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Betts Manganese Mines (Anson Betts Mine; Plainfield Manganese Mines), Plainfield, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 42° 29' 40'' North , 72° 56' 43'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 42.49444,-72.94528
GeoHash:G#: drs1spfu5
Locality type:Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:Dfb : Warm-summer humid continental climate


Hawley "Mineral Belt" stratabound massive sulfides deposit. Located in Plainfield near the Cummington line. It is often erroneously listed as being in either Cummington or West Cummington.

The deposit was said by Emerson (1898) to have been worked extensively in 1848 before being abandoned due to the "California gold excitement." The mine was acquired in 1925 by the metallurgist and inventor, Anson Gardner Betts (b. 1876, Lansingburgh, NY; d. 1976), who operated it under the name Taconic Manganese Mines. The most active mining period was 1939-1942 (Quinn, 1945). His son Anson Ketchum Betts (b. 1924, Kinderhook NY; d. 2013) also worked for the family mining business.

The mine and tailings are now under the ownership of EarthDance. Was quoted in July, 2014 that the new cost of mining there was $20 per person and only one five gallon bucket of material may be removed per trip/day.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


52 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Hickmott, Donald D. (1982). The mineralogy and petrology of the Betts mine area, Plainfield, Massachusetts: Unpublished B. S. thesis: Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts, p. 62
Alleghanyite
Formula: Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28)
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Habit: trapezohedral
Colour: burgundy to orange-brown
Description: Probably the best "species" to list most crystals under that have not been analyzed as they cannot be reliably differentiated visually.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Bafertisite
Formula: Ba2Fe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Description: No data in the source reference. Is there a reference that proves this species?
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Bementite
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28)
'Biotite'
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Birnessite ?
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Description: Kim (1991) re-investigated a mineral originally described as birnessite by Frondel et. al (1960) and determined it to be takaelite. Ref.: Kim, Soo Jin (1991). New characterization of takanelite (American Mineralogist, Volume 76, pages 1426-1430)
Reference: Kim, Soo Jin (1991). New characterization of takanelite (American Mineralogist, Volume 76, pages 1426-1430); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Calcite ?
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); Plante, Alan (1992): Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities (Valley Geology Press)
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Chloritoid ?
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); Plante, Alan (1992): Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities (Valley Geology Press)
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Cummingtonite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28)
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Ferro-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Habit: radiating, bladed aggregates
Colour: black
Fluorescence: none
Description: radiating, bladed aggregates reaching over 5 cm
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992. Former Alfred Patrie collection.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Dunn, P. J. (1976). On gem rhodonite from Massachusetts (J. Gemm 15(2): 76-80.)
Gold
Formula: Au
Description: No specifics in reference. Is the gold from nearby alluvium?
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Grunerite
Formula: ☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Peter Cristofono collection
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Hickmott, Donald D. (1982). The mineralogy and petrology of the Betts mine area, Plainfield, Massachusetts: Unpublished B. S. thesis: Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts, p. 38.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Reference: Plante, Alan (1992): Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities (Valley Geology Press)
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Reference: Dunn, P. J. (1976). On gem rhodonite from Massachusetts (J. Gemm 15(2): 76-80.)
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
'commodity:Manganese'
Formula: Mn
Reference: From USGS MRDS database
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Neotocite
Formula: (Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28)
'Psilomelane'
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); Dunn, P. J. (1976). On gem rhodonite from Massachusetts (J. Gemm 15(2): 76-80.)
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Dunn, P. J. (1976). On gem rhodonite from Massachusetts (J. Gemm 15(2): 76-80.)
Pyrophanite
Formula: Mn2+TiO3
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Ranciéite
Formula: (Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992; Dunn, P. J. (1976). On gem rhodonite from Massachusetts (J. Gemm 15(2): 76-80.)
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals (USGS Open-File Report: 45-28); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Schallerite
Formula: Mn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Sonolite
Formula: Mn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Dunn, P. J. (1976). On gem rhodonite from Massachusetts (J. Gemm 15(2): 76-80.)
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
Takanelite
Formula: (Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2O
Reference: Kim, Soo Jin (1991). New characterization of takanelite (American Mineralogist, Volume 76, pages 1426-1430)
Tephroite
Formula: Mn2+2SiO4
Reference: "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Gold'1.AA.05Au
'Silver'1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Alabandite'2.CD.10MnS
'Arsenopyrite'2.EB.20FeAsS
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Cobaltite'2.EB.25CoAsS
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Löllingite'2.EB.15aFeAs2
'Marcasite'2.EB.10aFeS2
'Molybdenite'2.EA.30MoS2
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Pyrrhotite'2.CC.10Fe7S8
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
'Fluorite'3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Birnessite' ?4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
'Cryptomelane'4.DK.05aK(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
'Hematite'4.CB.05Fe2O3
'Hübnerite'4.DB.30MnWO4
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
'Jacobsite'4.BB.05Mn2+Fe3+2O4
