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Anderson No. 1 Mica Mine (Swanson Mine; Swanson Lithia Mine), East Hampton (Chatham), Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
Anderson No. 1 Mica Mine (Swanson Mine; Swanson Lithia Mine)Mine
East Hampton (Chatham)- not defined -
Middlesex Co.County

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Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 30' 59'' North , 72° 31' 19'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
Higganum1,698 (2017)3.6km
Moodus1,413 (2017)6.2km
East Hampton2,691 (2017)6.8km
East Haddam9,042 (2017)8.7km
Lake Pocotopaug3,436 (2017)9.2km

An underground mica mine, worked first for lithia from lepidolite in the 1910s (Swanson mine), then for sheet muscovite during WWII (Anderson No. 1 mine). The mine worked a complexly-zoned and lithium-rich granite pegmatite. In 1899, Horace Williams leased the property from Olaf P. Swanson "for the period of ninety nine years from the first day of April 1900, to explore, quarry, mine and dig for minerals in, upon or under the surface of the farm" (Haddam Land Records, 1899). Alledgedly, early in World War I the Imperial German Government bought a whole shipload of lepidolite from here as a source of lithium. Before the ship could leave New York, the U.S. Government banned the export of strategic minerals, so the ship's captain radioed Berlin for instructions, and, receiving them, had his crew dump the whole cargo into New York Harbor.

Shannon (1920) provides an early description:

The “mine” is a small cut somewhat filled in with soil and leaves; around it are piled heaps of white quartz and lepidolite. Lepidolite forms more than half of all the material removed from the pit, and large blocks of the pure mineral occur. It varies somewhat in texture and appearance. Some masses are composed of bright small scales of a beautiful deep purple-pink color, intergrown with fine platy cleavelandite stained yellow brown by iron, the contrast in colors yielding very showy specimens. Other coarser scaly masses are pale lavender to gray in color and much of the material shows small spheres up to the size of a pea composed of folia of grayish lepidolite embedded in white cleavelandite.

The only other abundant mineral in the pegmatite is quartz which is crystalline milky white, and resembles common vein quartz. Potash feldspar is entirely absent. Cleavelandite albite occurs in masses of white plates and these contain bunches and masses up to several inches across of a flesh red to brownish red material resembling massive garnet, which upon analysis proves to be triplite. The triplite will be more fully described in another paper. In places the triplite has oxidized to a black manganese oxide, which stains the cleavelandite. Occasional crystals of muscovite, which occur in the cleavelandite, are penetrated by flat opaque crystals of green tourmaline.

The most detailed description from the WWII era comes from Cameron et al (1954):

The Anderson No. 1 mica mine, formerly known as the Swanson lithia mine, lies in the town of East Hampton, 0.4 mile N. 35° W. of Haddam Neck village. It is one of the Anderson-Bailey group of mica mines...

The pegmatite was first prospected before 1920 (Shannon, 1920, p. 82-84). From June to December 1941, and from May 1943 to March 1944, the Connecticut Mica & Mining Co., Portland, Conn., operated the mine. When the mine was abandoned the workings consisted of a vertical pit 52 feet deep and 10 to 15 feet wide. Two drifts, 50 and 30 feet long, were driven northward and eastward, respectively, from the bottom of the pit. When operations ceased, the northern drift was about 10 feet longer than shown on the accompanying map (fig. 126)...

The pegmatite is a very irregular body about 30 feet thick and at least 90 feet long. It seems to strike northward and to have a moderate eastward dip. Apparently its south end is in the workings. In part the pegmatite is concordant with the foliation of the eastward-dipping wall rock (medium-grained hornblende gneiss of the Bolton schist), in part it is sharply discordant.

The pegmatite consists of the following units:

1. Border zone, quartz-[albite] plagioclase pegmatite 4 to 8 inches thick. Consists of fine-grained quartz and [albite] plagioclase with accessory black tourmaline, biotite [annite], and muscovite. The zone is cut by numerous fractures that are perpendicular to the contacts. The fractures are coated with films of pyrite.

