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Ghundao hill, Katlang, Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistani
Regional Level Types
Ghundao hillHill
Katlang- not defined -
Mardan DistrictDistrict
Khyber PakhtunkhwaProvince
PakistanCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 34° 23' 57'' North , 72° 6' 8'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 34.39922,72.10215
GeoHash:G#: tw578wpjv
Locality type:Hill
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Noorabad1,100 (2018)20.6km
Mardan300,424 (2017)22.9km
Bat Khela46,079 (2015)27.0km
Ashanagro Koto1,275 (2015)35.0km
Risalpur Cantonment37,084 (2016)39.0km


Ghundao Hill is an isolated hill in Shamozai Valley, 5 Km NNE of Katlang village.
The hill is conformed by Silurian-Devonian aged carbonated rocks crossed by coarse-grained calcite and quartz veins, a few of them containing euhedral topaz crystals up to 3 cm.
The attractive pink color of some topaz from this locality is caused by trace amounts of the Cr3+ ion.
Topaz-bearing veins were discovered in the seventies and currently are almost exhausted.

The topaz from this locality is often referred to as topaz from Katlang.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


9 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Crater Rock Museum Photo #103919
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Morteani, G. & Voropaev, A. (2007): The pink topaz-bearing calcite, quartz, white mica veins from Ghundao Hill (North West Frontier Province, Pakistan): K/Ar age, stable isotope and REE data. Mineralogy and Petrology 89, 31-44.; M. Qasim Jan (1979) Topaz Occurrence in Mardan, North-West Pakistan. Mineralogical Magazine 43:175-176.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Morteani, G. & Voropaev, A. (2007): The pink topaz-bearing calcite, quartz, white mica veins from Ghundao Hill (North West Frontier Province, Pakistan): K/Ar age, stable isotope and REE data. Mineralogy and Petrology 89, 31-44.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Rockgems dealer stock
'Mica Group'
Reference: Morteani, G. & Voropaev, A. (2007): The pink topaz-bearing calcite, quartz, white mica veins from Ghundao Hill (North West Frontier Province, Pakistan): K/Ar age, stable isotope and REE data. Mineralogy and Petrology 89, 31-44.; M. Qasim Jan (1979) Topaz Occurrence in Mardan, North-West Pakistan. Mineralogical Magazine 43:175-176.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Muscovite appears in small greenish crystals mixed with mud filling the free space in cavities.
Reference: Edward Gübelin, Giorgio Graziani, A. H. Kazmi (1986) Pink Topaz of Pakistan, Gems & Gemology, Fall 1986, Vol. 22, No. 3, pag 140-151.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Morteani, G. & Voropaev, A. (2007): The pink topaz-bearing calcite, quartz, white mica veins from Ghundao Hill (North West Frontier Province, Pakistan): K/Ar age, stable isotope and REE data. Mineralogy and Petrology 89, 31-44.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: [MinRec 31:61]; Morteani, G. & Voropaev, A. (2007): The pink topaz-bearing calcite, quartz, white mica veins from Ghundao Hill (North West Frontier Province, Pakistan): K/Ar age, stable isotope and REE data. Mineralogy and Petrology 89, 31-44.; M. Qasim Jan (1979) Topaz Occurrence in Mardan, North-West Pakistan. Mineralogical Magazine 43:175-176.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: M. Qasim Jan (1979) Topaz Occurrence in Mardan, North-West Pakistan. Mineralogical Magazine 43:175-176.
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: [MinRec 31:61]; Morteani, G. & Voropaev, A. (2007): The pink topaz-bearing calcite, quartz, white mica veins from Ghundao Hill (North West Frontier Province, Pakistan): K/Ar age, stable isotope and REE data. Mineralogy and Petrology 89, 31-44.; M. Qasim Jan (1979) Topaz Occurrence in Mardan, North-West Pakistan. Mineralogical Magazine 43:175-176.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Mica Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Mica Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
FFluorine
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Devonian - Silurian
358.9 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 3185521
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Paleozoic (358.9 - 443.8 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
M. Qasim Jan (1979) Topaz Occurrence in Mardan, North-West Pakistan. Mineralogical Magazine 43:175-176.
Edward Gübelin, Giorgio Graziani, A. H. Kazmi (1986) Pink Topaz of Pakistan, Gems & Gemology, Fall 1986, Vol. 22, No. 3, pag 140-151.
Morteani, G. & Voropaev, A. (2007): The pink topaz-bearing calcite, quartz, white mica veins from Ghundao Hill (North West Frontier Province, Pakistan): K/Ar age, stable isotope and REE data. Mineralogy and Petrology 89, 31-44.

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