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Pyrolusite'4.DB.05Mn4+O2
'Pyrophanite'4.CB.05Mn2+TiO3
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
'Ranciéite'4.FL.40(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
'Rutile'4.DB.05TiO2
'Takanelite'4.FL.40(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite' ?5.AB.05CaCO3
'Kutnohorite'5.AB.10CaMn2+(CO3)2
'Rhodochrosite'5.AB.05MnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Scheelite'7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Fluorapatite'8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Alleghanyite'9.AF.45Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
'Bafertisite'9.BE.55Ba2Fe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
'Bementite'9.EE.05Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
'Caryopilite'9.ED.15Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
'Chloritoid' ?9.AF.85(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
'Clinochlore'9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Cummingtonite'9.DE.05☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Ferro-hornblende'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'Grunerite'9.DE.05☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Muscovite'9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Neotocite'9.ED.20(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
'Rhodonite'9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
'Schallerite'9.EE.15Mn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17
'Sonolite'9.AF.55Mn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2
'Spessartine'9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
'Tephroite'9.AC.05Mn2+2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
'Biotite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Psilomelane'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Alabandite2.8.1.4MnS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Cobaltite2.12.3.1CoAsS
Löllingite2.12.2.9FeAs2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Pyrophanite4.3.5.3Mn2+TiO3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Jacobsite7.2.2.2Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Birnessite ?7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
AB8X16
Cryptomelane7.9.1.2K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
AB4X9
Ranciéite7.10.1.1(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
Takanelite7.10.1.2(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2O
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite ?14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Kutnohorite14.2.1.3CaMn2+(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Hübnerite48.1.1.1MnWO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Tephroite51.3.1.4Mn2+2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Alleghanyite52.3.2b.1Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Chloritoid ?52.3.3.1(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Sonolite52.3.2d.3Mn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Bafertisite56.2.6b.1Ba2Fe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Cummingtonite66.1.1.1☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Caryopilite71.1.2b.1Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Neotocite71.1.5.4(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-, 6-, and 12-membered rings
Schallerite72.4.1a.3Mn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Bementite78.5.2.1Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
'Biotite'-
Ferro-hornblende-☐{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Grunerite-☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Psilomelane'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
H BafertisiteBa2Fe42+Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
H BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
H Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
H Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
H Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
H SchalleriteMn162+As3Si12O36(OH)17
H SonoliteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2
H Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
O BafertisiteBa2Fe42+Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
O BaryteBaSO4
O BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
O Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
O Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O HübneriteMnWO4
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
O KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
O QuartzSiO2
O Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O RutileTiO2
O SchalleriteMn162+As3Si12O36(OH)17
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O SonoliteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2O
O TephroiteMn22+SiO4
FFluorine
F BafertisiteBa2Fe42+Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
AlAluminium
Al Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
Si BafertisiteBa2Fe42+Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Si BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Si CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Si Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Si Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Si SchalleriteMn162+As3Si12O36(OH)17
Si SonoliteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si TephroiteMn22+SiO4
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S AlabanditeMnS
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
KPotassium
K CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Ca Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2O
TiTitanium
Ti BafertisiteBa2Fe42+Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
MnManganese
Mn AlabanditeMnS
Mn AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
Mn BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Mn Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Mn CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Mn CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
Mn HübneriteMnWO4
Mn JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Mn KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Mn Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
Mn Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Mn SchalleriteMn162+As3Si12O36(OH)17
Mn SonoliteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2O
Mn TephroiteMn22+SiO4
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BafertisiteBa2Fe42+Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Fe Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
CoCobalt
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As CobaltiteCoAsS
As LöllingiteFeAs2
As SchalleriteMn162+As3Si12O36(OH)17
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
BaBarium
Ba BafertisiteBa2Fe42+Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W HübneriteMnWO4
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Homerian - Telychian
427.4 - 438.5 Ma