2. Wall zone, quartz-[albite] plagioclase-muscovite pegmatite, 1 to 6 feet thick. Consists of coarse quartz, blocky [albite] plagioclase, muscovite and accessory tourmaline and garnet. The muscovite books are 2 to 18 inches broad and ¼ to 4 inches thick.

3. Intermediate zone, quartz-cleavelandite pegmatite, 5 to 25 feet thick. Consists of coarse quartz (in masses 6 feet in diameter), cleavelandite, muscovite and scattered large anhedral crystals of [microcline] perthite. Mica books 3 inches in average diameter occur in places adjacent to the quartz masses. Black and green tourmaline and green beryl (rare) are accessory minerals.

4. Quartz pegmatite, as much as 10 feet thick, consisting of coarse milky to smoky quartz. Occurs typically as a hood-shaped body adjacent to the lepidolite-cleavelandite unit and, at most places, above it. It also forms pods enclosed in the intermediate zone.

5. Lepidolite-cleavelandite unit, 5 to 10 feet thick. Fine- to medium-grained lepidolite (pink to violet to gray) with subordinate cleavelandite, quartz, and accessory dark green apatite and green tourmaline. The principal lepidolite-cleavelandite body seems to be an elongate ellipsoid at least 35 feet long whose long axis pitches S. 60° E. at an angle of about 30°. It is exposed only in the southern portion of the pegmatite but apparently a similar body was mined in the pit northwest of the vertical pit. Either this unit or the quartz unit may be the true core of the pegmatite.

The wall zone is thickest along the hanging wall in the northern drift. The content of sheet in the mica is low, and the books seem to be poorest in quality in the thickest parts of the zone. Cross fracturing, ruling, reeving, and limonite-staining are the most common defects. Shearing, probably of small displacement, has occurred along the hanging wall in the northern drift, and mica there is badly fractured.

Some blocks of virtually pure lepidolite have been obtained from the pegmatite, but most is probably too heavily intergrown with cleavelandite and quartz to be of value. It is estimated that 15 to 20 tons are in sight in the workings and that 40 tons are stockpiled on the surface.

The pegmatite seems to end southward in the workings and it may not persist for more than 100 feet north of the northern drift, so probably total reserves of mica are not large. Experience has shown that only a small percentage of sheet can be recovered from the crude mica, because of the structural defects of the books and the limonite-staining.

In the 1960s, the mine shaft was filled in with the remaining lepidolite stockpile.


Regions containing this locality

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Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.

Mineral List

22 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: No reference listed
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Reference: P Cristofono collection
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Collected bythe late Arthur Groth.; Field collected by the late Arthur Groth.
Beryl var: Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:379
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:379
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:403; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255
Formula: (Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Reference: Fred Davis - home.att.net/~fedavis/Main/Page_109.html
Formula: (Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:471; www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/ixiolite.pdf
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
'Lithiophilite-Triphylite Series'
Description: Confusion with triplite and elbaite.
Reference: António Manuel Ináçio Martins
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Reference: Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Reference: www.excaliburmineral.com/mink-n.htm
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Fred Davis specimen
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255
Formula: FeS2
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255
Formula: SiO2
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:381
Formula: Mn2+Ta2O6
Triphylite ?
Formula: LiFe2+PO4
Reference: António Manuel Ináçio Martins
Formula: (Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Reference: Foye, W. G.(1922). Mineral Localities in the Vicinity of Middletown, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 7:4-12.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Earl Ingerson. American Mineralogist, Vol. 23, No. 4, April 1938, pp. 269-276
Xanthoxenite ?
Formula: Ca4Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Schooner, R. (1958). The Mineralogy of the Portland- East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (East Hampton CT: priv. pub.) p. 32
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Fred E. Davis

