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Biermann Quarries (Bethel quarries) and tourmaline ledge, Bethel, Fairfield County, Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
Biermann Quarries (Bethel quarries) and tourmaline ledge- not defined -
Bethel- not defined -
Fairfield CountyCounty
ConnecticutState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 21' 15'' North , 73° 21' 2'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Bethel9,549 (2017)5.6km
Newtown1,967 (2017)7.7km
Danbury84,657 (2017)9.7km
Easton7,625 (2017)12.1km
Georgetown1,805 (2017)13.0km


Two adjacent quarries in a granite pegmatite now well-known for its bertrandite crystals. Most references describe or list minerals but provide little history. Todd (1906) visited the "recently opened" quarry and reported that "This vein, we learned, is controlled jointly by the New Jersey Flint and Spar Company and the International Pottery, both of Trenton, New Jersey, and all its stone is shipped there." He mentions an immense tourmaline crystal measuring 3 feet by 18 inches that had been taken from the workings. The quarry apparently was not active during WWII because it does not appear in Cameron et al's (1954) Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England. It may have been worked for beryl in the 1950s. Hiller (1982) claims it was worked in the 19th century for mica and in the early 20th century for mica and feldspar. He collected there after 1965 into the 1980s. It is located in Huntington State Park.

Some references such as Schooner (1961) refer to this quarry incorrectly as the Codfish Hill Quarry, though the minerals he describes are correct for Biermann.

This internally zoned pegmatite has small vugs and pockets in the albite-rich zone containing generally microcrystals of albite, muscovite, fluorapatite (white to pale blue), smoky quartz, beryl (rarely), and lesser quantities of unusual (for a pegmatite) lead minerals like wulfenite, cerrusite and pyromorphite. Bertrandite microcrystals described by Henderson (1975, 1995) made this pegmatite well-known among collectors. Many beryl crystals here are pseudomorphed by a dull-brown, fine-grained mixture of bertrandite, muscovite, adularia, quartz and albite.

The nearby tourmaline-rich ledge is 100 meters or so away from the pegmatite. The host rock is the Ordovician Taine Mountain Formation chlorite/talc-rich granofels, schist and gneiss. The presence of tourmaline is possibly due to metasomatism of boron rich fluids from the pegmatite into the country rock. However, the ledge is probably too far from the pegmatite for this, and the crystals and matrix are essentially identical to the Taine Mountain Formation-hosted Great Ring Farm tourmaline locality in Newtown http://www.mindat.org/loc-224151.html where there are no known pegmatites. The tourmaline species is reportedly dravite though often labeled as schorl (like Great Ring Farm) and the species at both localities needs study and documentation.

Into the 1980s, collecting permission could be obtained from the park ranger. However, it is no longer allowed. All mineral collecting in Collis P. Huntington State Park is illegal and will be prosecuted.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


