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Trench Mine, Trench and Josephine Mine group (Josephine Mines; Trench group of claims; Lunch Cans prospect), Alum Gulch, Harshaw District, Patagonia Mts, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona, USAi
Regional Level Types
Trench MineMine
Trench and Josephine Mine group (Josephine Mines; Trench group of claims; Lunch Cans prospect)- not defined -
Alum GulchGulch
Harshaw DistrictMining District
Patagonia MtsMountain Range
Santa Cruz Co.County
ArizonaState
USACountry

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 31° 27' 48'' North , 110° 43' 41'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 31.46333,-110.72806
GeoHash:G#: 9t96brdr1
USGS MRDS Record:10186789
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Patagonia890 (2017)8.9km
Kino Springs136 (2011)13.6km
Beyerville177 (2011)16.4km
Francisco Miguel Cárdenas Valdez (Mascareñas)541 (2014)21.9km
Rio Rico18,962 (2011)23.6km


‡Ref.: The Resources of Arizona - A Manual of Reliable Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Scottsdale, AZ: 43-44.

The History of Arizona, 2nd. State legislature, Chap. X: 125

Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 253-254.

Schrader, F.C. (1917), The geologic distribution and genesis of the metals in the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, Economic Geology: 12: 237-269.

Hewett, D.F. & O.N. Rove (1930), Occurrence and relations of alabandite, Econ.Geol.: 25: 36-56.

Kartchner, W.E. (1944) The geology and ore deposits of a portion of the Harshaw district, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, Ph.D. dissertation, 100 p.

Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 153: 18.

Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 48, 73.

Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 59 (Table 4).

Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 104, 229, 323, 344, 353.

U.S. Bureau of Mines Coronado National Forest Study.

Arizona Department of Mineral Resources Trench Mill file.

Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.

MRDS database Dep. ID file #10186789, MRDS ID #M899918, MAS ID #0040230083.

A former underground Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu-Au-Mn mine located in the SE¼NE¼ sec. 5, T.23S., R.16E. (protracted), 1¼ miles NW of Harshaw and ¼ mile SE of the Red Bird Mine on an eastern tributary of Alum Gulch just below the 5,000 foot contour, on National Forest land. Discovered in the 1850's or earlier and worked in 1859 by Colonel Titus. Patented prior to 1872 by J.B. Hagan. In the middle and late seventies it was extensively worked by Señor Pádres. In 1880 the owner was the Hearst estate, of California. Worked early by missionaries. Owned at times, or in part, by Messrs Archibald, Gardiner & Hop; Col. Titus; Hogan; Powers; Farrell; Morrison; Richardson; Trench Consolidated Mining Co.; Wilson; Trench Mining Co.; Gold Canyon Mining Co.; and the American Smelting & Refining Co. (ASARCO).

Mineralization is a lensing, banded, porous, and drusy vein containing argentiferous cerussite, smithsonite, manganese carbonate (rhodochrosite) and oxides, and iron oxides with quartz in oxidized zone and base metal and other sulfides and sulfosalts in depth. Wall rock is Cretaceous andesite cut by rhyolite intrusions. Strong pyrite gossan. This vein can be traced for over 20,000 feet (6,400 meters) on surface.

The deposits are contained in a fissure vein which dips 60ºNNE. in diorite that is intruded by rhyolite nearby. The vein ranges from 1 to 5 feet in width. The vein and ore are banded, porous, and drusy.

Workings include a 400 foot deep main shaft (circa 1880) with several levels and 2 tunnels at 200 and 300 feet long (1881). Worked from the late 1850's to the late 1890's, and from 1918 to 1945. The group (including the Josephine Mine) produced some 237,000 tons of ore averaging about 8.5% Pb, 6.3% Zn, 13 oz. Ag/T and minor copper and gold.

TRENCH MINE WORKINGS INCLUDED 700 FT VERTICAL SHAFT

Regions containing this locality

North America PlatePlate
Sonoran Desert, North AmericaDesert

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

14 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alabandite
Formula: MnS
'Biotite'
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Cerussite var: Argentiferous Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Freibergite
Formula: Ag6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
Galena
Formula: PbS
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pearceite
Formula: [Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Alabandite2.CD.10MnS
Freibergite2.GB.05Ag6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
Galena2.CD.10PbS
var: Argentiferous Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pearceite2.GB.15[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
var: Argentiferous Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Alabandite2.8.1.4MnS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Pearceite3.1.8.1[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
3 <ø < 4
Freibergite3.3.6.3Ag6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Biotite'-
Cerussite
var: Argentiferous Cerussite
-PbCO3
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
-PbS
Hematite
var: Specularite
-Fe2O3
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C Cerussite (var: Argentiferous Cerussite)PbCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
OOxygen
O QuartzSiO2
O Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Cerussite (var: Argentiferous Cerussite)PbCO3
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O HematiteFe2O3
O CerussitePbCO3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S AlabanditeMnS
S PyriteFeS2
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S FreibergiteAg6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
S Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
S Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn AlabanditeMnS
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe FreibergiteAg6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu FreibergiteAg6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
Cu Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
AgSilver
Ag FreibergiteAg6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
Ag Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb FreibergiteAg6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
Sb Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb Cerussite (var: Argentiferous Cerussite)PbCO3
Pb Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Ypresian - Campanian
47.8 - 83.6 Ma



ID: 2847845
Early Tertiary to Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (47.8 - 83.6 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Williamson Canyon Volcanics

Description: Rhyolite to andesite and closely associated sedimentary and near-surface intrusive rocks; commonly dark gray to dark greenish gray or greenish brown. In the ranges west of Tucson, this unit includes thick welded ash-flow tuffs. Volcanic rocks of this unit are inferred to be derived from vents and volcanoes above magma chambers that solidified to form the granitic rocks of map unit TKg. These rocks are restricted to southeastern Arizona except for a small outcrop near Bagdad. (50-82 Ma)

Comments: Related, broadly, to unit TKg Original map source: Arizona Geological Survey, DI-8 Geologic Map of Arizona, Digital Spatial data for the Geologic Map of Arizona, v. 3.0, edited by S.M. Richard and S.M. Kneale, 2002, 10 p., 2 DOS HD disks. Arc/INFO export file (.e00) format, scale 1:1,000,000.

Lithology: Major:{rhyolite,dacite,andesite}, Minor:{clastic}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3187054
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region
Show map

  • Arizona
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Patagonia Mts
        • Harshaw District
          • Alum Gulch
            • Trench and Josephine Mine group (Josephine Mines; Trench group of claims; Lunch Cans prospect)

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