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Microlite Group'4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Grayite8.CJ.45(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Mitridatite8.DH.30Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Triphylite ?8.AB.10LiFe2+PO4
Xanthoxenite ?8.DH.40Ca4Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Heliodor9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Lithiophilite-Triphylite Series' ?-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
'Microlite Group'
Triphylite ?
Grayite40.4.7.4(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Mitridatite42.8.4.1Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Xanthoxenite ? · 3H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
var: Cleavelandite
var: Heliodor
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Lithiophilite-Triphylite Series' ?-
var: Smoky Quartz

List of minerals for each chemical element

H Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
H MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
H Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H XanthoxeniteCa4Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O CassiteriteSnO2
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
O QuartzSiO2
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
O MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
O Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O XanthoxeniteCa4Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
O TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
F Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
P Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
P Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P XanthoxeniteCa4Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
P TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
S PyriteFeS2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Ca Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Ca XanthoxeniteCa4Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
Mn Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Mn Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Fe Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe XanthoxeniteCa4Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
Fe TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
Nb Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
Ta Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Ta Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Pb Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Th Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Devonian - Silurian
358.9 - 443.8 Ma

ID: 3186140
Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Age: Paleozoic (358.9 - 443.8 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone-carbonate-sandstone-conglomerate

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Ordovician - Middle Ordovician
443.8 - 470 Ma

ID: 2978277
Collins Hill Formation

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 470 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Collins Hill Formation

Description: ( = Partridge Formation of New Hampshire) - Gray, rusty-weathering, medium- to coarse-grained, poorly layered schist, composed of quartz, oligoclase, muscovite, biotite, and garnet, and commonly staurolite, kyanite, or sillimanite, generally graphitic, interlayered with fine-grained two-mica gneiss, especially to the west, and with calc-silicate and amphibolite layers, also rare quartz-spessartine (coticule) layers.

Comments: Part of Eastern Uplands; Iapetus (Oceanic) Terrane - Bronson Hill Anticlinorium; Brimfield Schist and equivalent formations (includes Collins Hill Formation) (Upper? and Middle Ordovician). Original map source: Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, DEP, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, 2000, Bedrock Geology of Connecticut, shapefile, scale 1:50,000

Lithology: Major:{schist}, Minor:{gneiss}, Incidental:{amphibolite, calc silicate rock}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Swanson, Olaf P. and H. S. Wiliams. (1899), Lease agreement. Haddam Land Records: 44: 562-563.
Shannon, Earl V. (1920), The Old Lithia Mine in Chatham, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 5: 82-84.
Foye, W. G. (1922), Mineral Localities in the Vicinity of Middletown, Connecticut. American Mineralogist, 7: 4-12.
Schairer, J. F. (1931), The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Ingerson, Earl (1938), Uraninite and Associated Minerals from Haddam Neck, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 23: 269.
Williams, Horace S. (circa 1945): Article for New York Society of Mineralogists. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.
Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954), Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255.
Schooner, Richard. (1958), The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Stugard, Frederick, Jr. (1958), Pegmatites of the Middletown Area, Connecticut. USGS Bulletin 1042-Q.
Jones, Robert W. (1960), Luminescent Minerals of Connecticut, a Guide to Their Properties and Locations. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Schooner, Richard. (1961), The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Hiller, John, Jr. (1971), Connecticut Mines and Minerals. Privately published.
Ryerson, Kathleen H. (1972), Rock Hound's Guide to Connecticut. Pequot Press.
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
London, David. (1985), Pegmatites of the Middletown District, Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Guidebook No. 6: 509-533.
Jarnot, Bruce M. (1989): Minerals New to the Portland Area Pegmatites of Central Connecticut. Abstract in: Contributed Papers in Specimen Mineralogy, 16th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium. Rocks & Minerals: 64(6): 471.
Jarnot, Bruce (1995), Connecticut Gems & Gem Minerals. Rocks & Minerals: 70:(6): 379.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Sullivan, Earle C. (1995), Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals: 70:(6): 403.

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