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Oka complex, Oka, Deux-Montagnes RCM, Laurentides, Québec, Canada

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 45° 30' 15'' North , 74° 1' 19'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 45.50417,-74.02222
Köppen climate type:Dfb : Warm-summer humid continental climate

Formerly: Oka, Oka complex, Deux-Montagnes Co., Québec, Canada

Carbonatite complex. The Oka complex is an elongated oval, double-ring structure 8 km long and 2-3 km wide, trending NW-SE.
It is one of the larger intrusions (approx. age 117-120 Ma) of the Monteregian alkaline province which includes such well-known intrusions as Mont Saint-Hilaire. An oval-shaped carbonatite core is enclosed by ring-dykes of ultramafic rocks. It intrudes Precambrian rocks of the Grenville structural province.
The complex was intensely explored in the 1950s and significant deposits of niobium were found. There are a number of individual localities within the complex, which were explored by a number of mining interests, but only one mine, the St. Lawrence Columbium mine, has gone into production with two open pits and extensive underground works. The mine ceased operations in the 1970s and the open pits and underground works are water filled. A large part of the Nb-rich deposit remains unexploited.
The mineralogy of individual localities within the complex is not complete as most references tend to report minerals for the complex only.

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

82 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

252.17 - 541 Ma

ID: 3187973
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Paleozoic (252.17 - 541 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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CHAKHMOURADIAN, A.R. (1996) On the development of niobium and rare-earth minerals in monticellite-calcite carbonatite in the Oka complex, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 34, 479-484.
CHEN, W., SIMONETTI, A. & BURNS, P.C. (2013) A combined geochemical and geochronological investigation of niocalite. Canadian Mineralogist 51, 785-800.
Chen, W., Kamenetsky, V. S., & Simonetti, A. (2013). Evidence for the alkaline nature of parental carbonatite melts at Oka complex in Canada. Nature communications, 4, ncomms3687.
DAVIDSON, A. (1963) A study of okaite and associated rocks near Oka, Quebec. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master in science in the degree of geology. The University of British Columbia. 158 p. (
DEINES, P. (1970) The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonates from the Oka Carbonatite Complex, Quebec, Canada. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 34, 1199-1225.
EBY, G.N. (1973) Scandium geochemistry of the Oka carbonatite complex, Oka, Quebec. American Mineralogist, 58, 819-825.
EBY, G.N. (1975) Abundance and distribution of the rare-earth elements and yttrium in the rocks and minerals of the Oka carbonatite complex, Quebec. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 39, 597-620.
FRIEL, J. & ULMER, G.C. (1974) Oxygen fugacity geothermometry of the Oka complex. American Mineralogist, 59, 1236-1241.
GIRAULT, J. (1966) Genèse et géochimie de l’apatite et de la calcite dans les roches liéesau complexe carbonatitiques et hyperalkaline d’Oka (Canada). Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, 89, 496-513.
GOLD, D.P. (1963) The relationship between the limestones and the alkaline igneous rocks of Oka and St. Hilaire, Quebec. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal. 354 p.
GOLD, D.P. (1967) Alkaline ultrabasic rocks in the Montreal area, Quebec. In: Ultramafic and Related Rocks, edited by P.J. Wyllie, 288-302. Robert E. Krieger Publ. Co. 464 p.
GOLD, D.P., VALLEÉ, M. & CHARETTE, J.-P. (1967) Economic geology and geophysics of the Oka Alkaline Complex, Quebec. Canadian Mining & Metallurgical Bulletin, 60, 1131-1144.
GOLD, D.P. (1969) The Oka carbonatite and alkaline complex. Guidebook GAC/MAC Annual meeting 1969, 43-62.
GOLD, D.P. (1972) The Monteregian Hills: ultra-alkaline rocks and the Oka carbonatite complex. 24th International Geological Congress (Montreal), Guidebook B-11.