23 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Habit: massive, tabular, blocky angular overgrowths
Colour: white
Description: Vast majority is massive primary pegmatite constituent. Secondary crystals occur as micro-overgrowths on walls of small voids and as part of a suite of micro-minerals pseudomorphing beryl.
Reference: Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan (1995), Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 396.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: trapezohedral
Colour: maroon
Description: Massive material, commonly with blue-green to white fluorapatite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Colour: black
Description: minor accessory mineral
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Habit: multiple forms, from simple to complex and as various twins. Usually flattened, elongated, or blocky.
Colour: colorless
Description: Micro-crystals and aggregates in voids left by dissolved beryl crystals. Also part of a suite of micro-minerals pseudomorphing beryl crystals.
Reference: Henderson, William A., Jr. (1975), The Bertrandites of Connecticut. Mineralogical Record: 6(3): 114-123.; Henderson, William A., Jr. (1995), The Microminerals of Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 420-425.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Habit: Hexagonal prisms elongated along c axis. Commonly tapered.
Colour: orange-yellow, pale yellow to pale green, brown when altered
Description: Crystals can be large (over 60 cm), though typically subhedral, and multi-colored, and varying from partly gemmy to brown, opaque, and altered to a fine-grained mixture of bertrandite, muscovite, adularia, quartz and albite. Many crystals are found frozen in matrix in a subparallel arrangement with one end rooted in a layer mica.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Habit: earthy, as pseudomorphs after bismuthinite
Colour: gray
Description: earthy gray pseudomorphs after elongated, striated bismuthinite crystals up to a few cms.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Habit: equant, dipyramidal, pseudo-hexagonal
Colour: Yellowish white
Description: In addition to free-growing crystals, the cerussite is also found as megascopic and microscopic crystalline masses and grains associated with wulfenite and pyromorphite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1959), Wulfenite and Cerussite at Bethel, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 14(11-12).
'Chlorite Group'
Description: In the schist near the pegmatite.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State, p. 127.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Habit: flat, elongated prisms or subhedral masses
Colour: black, with iridescence
Description: Good prismatic crystals formed in quartz, also hand-sized subhedral masses with striations from neighboring muscovite. Januzzi (1976) reports that a beryl crystal with a large columbite crystal projecting from it was donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. The ID is generic, at least one crystal was tested using Raman spectroscopy and the best match is tantalite-(Fe) (see entry). A crystal formerly in the Bill Shelton collection has a specific gravity of 6.7, making it clearly a columbite species.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan (1995), Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 396.
'Cymatolite' ?
Description: The complete absence of spodumene at Biermann makes the occurence of cymatolite here hightly unlikely. Quite possibly the reported find was a cymatolite found at the Fillow Quarry (not too far away) and discard by a collector at Biermann.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Habit: short to elongated (along c axis) prisms with simple rhombohedral terminations, often doubly.
Colour: black
Description: In schist outcrop over 100 meters from the Biermann quarry and not related to it.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) p. 172
'Fergusonite' ?
Colour: brownish yellow
Description: reported by Januzzi (1976) as "a small, brownish yellow nodule in feldspar". No analysis reported, no other finds reported/confirmed.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Habit: massive to subhedral tabular
Colour: white to blue-green
Fluorescence: yellow under SW UV
Description: Typically massive and associated with maroon almandine. Color can vary between white and blue-green in the same chunk, with bright yellow SW UV fluorescence only from the white zones.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
'Gummite'
Description: Apparently an alteration of uraninite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
'K Feldspar'
Colour: white
Description: See comments for adularia variety.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Habit: rectangular with acute pinacoids to flat pseudo-rhombohedral
Colour: white to pale pink
Description: Part of a suite of microminerals pseudomorphing beryl: bertrandite, muscovite, albite, quartz.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Meta-autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Habit: square tabular
Colour: yellow-green
Fluorescence: bright green under SW UV
Description: Secondary microcrystals from the alteration of primary uraninite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Colour: white to tan
Description: Primary constituent of the pegmatite matrix, crystals rare and typically subhedral.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: tabular subhedral
Colour: silvery to pale olive green
Description: Major accessory pegmatite mineral, in books up to several 10s of cm, pseudmorphing schorl, or as part of a suite of microminerals pseudomorphing beryl: bertrandite, adularia, albite, quartz.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Habit: coatings
Colour: colorless
Fluorescence: bright green under SW UV
Description: Minor coatings on fracture surfaces, nearly impossible to see without using a UV lamp.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Habit: coatings
Colour: colorless
Fluorescence: bright green under SW UV
Description: Minor coatings on fracture surfaces, nearly impossible to see without using a UV lamp.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Description: No pyrolusite dendrite or staining in the world has been verified as pyrolusite. The name was a mistake in the nineteenth century which has been widely publicized.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: micro-encrustations
Colour: yellow-green
Description: Associated with microcrystals of wulfenite and cerussite in vuggy albite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1959), Wulfenite and Cerussite at Bethel, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 14(11-12).
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: elongated prismatic
Colour: smoky to milky
Description: The vast majority of material is a massive primary constituent of the pegmatite matrix. Small to microcrystals are secondary overgrowths lining small void or as part of a suite of microminerals pseudomorphing beryl: bertrandite, adularia, albite, muscovite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Habit: elongated trigonal prismatic
Colour: black
Description: An accessory mineral in the pegmatite, crystals up to 3 feet long. Many are partly or completely altered to muscovite.
Reference: Todd, Charles Burr. (1906), In Olde Connecticut.
Tantalite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Ta2O6
Description: At least one "columbite" from here was tested using Raman spectroscopy at the University of New Haven and best match is tantalite-(Fe).
Reference: Fred Davis collection
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Habit: octahedral
Colour: black
Description: Crystals typically small and subhedral.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Uranophane
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Description: Alteration of uraninite.
Reference: No reference listed
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Habit: tabular, elongated prismatic bipyramidal
Colour: orange
Description: Microcrystals associated with equally small cerussite and pyromorphite crystals in vuggy albite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1959), Wulfenite and Cerussite at Bethel, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 14(11-12).
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Van King
Zircon var: Cyrtolite
Formula: Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Habit: branching aggregates of prismatic crystals terminated by pyramids
Colour: brown
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrolusite ?4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Tantalite-(Fe)4.DB.35Fe2+Ta2O6
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Meta-autunite8.EB.10Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Annite9.EC.20KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Bertrandite9.BD.05Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Dravite9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Uranophane9.AK.15Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
var: Cyrtolite9.AD.30Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Cymatolite' ?-
'Fergusonite' ?-
'Gummite'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite ?4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
AB2O6
Tantalite-(Fe)8.3.2.1Fe2+Ta2O6
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Meta-autunite40.2a.1.2Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 53 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions or Complex Cations
Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions of Complex Cations with (UO2)
Uranophane53.3.1.2Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Bertrandite56.1.1.1Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Annite71.2.2b.3KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Cymatolite' ?-
'Fergusonite' ?-
'Gummite'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
Zircon
var: Cyrtolite
-Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
H Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
BeBeryllium
Be BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C CerussitePbCO3
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
OOxygen
O BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O CerussitePbCO3
O Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
O HematiteFe2O3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O UraniniteUO2
O Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
AlAluminium
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Ca Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
ZrZirconium
Zr Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
TaTantalum
Ta Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6
PbLead
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
BiBismuth
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2
U UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
U Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Todd, Charles Burr. (1906), In Olde Connecticut.
Schairer, John F. (1931), Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Bulletin 51.
Sohon, Julian A. (1951), Connecticut Minerals. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Bulletin 77.
Schooner, Richard. (1958), The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1959), The Minerals of Western Connecticut and Southeastern New York. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1959), Wulfenite and Cerussite at Bethel, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 14(11-12).
Jones, Robert W. Jr., (1960), Luminescent Minerals of Connecticut, a Guide to Their Properties and Locations. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut
Schooner, Richard. (1961), The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Hiller, John, Jr. (1971), Connecticut Mines and Minerals. Privately published.
Henderson, William A., Jr. (1975), The Bertrandites of Connecticut. Mineralogical Record: 6(3): 114-123.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Ryerson, Kathleen H. (1976), Rock Hound’s Guide to Connecticut. Pequot press.
Hiller, John. (1982), The Biermann Quarry. Jewelry Making Gems and Minerals: (534).
Cruson, Daniel. (1991), Feldspar Quarries and the Mining History of Newtown. The Rooster’s Crow, Newtown Historical Society.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book, Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Henderson, William A., Jr. (1995), The Microminerals of Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 420-425.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan (1995), Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 396.

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