ID: 2819591
Hawley Formation

Age: Silurian (427.4 - 438.5 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Hawley Formation

Description: Interbedded amphibolite, greenstone, feldspathic schist and granofels. Coarse plagioclase in some amphibolite near top; local coarse hornblende blades or sprays. Sparse coticule (Emerson, 1917, p. 43). As used here the Hawley includes amphibolite, sulfidic rusty schists, abundant coticules, silvery schists, quartzites and quartz conglomerates, and quartz, feldspar, biotite granulites. The quartzites and quartz conglomerates occur at two positions in rocks here assigned to the Hawley. Those occurring near the top have been mapped previously as Russell Mountain Formation or as Shaw Mountain Formation. The Hawley overlies the Ordovician Barnard Gneiss and underlies Silurian and Devonian "calciferous schists" that include the westernmost Goshen Formation in MA and Northfield Formation in southern VT, the central Waits River Formation and the eastern Gile Mountain Formation. Authors believe that the Goshen, Northfield, and Waits River are facies equivalents, while the Gile Mountain is slightly younger. Map symbol indicates that Hawley is Ordovician and Silurian. 40Ar/3Ar hornblende release spectrum date of 433+/-3 Ma obtained by Spear and Harrison (1989) (Trzcienski and others, 1992).

Comments: Part of Rowe-Hawley Zone (Ordovician and Older Rocks). Secondary unit description per MA013. Original map source: Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of Massachusetts received from Rudi Hon of Boston College in 1998; based on the 1983 USGS paper version (MA002).

Lithology: Major:{amphibolite,greenstone,schist}, Minor:{granofels}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Ordovician - Neoproterozoic
443.8 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3190671
Precambrian-Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Neoproterozoic to Ordovician (443.8 - 1000 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone-carbonate-sandstone-conglomerate

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Nash, Alanson (1827). Notices of the Lead Mines and Veins of Hampshire County, Massachusetts and of the Geology and Mineralogy of that Region, American Journal of Science and Arts: 7: 250.
Emerson, B. K. (1898). Geology of Old Hampshire County. (USGS Monograph 29).
Perry, Elwyn L. (1934). The Hawley Mineral Belt, Massachusetts, Rocks & Minerals: 9(7): 93-99.
Elwell, Wilbur J. (1936): A Mineralogical Trip Through New England. Rocks and Minerals: 11(3): 36-7.
Quinn, Alonzo W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area : with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals, USGS Open-File Report 45-28.
Dixon, A. M. (1946): Two Localities near Plainville, Mass. Rocks & Minerals: 21 (11): 754-755.
Mosier, M. (1949). Investigation of Anson Betts manganese mine, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines.
Dunn, Pete J. (1976). On gem rhodonite from Massachusetts, Journal of Gemmology: 15(2): 76-80.
Hickmott, Donald D. (1982). The mineralogy and petrology of the Betts mine area, Plainfield, Massachusetts: Unpublished B. S. thesis: Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts, 105 p.
Hickmott, Donald D; Slack, John F; Docka, Janet A. (1983). Mineralogy, Petrology, and Genesis of the Manganese Ores of the Betts Mine, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, USA in Field Trip Guidebook To Stratabound Sulphide Deposits, Bathurst Area, N.B., Canada, and West-Central New England, U.S.A. Geological Survey of Canada, Miscellaneous Report 36, 1983, p. 65-76.
Kim, Soo Jin (1991). New characterization of takanelite , American Mineralogist: 76: 1426-1430.
Plante, Alan (1992). Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities (Valley Geology Press).

External Links



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