GOLD, D.P., EBY, G.N. & VALLEÉ, M. (1986) Carbonatites, diatremes and ultra-alkaline rocks in the Oka area. Fieldtrip guidebook 21, GAC/MAC Meeting, Ottawa, 51p.
GRUNENFELDER, M.H., TILTON, F.R., BELL, K. & BLENKINSOP, J. (1986) Lead and strontium isotope relationships in the Oka carbonatite complex. Geochica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50, 461-468.
KALOGEROPOULOS, S.I. (1977) Geochemistry and mineralogy of the St. Lawrence pyrochlore deposit, Oka, P.Q. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario.
LIU, W. (1993) Fluid inclusion geochemistry and rare earth element distributions in the Oka carbonatite, Quebec. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. M.Sc. thesis, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada, Paper 2128, 126 p.
MARIANO, A. N. (1985) The paragenesis of the Bond Zone of the Oka Carbonatite Complex, Oka, Quebec. Senior Thesis, Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.
MARIANO, A. N. & ROEDER, P. L. (1989) Wöhlerite: chemical composition, cathodoluminescence and environment of crystallization. Canadian Mineralogist, 27, 709-720.
MITCHELL, R.H., CHOI, J.B., HAWTHORNE, F.C., McCAMMON, C.A. & BURNS, P.C. (1998) Latrappite; a re-investigation. Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 107-116.
NICKEL, E.H., ROWLAND, J.F. & MAXWELL, J.A. (1958) The composition and crystallography of niocalite. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 264-272.
NICKEL, E.H. (1960) A zirconium-bearing garnet from Oka, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 6, 549-550.
NICKEL, E.H. & MCADAM, R.C. (1963) Niobian perovskite from Oka, Quebec; a new classification for minerals of the perovskite group. Canadian Mineralogist, 7, 683-697.
NICKEL, E.H. (1966) Latrappite - a proposed new name for the perovskite-type calcium niobate mineral from the Oka area of Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 8, 122-123.
PERRAULT, G. (1968) La composition chimique et la structure crystalline du pyrochlore d’Oka, P.Q. Canadian Mineralogist, 9, 383-402 (in French).
PETRUK, W. & OWENS, D. (1975) Electron microprobe analyses for pyrochlores from Oka, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 13, 282-285.
POULIOT, G. (1970) Study of carbonatitic calcites from Oka, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 10, 511-540.
ROWE, R.B. (1955) Notes on columbian mineralization, Oka district, Two Mountains County, Quebec, Geological Survey of Canada Paper 54-22.
ROWE, R.B. (1958) Niobium (columbium) deposits of Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology, Ser., 18.
SABINA, A.P. (1968) (revised 1983) Rocks and Minerals for the collector. Kingston, Ontario to Lac St-Jean, Quebec. Geological Survey of Canada Paper (1968) 67-51, Misc. Report No. 32 (1983) 46-49.
SHAFIQULLAH, M., TUPPER, W.M. & COLE, T.J.S. (1970) K-Ar age of the carbonatite complex, Oka, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 10, 541-552.
VILLENEUVE, E.M. (1990) Kimzeyite from alnoites at Ile Bizard and Oka, Quebec. Abstracts with Program GAC-MC Annual Meeting, Vancouver.
WATKINSON, D.H. (1972) Electron microprobe analysis of melilite and garnet from the Oka complex, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 11, 457-463.
WATKINSON, D.H. (1972) Experimental studies bearing on the origin of the alkalic rock-carbonatite complex and niobium mineralization at Oka, Quebec Canadian Mineralogist, 10, 350-361.
WEN, J. (1985) Isotope geochemistry of the Oka carbonatite complex, Quebec. MSc. thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, 67 p.
WEN, J., BELL, K., & BLENKINSOP, J. (1987) Nd and Sr isotope systematics of the Oka complex, Quebec, and their bearing on the evolution of the sub-continental upper mantle. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 97, 433-437.
ZUREVINSKI, S.E. AND MITCHELL, R.H. (2004) Extreme compositional variation of pyrochlore-group minerals at the Oka carbonatite complex. Canadian Mineralogist, 42, 1159-1168.

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