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St John's Island (Zagbargad; Zabargad; Zebirget; Seberged; Topazios), Red Sea, Egypt

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 23° 36' 15'' North , 36° 11' 41'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 23.60444,36.19500
GeoHash:G#: su1wr9h3u
Locality type:Island


Quaternary volcanic island, 3 x 2 km in size, which is an ancient (3rd century) locality of gem peridot. The gem peridot is found in olivenite dikes with widths in the dm to m scale. These dykes consist of large platy olivine crystals (up to 20 cm) of brown color, with some serpentine in the interstices. They have abundant open cavities which occasionally contain transparent crystals of green peridot. The large brown olivine crystals tend to become inclusion-poor and green in color at the margins, ending in these cavities.

The Greco-Roman name of the island, Topazios, is believed to have given the name to topaz.
Largest of a group of islands in Foul Bay; located 46 km south-east of Ras Banas.

Note: The island is part of the Elba National Park.

Presence of spinel-lherzolites with anhydrous Al-diopside pyroxenites and hydrous Cr-diopside pyroxenites layers.
In the 19th century, geologists re-explored old mines and found interesting nickel deposits, which were later mined in the Nasser era around 1960.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


19 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Description: Formed during late decompression stage.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
'Apatite'
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Brochantite ?
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna (rock) collection
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna collection
Davyne
Formula: (Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
Reference: Bonaccorsi E., Merlino S., Pasero M.(1991): Davyne from Zabargad (St. John's) Island: peculiar chemical and structural features. Acta Vulcanol., 2, 55-63.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Habit: The crystals are elongated along the a-axis so that the brachy pinacoid b(010), which is markedly striated vertically to the c-axis, forms the largest face
Colour: yellowish green to grass green
Description: Composition of gem peridot is Fo92Fa8.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Forsterite var: Peridot
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna collection
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Hercynite var: Picotite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Kaersutite ?
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna (rock) collection
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna (rock) collection
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna (rock) collection
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Magnetite var: Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Pargasite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Description: Ti-pargasites.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Ti-phlogopite in Cr-diopside pyroxenits.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056; Natural History Museum Vienna collection (in association with cordierite and rutile)
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna collection
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Description: - Cr/Al spinels in lherzolites - Al/Mg green spinels in Al-diopside pyroxenites
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1039-1056.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Hercynite'4.BB.05Fe2+Al2O4
var: Picotite4.BB.05(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var: Titaniferous Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Magnesite'5.AB.05MgCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Brochantite' ?7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Langite'7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Cordierite'9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
'Davyne'9.FB.05(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
'Forsterite'9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
var: Peridot9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
'Kaersutite' ?9.DE.15{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
'Lizardite'9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Magnesio-hornblende'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'Pargasite'9.DE.15{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Apatite'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hercynite7.2.1.3Fe2+Al2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite ?30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Kaersutite ?66.1.3a.18{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Pargasite66.1.3a.12{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Lizardite71.1.2b.2Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Davyne76.2.5.5(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Apatite'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
Forsterite
var: Peridot
-Mg2SiO4
Hercynite
var: Picotite
-(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Magnesio-hornblende-☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Magnetite
var: Titaniferous Magnetite
-Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
H Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
CCarbon
C MagnesiteMgCO3
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
O Forsterite (var: Peridot)Mg2SiO4
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
O RutileTiO2
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
NaSodium
Na Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
Na Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Na Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Mg LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Mg Forsterite (var: Peridot)Mg2SiO4
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
Al HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
Al Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Al Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Al Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Si LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Si Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Si Forsterite (var: Peridot)Mg2SiO4
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
SSulfur
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
KPotassium
K Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Ca Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ca Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
CrChromium
Cr Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Fe Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
CuCopper
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD77–79) Naturalis Historiae
James Raymond Wellsted (1838) Travels in Arabia. Published by Murray in London, 508 pages.
Wilson, W. (1976) Famous Mineral Localities: Saint John's Island, Egypt. Mineralogical Record: 7(6): 310-314.
Gübelin, E. (1980) Seberged, die Peridot-Insel im Roten Meer. Lapis: 5(11): 19-26.
Kurat, G., Niedermayr, G., Prinz, M. (1982) Peridot von Zabargad. Rotes Meer. Aufschluss: 33(5): 169-182.
Bosch, D. (1991) Introduction d’eau de mer dans le diaper mantellique de Zabargad (Mer Rouge) d’après les isotopes du Sr et du Nd. C.R. Acad, Sci- Paris: t.313: Sèrie II: 49-56.
Kurat, G., Palme, H., Eembey-Isztin, A., Touret, J., Ntaflos, T., Spettel, B., Brandstatter, F., Dreibus, G., Prinz, M. (1993) Petrology and geochemistry of peridotites and associated vein rocks of Zabargad Island, Red Sea, Egypt. Mineral. Petrol.: 48: 309-341.
Boullier, A.M., Firdaous, K., Boudier, F. (1997) Fluid circulation related to deformation in the Zabargad gneisses (Red Sea rift). Tectonophysics: 279: 281-302.
Harrell, J., Bloxam, E. (2010) Egypt’s evening emeralds-Peridot mining on Zabargad Island. Minerva: 21(6): 18-22.
Gjerazi, I., Ntaflos, T. (2014) Petrology of pyroxenitic vein in spinel-plagioclas lherzolites from Zabargad island, Red Sea, Egypt. Geophysical Research Abstracts: 16: EGU2014-13367.

Mindat Articles

Peridot from St. John's / Zabargad Island by Olav Revheim


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