiberg, Limpopo Province, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 22(5), 751-761.
Falcon, L.M. (1985): Tin In South Africa. Journal South African Mining & Metallurgy, 85 (10), 333-345.
Lisa J. Molofsky, David Killick, Mihai N. Ducea, Monica Macovei, John T. Chesley, Joaquin Ruiz, Alyson Thibodeau, Gheorghe C. Popescu (2014): A novel approach to lead isotope provenance studies of tin and bronze: applications to South African, Botswanan and Romanian artifacts. Journal of Archaeological Science 50, 440-450.

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